The most common method used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure is hemodialysis. Hemodialysis allows your blood to flow through a special filter that removes extra fluids and waste products. Most patients have treatments three times a week. Tests to measure treatment success are performed about once a month. Anemia, erythropoietin, renal osteodystrophy, itching, sleep disorders, and amyloidosis are all complications from dialysis. A proper diet can help improve dialysis and daily health. Read more: Hemodialysis (Treatment for Kidney Failure) Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Common Medical Abbreviations List
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include: ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease. ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure cap: Capsule. CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea. DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis. DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes HA: Headache IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis JT: Joint N/V: Nausea or vomiting. p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os. q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily. RA: Rheumatoid arthritis SOB: Shortness of breath. T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are considered primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by disease. Headache symptoms vary with the headache type. Over-the-counter pain relievers provide short-term relief for most headaches.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Anemia: Symptoms, Treatment and Causes
Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
STDs in Men
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. STDs in men cause no symptoms or symptoms like genital burning, itching, sores, rashes, or discharge. Common infections that are sexually transmitted in men include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital herpes. Some STDs in men are treatable while others are not. STDs are diagnosed with tests that identify proteins or genetic material of the organisms causing the infection. The prognosis of an STD depends on whether the infection is treatable or not. Use of latex condoms can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD but it does not eliminate the risk entirely.
What Happens During Menopause?
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms and signs include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies, and should be discussed with your physician.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more noticeable at rest. This characteristic nighttime worsening can frequently lead to insomnia. Treatment of the symptoms of restless leg syndrome is generally with medication as well as treating any underlying condition causing restless leg syndrome.
What Level of BUN Indicates Kidney Failure?
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is one of the parameters measured to ascertain kidney function. BUN indicates the urea nitrogen produced in the body during protein breakdown. There is no definite value of BUN that would diagnose kidney failure.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease transmitted by rodents. Symptoms include fever and muscle pain. HPS can be prevented by sealing up rodent entry holes, trapping rats and mice with an appropriate snap trap, and cleaning up rodent food sources.
Arsenic comes in two forms, inorganic and organic. Organic arsenic poisoning is usually not poisonous to humans; however, inorganic arsenic in large enough amounts can lead to shock and death. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning include nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, dark urine, vertigo, delirium, shock, and death. Treatment for arsenic poisoning includes Hemodialysis and a variety of drugs.
E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
There are many types of E. coli (Escherichia coli). E. coli can cause urinary tract and bladder infections, or lead to sepsis. E coli O157:H7 (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and colitis. Complications of E. coli infection include hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. E coli O157:H7 commonly is due to eating raw or undercooked hamburger or raw milk or dairy products.
Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea, obstructive apnea (OSA), and a mixture of central and obstructive apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a failure of the brain to activate the muscles of breathing during sleep. OSA is caused by the collapse of the airway during sleep. OSA is diagnosed and evaluated through patient history, physical examination and polysomnography. There are many complications related to obstructive sleep apnea. Treatments are surgical and non-surgical.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases resulting from abnormal deposition of certain proteins (amyloids) in various bodily areas. The amyloid proteins may either be deposited in one particular area of the body (localized amyloidosis) or they may be deposited throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). There are three types of systemic amyloidosis: primary (AL), secondary (AA), and familial (ATTR). Primary amyloidosis is not associated with any other diseases and is considered a disease entity of its own. Secondary amyloidosis occurs as a result of another illness. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a form of familial (inherited) amyloidosis. Amyloidosis treatment involves treating the underlying illness and correcting organ failure.
What Is the Difference Between Hemodialysis and Dialysis?
Dialysis is a procedure that helps your blood get filtered by a machine that works like an artificial kidney. Hemodialysis is a procedure where your entire blood is circulated outside your body in a machine placed outside the body known as a dialyzer. Peritoneal dialysis helps filter the blood in the body itself.
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Superior vena cava syndrome is compression of the superior vena cava vein located in the upper chest. Causes of superior vena cava include lung cancer, lymphoma, other cancers in the chest, blood clots in the superior vena cava, or infection. Symptoms of the syndrome include shortness of breath. Superior vena cava syndrome is diagnosed by ultrasound, chest X-ray, CT scan, and in some cases biopsy. Treatment depends upon the cause of the syndrome.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as burning sensations in the hands, small-raised reddish-purplish blemishes on the skin, fever, decreases sweating, and gastrointestinal (GI) difficulties. Fabry disease patients are at increased risk of heart attack, heart disease, kidney failure, and stroke. Symptoms of Fabry disease can be treated with medication.
Renal osteodystrophy is a bone disease. The kidneys fail to maintain required levels of phosphorous and calcium in the blood. Renal osteodystrophy is common in patients with kidney disease and affects dialysis patients. Diagnosis is performed with a blood sample, and in some cases a bone biopsy. Medication is the general treatment for renal osteodystrophy.
Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid glands. There are two types of hyperparathyroidism, primary and secondary. When the parathyroid glands produce too much hormone, hyperparathyroidism is the resulting condition. Most cases of hyperparathyroidism have no evident cause. Signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include fatigue, weakness, depression, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or confusion. Increased calcium and phosphorous excretion may cause kidney stones. The main treatment of hyperparathyroidism is surgery (parathyroidectomy).
There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell carcinoma, and Wilms tumor. Symptoms of kidney cancer include blood in the urine, an abdominal lump or mass, chronic pain in the side, and tiredness. Treatment of kidney cancer -- which may include surgery, arterial embolization, radiation therapy, biological therapy or chemotherapy -- depends upon the stage of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), ARPKD, and ADPKD
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder. There are two major inherited forms of PKD, autosomal dominant PKD, and autosomal recessive PKD. Symptoms include headaches, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine, liver and pancreatic cysts, abnormal heart valves, high blood pressure, kidney stones, aneurysms, and diverticulosis. Diagnosis of PKD is generally with ultrasound, CT or MRI scan. There is no cure for PKD, so treatment of symptoms is usually the general protocol.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a diseases in which blood clots within the capillaries. Causes associated with HUS include: E. coli, birth control pills, pneumonia, medications such as chemotherapy, Ticlid, and quinine. Symptoms of HUS include: gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Diagnosis of HUS includes: medical history, physical examination, and medical tests. Treatment includes: rest, fluids, possible hospitalization for blood transfusion or complications due to kidney failure.
Reye's syndrome (RS or Reye syndrome) is a sudden, sometimes fatal, disease of the brain with degeneration of the liver. Reye syndrome is associated with giving children medications containing aspirin. Symptoms include vomiting, listlessness, irritability or combativeness, confusion, delirium, delusions, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and focuses on protecting the brain against irreversible damage by reducing brain swelling, reversing the metabolic injury, preventing complications in the lungs, and anticipating cardiac arrest.
Depression in the Elderly
Depression in the elderly is very common. That doesn't mean, though, it's normal. Treatment may involve antidepressants, psychotherapy, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Local ResourcesFind a local Nephrologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
- clonazepam (Klonopin)
- diphenhydramine, Benadryl
- Lasix Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- diazepam (Valium, Diastat, Acudial, Diastat Pediatric, Diazepam Intensol)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. hydrochlorothiazide
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. bumetanide
- chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. thiazide diuretics
- mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Demadex (torsemide)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)
- carbidopa/levodopa - oral, Atamet, Sinemet
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)
- Venofer (iron sucrose)
- Side Effects of CellCept (mycophenolic acid)
- Monoferric (ferric derisomaltose)
- NephrAmine (essential amino acid)
- capsaicin - topical, Capsagel, Salonpas-Hot, Zostri
- Fotivda (tivozanib)
- Feraheme (ferumoxytol injection)
- Zemplar (paricalcitol)
- Veltassa (patiromer)
- Jynarque (tolvaptan)
- Oxlumo (lumasiran)
- Injectafer (ferric carboxymaltose)
Prevention & Wellness
- Many 'High Priority' Patients Aren't Getting Put on Kidney Transplant Lists
- Medicare's Penalties for Poor-Quality Dialysis Centers Aren't Helping: Study
- Dialysis Patients Have Weaker Response to COVID Vaccine: Study
- Early Dialysis Doesn't Improve Outcomes With Acute Kidney Failure
- Many Kidney Failure Patients Regret Starting Dialysis
- Kidney Transplant Patients at High Risk of Fatal COVID-19: Study
- Should You Keep Using Dialysis Center Networks During COVID-19?
- Should I Still Do Dialysis With Coronavirus?
- Uninsured Kidney Patients Often End Up in ERs
- Mediterranean Diet May Help Preserve Kidney Function After Transplant
- Not All Transplant Centers Use Deceased-Donor Kidneys, Despite Growing Need
- Kidney Transplants Between People With HIV Are Successful
- Could Profit Be a Factor in Kidney Transplant Decisions?
- Half of Older Dialysis Patients Die Within a Year, Study Finds
- Itchy Skin Common Alongside Kidney Disease
- Lab-Grown Blood Vessels Could Be Big Medical Advance
- Kidney Failure Patients Face Higher Risk of Cancer Death
- CPR Not Always Given at Dialysis Clinics When Needed
- Fewer Late-Stage Kidney Deaths After Obamacare: Study
- Is the U.S. Throwing Away Too Many Donor Kidneys?
- Obese Patients Often Denied Kidney Transplants. Should They Be?
- Is Kidney Dialysis Always Needed When Septic Shock Strikes?
- Common Heartburn Drugs Linked to Broken Hips in Dialysis Patients
- Health Tip: Maintain a Healthy Heart While on Dialysis
- One Reason Why Kidney Transplants Fail
- Hepatitis-Infected Kidneys a Safe Option for Transplant: Study
- Too Many Kidney Disease Patients in the Dark About Diet
- Fewer Dialysis Patients Facing Leg Amputations
- Hepatitis-Infected Kidneys May Be Safe New Option for Transplant
- Obamacare May Have Boosted Kidney Transplant Outcomes
- Kidney Docs Worry Over No Dialysis for Undocumented Immigrants
- Money Underpins Drop in Kidney Donations Among Men and the Poor
- Are Good Kidneys Going to Waste?
- Dialysis Patients Often End Up Back in the Hospital
- Selena Gomez Had a Kidney Transplant Earlier This Year
- Catheters Often to Blame for Blood Infections After Dialysis
- Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients
- Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney?
- Racial Disparity in Kidney Transplant Outcomes Narrows: Study
- Donor Kidneys More Likely to Be Discarded on Weekends: Study
- Kidney Patients Without Online Access Face Additional Burden
- U.S. Dialysis Patients Increasingly Live in Poor Areas
- Kidney Dialysis Increasing for Pregnant Women
- Many Dialysis Patients Ill-Prepared for Emergencies, Study Says
- Women Less Likely to Get Kidney Dialysis Than Men, Study Finds
- Aerobic Exercise May Boost Quality of Life for Dialysis Patients
- More Muscle May Help Kidney Dialysis Patients
- Black Medicaid Recipients Less Likely to Get Living-Donor Kidney: Study
- Iron Dosing Tricky for Dialysis Patients: Study
- CDC Guidelines Could Cut Bloodstream Infections From Dialysis
- 16 Cases of Kidney Damage in 6 States From Synthetic Pot: CDC
- Daily Dialysis Has Risks, Benefits for Kidney Disease Patients
- Fish Oil Doesn't Cut Failure Rate of Hemodialysis Grafts
- More Kidney Dialysis Is Better, Research Finds
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