- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: hepatitis B vaccine
Brand Names: Engerix B, Heplisav-B, Recombivax HB, PreHevbrio
Drug Class: Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral
What is hepatitis B vaccine, and what is it used for?
Hepatitis B vaccine is an inactivated viral vaccine administered intramuscularly to provide protection against infection from all subtypes of hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted in body fluids and causes severe liver infection, which may become chronic in some people. Hepatitis B vaccine stimulates the production of natural antibodies to hepatitis B virus by introducing a tiny amount of harmless, dead viral particles, without causing an infection.
Hepatitis B vaccines contain purified surface antigens of the hepatitis B virus (HbsAg), mostly cultured in yeast cells, except for the PreHevbrio brand which is cultured in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Surface antigens are protein particles on the surface of the viruses which enable them to hold on to a human cell, enter inside and replicate.
Once vaccinated, the body’s immune system recognizes the surface antigens when exposed to the hepatitis B virus and produces antibodies to the surface antigens, preventing the virus from entering and infecting the cells. Hepatitis B vaccine also contains substances that preserve and stabilize the vaccine, and enhance immune response.
- Do not administer hepatitis B vaccine to individuals who had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of any hepatitis B vaccine or to any vaccine component, including yeast
- There have been reports of allergic reactions to hepatitis B vaccine; appropriate medical treatment and supervision must be available to manage possible severe allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to the vaccination
- People with compromised immune systems, including individuals receiving immunosuppressant therapy, may have a reduced immune response
- Hepatitis B has a long incubation period; hepatitis B vaccination may not prevent hepatitis B infection in individuals who have an unrecognized hepatitis B infection at the time of vaccine administration
What are the side effects of hepatitis B vaccine?
Common side effects of hepatitis B vaccine include:
- Injection site reactions including
- Feeling unwell (malaise)
- Muscle pain (myalgia)
- Upper respiratory infection
- Throat inflammation (pharyngitis)
Less common side effects of hepatitis B vaccine include:
- Prickling or tingling sensation (paresthesia)
- Low blood pressure (hypotension)
- Abdominal pains or cramps
- Indigestion (dyspepsia)
- Reduced appetite
- Nasal inflammation (rhinitis)
- Hives (urticaria)
- Itching (pruritus)
- Swelling of the tissue under the skin and mucous membranes (angioedema)
- Disturbed sleep
- Drowsiness (somnolence)
- Swelling of lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy)
- Painful urination (dysuria)
- Joint pain (arthralgia)
- Neck pain and stiffness
- Shoulder pain
- Back pain
Rare side effects of hepatitis B vaccine may include:
- Severe allergic reactions including:
- Severe skin reactions including:
- Onset or exacerbation of autoimmune conditions such as:
- Nervous system disorders including:
- Visual disturbances
- Eye inflammations
- Fainting (syncope)
- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
- Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)
- This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug.
Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of hepatitis B vaccine?
IM suspension, 3-antigen
- 10mcg/mL (PreHevbrio)
IM suspension, single-antigen (adult formulation)
- 10mcg/mL (Recombivax HB)
- 20mcg/mL (Engerix B)
- 40mcg/mL (Recombivax HB [dialysis formulation])
IM solution, single-antigen
- 20mcg HBsAg and 3000mcg of CpG 1018 adjuvant per 0.5mL (Heplisav-B)
Hepatitis B Immunization
- Engerix B: 1 mL (20 mcg) IM at 0, 1, and 6 months
- Recombivax HB: 1 mL (10 mcg) IM at 0, 1, and 6 months
- PreHevbrio: 1 mL IM at 0, 1, and 6 months
- Heplisav-B: Can be used as a substitute in a 3-dose series with a different hepatitis B vaccine
- Heplisav-B (18 years or older): 0.5 mL IM at 0 and 1 month
Adults with diabetes mellitus
- CDC ACIP guidelines recommends immunization with hepatitis B vaccine for all unvaccinated adults with diabetes mellitus through age 59 years
- Persons with diabetes are at increased risk of hepatitis B infection
- Vaccinate diabetics aged ≥60 yr at the discretion of the treating clinician, based on increased need for assisted blood glucose monitoring in long-term care facilities, likelihood of acquiring hepatitis B infection, its complications or chronic sequelae, and likelihood of immune response to vaccination
- Vaccination for older unvaccinated diabetic patients may be done at the physician's discretion MMWR Dec 23, 2011/Vol 60(50);1709-11
Adults receiving dialysis or other immunocompromising conditions
Engerix B or Recombivax HB
- Primary immunization consists of a series of 4 doses (40 mcg) at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months
- Antibody response is lower in patients on hemodialysis compare with healthy persons and protection may persist only as long as antibody levels remain above 10 mIU/mL
- Assess need for booster doses by annual antibody testing
- Administer 2-mL booster dose for antibody levels <10 mIU/mL
- Routine immunization against hepatitis B; also protects against hepatitis D which always occurs in the presence of hepatitis B
- Single-antigen vaccines: Engerix B, Heplisav-B (adjuvanted), Recombivax HB
- 3-antigen vaccine: PreHevbrio
Targeted groups that should receive hepatitis B vaccination series include
- Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD); current or recent injection-drug users; and men who have sex with men
- Health-care personnel and public-safety workers who are potentially exposed to blood or other infectious body fluids
- Persons with diabetes, HIV infection, or chronic liver disease
- Persons with end-stage renal disease, including patients receiving hemodialysis
- Household contacts and sex partners of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive persons; clients and staff members of institutions for persons with developmental disabilities; and international travelers to countries with high or intermediate prevalence of chronic HBV infection
- All adults in the following settings: STD treatment facilities; HIV testing and treatment facilities; facilities providing drug-abuse treatment and prevention services; health-care settings targeting services to injection-drug users or men who have sex with men; correctional facilities; end-stage renal disease programs and facilities for chronic hemodialysis patients; and institutions and nonresidential daycare facilities for persons with developmental disabilities
- Pregnant women who are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection during pregnancy (e.g., more than 1 sex partner during the previous 6 months, been evaluated or treated for a sexually transmitted infection, recent or current injection drug use, or had an HBsAg-positive sex partner)
- International travelers to regions with high or intermediate levels of endemic hepatitis B virus infection should receive a hepatitis B series
IM suspension (pediatric/adolescent formulations)
- 5mcg/0.5mL (Recombivax HB)
- 10mcg/0.5mL (Engerix B)
Hepatitis B Immunization
- Medically stable infants weighing 2,000 grams or more, born to HBsAg-negative mothers: 0.5 ML IM within 24 hours of birth
- Preterm infants weighing less than 2,000 g born to HBsAg-negative mothers: 0.5 mL IM 1 month after birth or at hospital discharge
- Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers: 0.5 mL IM within 12 hours of birth PLUS hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG); test for HBsAg and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) 1-2 months after completion of hepatitis B vaccination series, at age 9 through 18 months
- Mother's HBsAg status unknown: 0.5 mL IM within 12 hours of birth PLUS give HBIG; if newborn weight is below 2 kg, determine mother's HBsAg status as soon as possible and, if she is HBsAg-positive, also administer HBIG for infants weighing 2 kg or more (no later than age 1 week)
- Administered at age 1-2 months monovalent hepatitis B vaccine should be used for doses administered before age 6 weeks
- Infants who did not receive a birth dose should receive 3 doses of a hepatitis B-containing vaccine on a schedule of 0, 1 to 2 months, and 6 months starting as soon as feasible
- Minimum interval between dose 1 and dose 2 is 4 weeks, and between dose 2 and 3 is 8 weeks
Final (3rd or 4th) dose
- Administered no earlier than age 24 weeks, and at least 16 weeks after the first dose
- A total of 4 doses of hepatitis B vaccine is recommended when a combination vaccine containing hepatitis B is administered after the birth dose
- Unvaccinated children should complete a 3-dose series
- Children aged 11-15 years: 2-dose series (doses separated by at least 4 months) of adult formulation
- Recombivax HB is licensed for use in children aged 11 through 15 years
Intramuscular (IM) Administration
- Do not give IV or intradermal
- Older children, adolescents, and adults: Administer IM in deltoid muscle
- Neonates, infants, and small children: Administer IM in anterolateral thigh
Subcutaneous (SC) Administration
- Engerix B or Recombivax HB may be administered SC to persons at risk for hemorrhage following IM injections (e.g., persons with blood clotting disorders such as hemophiliacs)
- SC administration known to result in lower antibody response
- Increased incidence of local reactions, including SC nodules, observed when other aluminum-adsorbed vaccines have been administered SC
Latest Infectious Disease News
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What drugs interact with hepatitis B vaccine?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Severe Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
- Hepatitis B Vaccine has serious interactions with at least 37 different drugs.
- Moderate Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
- Mild Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information. Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of hepatitis B vaccination during pregnancy. Animal studies reveal no fetal harm from the vaccine and available data do not suggest an increased risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in women who received hepatitis B vaccine during pregnancy.
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Heplisav-B or PreHevbrio during pregnancy. Women who receive Heplisav-B during pregnancy may contact 1-844-443-7734, and women who receive PreHevbrio may contact 1-888-421-8808.
It is not known if hepatitis B vaccine is present in breast milk and there are no data on its effects on milk production or the breastfed infant. Decision for vaccination should be made based on the mother’s clinical need for hepatitis B vaccination because of susceptibility to infection and potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant.
What else should I know about hepatitis B vaccine?
Current vaccination schedules are available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/index.html
Hepatitis B vaccine is an inactivated viral vaccine administered intramuscularly to provide protection against infection from all subtypes of hepatitis B virus. Common side effects of hepatitis B vaccine include injection site reactions, weakness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, feeling unwell (malaise), fever, muscle pain (myalgia), nausea, diarrhea, upper respiratory infection, and throat inflammation (pharyngitis). Consult your doctor before receiving a hepatitis B vaccine if pregnant or breastfeeding.
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Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections. Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications.
What Are the 4 Stages of Cirrhosis of the Liver?
Learn the four stages of cirrhosis of the liver below.
Liver disease can be cause by a variety of things including infection (hepatitis), diseases, for example, gallstones, high cholesterol or triglycerides, blood flow obstruction to the liver, and toxins (medications and chemicals). Symptoms of liver disease depends upon the cause and may include nausea, vomiting, upper right abdominal pain, and jaundice. Treatment depends upon the cause of the liver disease.
Liver (Anatomy and Function)
The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. Treatment of diseases of the liver depends on the cause.
Drug-Induced Liver Disease
Drug-induced liver diseases are diseases of the liver that are caused by physician-prescribed medications, OTC medications, vitamins, hormones, herbs, illicit (recreational) drugs, and environmental toxins. Read about the signs and symptoms of drug-induced liver disease like hepatitis (inflammation of the liver cells), liver disease treatment, and types.
Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver cancer often arises due to liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring) caused by alcohol use/abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Liver cancer may not cause any symptoms. Liver cancer is diagnosed with blood tests, imaging tests, and a liver biopsy. Treatment for liver cancer may include surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Tylenol Liver Damage
Tylenol liver damage (acetaminophen) can occur from accidentally ingesting too much acetaminophen, or intentionally. Signs and symptoms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage may include: nauseau, vomiting, kidney failure, bleeding disorders, coma, and death. Acetaminophen is a drug contained in over 200 OTC and prescription medications from NyQuil to Vicodin. Avoiding unintentional overdoses include reading medication labels, write down the dosages of medications you are taking, do not drink excessive alcohol while taking acetaminophen. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
How Do You Know if Your Liver Is Detoxing?
Liver detox includes signs such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, anxiety, tremors, increased heart rate, and more.
Hepatitis (Viral Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G)
Hepatitis is most often viral, due to infection with one of the hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, F (not confirmed), and G) or another virus (such as those that cause infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus disease). The main nonviral causes of hepatitis are alcohol and drugs. Many patients infected with hepatitis A, B, and C have few or no symptoms of illness. For those who do develop symptoms of viral hepatitis, the most common are flu-like symptoms including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, and aching in the abdomen. Treatment of viral hepatitis is dependent on the type of hepatitis.
Average Life Expectancy After a Liver Transplant?
Liver transplant (LT) simply means replacing a diseased liver with a healthy one. The new liver may be taken from a brain-dead person (cadaver) or given by a living relative.
Is Hepatitis Contagious?
Hepatitis means "inflammation of the liver," and there are several different types of such as A, B, C, D, and E. Some types of hepatitis are contagious and some types are not. Hepatitis symptoms vary upon the type of disease; however, the following symptoms may develop in someone with hepatitis: fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and discomfort, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), and loss of appetite. Treatment for hepatitis depends upon the cause. Some types of hepatitis have a vaccine to prevent spread of disease such as hepatitis A and B.
Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of the virus is determined primarily by the age at which the infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. Successful treatment is associated with a reduction in liver injury and fibrosis (scarring), a decreased likelihood of developing cirrhosis and its complications, including liver cancer, and a prolonged survival.
Can Liver Cancer Be Detected by a Blood Test?
Liver cancer is not detected by blood tests alone. Certain substances present in the blood called the blood markers may be elevated in patients with liver cancer. Raised levels of a tumor marker called alpha fetoprotein (AFP) can indicate diseases of the liver, including liver cancer.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
What’s Worse, Hepatitis A, B, or C?
Because there is no vaccination available against hepatitis C, hepatitis C is often considered worse than hepatitis A or B.
Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C)
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks, especially with intravenous drug abuse. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and fever. Chronic hepatitis C may be cured in most individuals with drugs that target specific genomes of hepatitis C.
What Causes Hepatitis?
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. It can occur due to a variety of factors, but the most common cause is a virus infection. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and can have fatal complications. Early diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle modification can slow or inhibit the progression of the disease and reduce complications.
How Do I Make My Liver Healthy Again?
Your doctor may suggest lifestyle changes to improve your liver function such as, weight loss, healthy diet, lowering cholesterol, alcohol reduction, exercising regularly, and diabetes management.
Can a Liver Hemangioma Go Away on Its Own?
No, liver hemangioma doesn’t go away without treatment. People who have liver hemangioma rarely experience signs and symptoms and typically don't need treatment. They are generally small and even if they become large they may not carry significant risk.
Hepatitis A (HAV, Hep A)
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A (HAV, Hep A) is one type of liver disease caused by a virus. Since hepatitis A is a virus, it can pass from person to person from eating or drinking contaminated food or coming into contact with contaminated materials containing the virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include stomach pain, diarrhea, dark yellow urine, jaundice, and more. There is a vaccine to prevent contracting hepatitis A.
Is Hepatitis C Contagious?
Hepatitis C or hep C causes acute and chronic liver disease. Hep C is a form of liver disease with symptoms like fatigue, jaundice, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal discomfort. Hepatitis C is a contagious viral infection caused by persons sharing drug needles, surgical instruments that have not been properly sanitized, and organ transplantation.
Is Hepatitis B Contagious?
Hepatitis B is a type of liver infection. Hepatitis B is spread through person-to-person contact or through personal items like razors, toothbrushes, etc. Symptoms of hepatitis B include fever, yellowish skin (jaundice), dark urine, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. There is no drug to cure hepatitis B; however, there is a hepatitis B vaccine available.
Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the two most commnon viruses that infect the liver. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B can be prevented and treated with immunizations (vaccinations) such as Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix, Comvax, Pediarix, and hepatitis b immune globulin (HBIG).
How Long Does a Liver Biopsy Procedure Take?
A liver biopsy is a safe and quick procedure that takes around five minutes to complete. You may, however, be asked to lie on the bed for two hours after the procedure and take it easy for the next 24 hours.
Pain From Liver Cancer
Patients suffering from liver cancer usually complain of a throbbing or stabbing sensation in the upper right side of the abdomen or the back of the shoulder. There may or may not be a swelling that doesn’t subside. The pain may be severe; it is graded 7/10 in intensity. Some patients may not have any symptoms in the early stages of liver cancer.
Hepatitis C Cure (Symptoms, Transmission, Treatments, and Cost)
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. There are a variety of toxins, diseases, illicit drugs, medications, bacterial and viral infections, and heavy alcohol use can case inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) is one type of hepatitis. According to the CDC, in 2014 there were an estimated 30,500 cases of acute hepatitis C infections in the US. An estimated 2.7-3.9 million people in the US have chronic hepatitis C. The virus is spread from person-to-person via blood-to-blood contact. Symptoms of HCV infection include joint pain, jaundice, dark urine, nausea, fatigue, fever, loss of appetites, clay colored stool. Hepatitis C can be cured with medications in most people. There is no vaccine against the hepatitis C virus.
Can Alcoholic Hepatitis Be Cured?
Liver damage from mild alcoholic hepatitis can usually be cured by complete abstinence from alcohol and lifestyle changes. Learn about symptoms, treatment, and survival rates.
Hepatitis E Viral Infection
Hepatitis E (hep E) is a type of hepatitis viral infection that includes hepatitis A, B, C, D, F, which is caused by the hepatitis E virus. Usually, you get (transmitted) hepatitis E from eating or drinking dirty or contaminated water. Hepatitis E can be very serious, especially if a woman is pregnant. Up to ¼ of women who are pregnant with the hep E virus can die from the infection. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis E infection are nausea and vomiting, brown or dark urine, stool changes jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), pain in the right side of the abdomen, dark or brown urine, and light-colored stool. Some people with hep E don’t have any symptoms so they don’t know that they are contagious. It takes about 6 weeks to recover from hep E. A person who has any type of hepatitis, including hepatitis E, should not drink any alcohol. Hep E complications are rare, but when they do occur they include severe (“fulminant”) hepatitis, liver failure, and death. Currently, no specific drugs or treatments are available for hepatitis E. Moreover, the only hepatitis E vaccine currently is available in China. Avoid alcohol, keep hydrated, and getting rest are home remedies for hepatitis E. Talk to your doctor before taking any over-the-counter (medications), especially those containing acetaminophen (Tylenol and others). Usually, the prognosis and life expectancy for hepatitis E after recovery is good. Most people do not have long term liver problems from the infection.
Is There a Cure for Cirrhosis of the Liver?
Liver cirrhosis results from disease- or chemical-induced injury to the liver over a sustained period. The injury kills liver cells, and your body attempts to rebuild the damage. In the process, the existing cells are inflamed and scar tissue results, compromising the structure of the liver and hampering its function.
Is Hepatitis A Contagious?
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A is one type of hepatitis. Hepatitis is transmitted through person to person contact, contaminated ice, vegetables, fruits, and untreated water. Hepatitis A can be prevented by the hepatitis A vaccine. Symptoms of hepatitis A may include nausea and/or vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowish color to skin and/or eyes, or joint pain.
How Is Liver Cancer Usually Diagnosed?
The liver is the second largest organ (the first being the skin) in the human body. One blood test used to help diagnose liver cancer is the tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), but it is not specific to liver cancer.
How Can I Reduce My Fatty Liver?
While there are no specific treatments for fatty liver disease, or steatosis, diet and lifestyle changes are the most effective ways to manage the condition.
How Can You Detect Liver Cancer Early?
It is often hard to detect liver cancer at early stages because they do not present any symptoms until they are advanced. Small liver tumors are difficult to identify during a physical examination because most of the liver is covered by the rib cage.
Can You Live Without a Liver?
The liver is a vital organ regulating the levels of many substances in the body. It excretes a substance called bile. The bile helps in carrying away the waste from the liver. The blood from the digestive system (stomach and bowel) passes through the liver.
Can Alcoholic Hepatitis Be Reversed?
While mild alcoholic hepatitis may be reversed, once it reaches the stage of liver cirrhosis, it is irreversible. After diagnosis, abstaining from alcohol can improve your lifespan.
How Long Can You Live With Hepatitis A?
Acute illness of hepatitis A typically subsides within two months; however, it may last for up to six months in more severe cases.
What Is HCV Positive? Symptoms and Causes
HCV positive (reactive) is an interpretation of the results of the HCV antibody test that may mean the following.
How Serious Is a Liver Biopsy?
A liver biopsy can be performed in an outpatient setting. In the hands of an experienced doctor, it rarely produces complications. Mild pain in the upper right abdomen that goes away within a few hours is the most common complication of a liver biopsy.
Hepatitis Vaccines for Hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis is a family of viruses that infect the liver. There are vaccines for hepatitis A and B infections, but not for hepatitis C.
Is Hepatitis B HBV Curable?
While there is no permanent cure for hepatitis B, 90 percent of adults infected with the virus ultimately recover from their symptoms within a few months.
What Is the Main Cause of Liver Cancer?
The exact cause of liver cancer is not known. Researchers have revealed that liver cancer occurs when the cells in the liver grow uncontrollably because of an abnormal change in their genetic material (mutation).
Does Cancer in the Liver Cause Pain?
In some, liver cancer may cause pain, particularly in the upper right area of the abdomen. Often people with liver cancer may experience pain accompanied by swelling or the formation of hard lumps felt in the right side of the abdomen.
Is There Pain With Liver Cancer?
Yes, there is pain with liver cancer, but it usually does not appear in the early stages. The tumor that is large enough to press on the nearby structures or spread to the adjoining organs can cause pain. You will experience pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, in the right shoulder blade or the back. The pain may be dull, throbbing or stabbing in nature.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Liver Blood Tests
- What Is the Normal Range for Hepatitis B Surface Antibody?
- Does Liver Cancer Spread Quickly?
- How Does a Person Get Hepatitis?
- How Is a Transjugular Liver Biopsy Done?
- Liver Transplant
- Liver Biopsy
- What Is Liver Resection?
- Proton Beam Therapy of Liver
- Liver-Related Procedures and Tests
- Percutaneous Ethanol (Alcohol) Injection of Liver
- Liver Disease FAQs
- Hepatitis C FAQs
- Get to Know Your Liver FAQs
- Hepatitis A FAQs
- Stage IV Colon Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver
- Liver Trauma from Mountain Biking
- Durat (bromfenac) and Liver Damage
- Hepatitis C News Release
- Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Alcoholism, Cirrhosis Linked to Liver Cancer
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- IBS, GERD, Hepatitis C: Doctors Dialogue
- How common is Hepatitis C?
- How is diagnosis of Hepatitis C made?
- Hepatitis C : Can it be sexually transmitted?
- Hepatitis C: What blood tests?
- Hepatitis C genotypes
- Hepatitis C Treatments
- Hepatitis C: Most effective treatment
- Hepatitis C: Reasons for treating
- Hepatitis C: Interferon/ribavarin side effects
- Hepatitis C: Good candidates for treatment
- Do you treat hepatitis C patients with normal liver tests?
- Hepatitis C: Not Good Candidates for Treatment?
- Hepatitis C: Diet and Vitamins
- Hepatitis C: Should patients receive immunizations
- Hepatitis C treatment relapse
- What to do for relapsers after hepatitis C treatment?
- Hepatitis C: What is unique about hepatitis C?
- Does Methotrexate Cause Liver Damage?
- Can You Be Allergic to Ceclor for Hepatitis B?
- What is acute fatty liver of pregnancy?
- Can You Treat Hepatitis B With Aids Drug Lamivudine?
- Does Hepatitis B Cause Liver Cancer?
- What Kind of Doctor Do I See for Hepatitis C?
- Is Lipitor Safe if I Have Fatty Liver?
- Can The Hepatitis C Virus Survive Outside the Body?
- Liver Cancer Diagnosis
- Liver Cancer Treatment
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