12 Heart Attack Symptoms
Heart attacks are the number one cause of death in the US. The classic symptoms of a heart attack include:
- Jaw pain
- Chest discomfort or fullness
Heart attack occurs when sudden damage and/or death occurs to a portion of the heart muscle. The damage to the heart muscle usually is caused by a blocked coronary artery, which then prevents oxygen from getting to the muscle tissue of the heart. Heart attack is the most common cause of death in the US
Arrhythmias (an abnormal heart beat) also can cause a heart attack. Examples of life-threatening arrhythmias include ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest, in which the person will die within a few minutes.
Heart attacks can result in permanent heart muscle damage. If the extent of the heart muscle damage is large, the person may die.
A stroke occurs when brain tissue becomes deprived of oxygen, leading to damage or death of the brain tissue in the region affected by the stroke. The most frequent cause of a stroke is clot that blocks a blood vessel in the brain (ischemic stroke).
Hemorrhagic stroke (leakage or rupture of a blood vessel within the brain) is a less common cause of stroke.
Strokes can result in permanent brain tissue damage and/or death. If the extent of brain tissue damage is large, the person may die. It is the fifth most common cause of death in the US.
Heart attack and stroke are medical emergencies.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke) occurs when there is a temporary blockage of a blood vessel in the brain, producing symptoms similar to a stroke. However, during a transient ischemic attack, the stroke symptoms resolve completely within a short period of time after the clot blocking the vessel breaks apart, and thus does not produce any permanent damage or lasting effects. Transient ischemic attacks often are a warning sign of an imminent full-blown stroke, and thus require immediate medical treatment.
You do not want to have a heart attack or stroke because both can lead to disability or death. In terms of mortality statistics, heart attacks are more common since they are the leading cause of death in the US, while strokes are the fifth leading cause of death.
However, individuals may have more difficulty afterwards if they survive a stroke than if they survive a heart attack, though this will depend on how much brain tissue is damaged after the stroke. For example, a stroke can cause profound life-altering disabilities, such as losing the ability to communicate verbally or to use certain parts of your body (for example, your right arm and right leg). If you fear permanent disability worse than death, you may think that a stroke is worse than a heart attack.
The warning signs of heart attack and stroke are not the same.
The classic warning symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women may include:
Recognition of stroke symptoms is vital for emergency treatment.
The acronym “FAST” stands for recognition of:
If you or someone you are with experiences the symptoms (FAST) call contact 911 immediately.
Other classic warning symptoms and/or signs of a stroke may include:
Heart attacks and strokes are similar in that they both:
Neurologists that treat people who have had a stroke consider a stroke just as important as a heart attack because of the similarities between these two life-threatening conditions. Many neurologists refer to a stroke as a "brain attack."
Heart attacks are the number one cause of death in the US. The classic symptoms of a heart attack include:
In addition to the classic symptoms of heart attack symptoms, women may have somewhat different signs and symptoms that may include:
In addition to the classic signs and symptoms of a stroke, women may also experience other symptoms such as:
Some women may have a mixture of the classic and less common signs and symptoms of stroke or heart attack.
Heart attacks and strokes (ischemic strokes) are caused by blood clots (thrombosis). These two conditions share essentially the same risk factors, which include:
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the initial emergency treatment for heart attacks if the patient person has no pulse and/or if an available defibrillator is ineffective in restoring a pulse. Clot busting medications that can help open blocked arteries or angioplasty and stent placement to open a blocked artery are potential initial treatments available for a heart attack.
If a person with heart attack symptoms is able to swallow, many doctors will recommend initial treatment of four chewable 81 mg “baby aspirin” (do not use aspirin that are coated or labeled as extended release). Some patients may require emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (surgery that removes segments of blocked heart arteries and replaces them with open vessels taken from other areas of the body).
There are two major types of stroke, with the majority due to a blocked artery in the neck or brain. About 15% of strokes are due to either leakage or rupture of a brain aneurysm, which leads to bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). Unfortunately, both types of stroke can have the same initial symptoms. Emergency medical treatment depends on which type of stroke you or another person is having.
Time to diagnose the type of stroke is critical to treatment since each type of stroke requires different treatment and is time-dependent. It is critical for 911 personnel and the emergency department medical personnel to know the time that the symptoms of stroke first developed or were noticed, as this can determine the treatment options. In contrast to heart attacks, do not give aspirin to a person having a stroke, as aspirin could make the stroke worse if it is hemorrhagic.
Upon arrival to the hospital, a CT scan of the head will be immediately ordered to image the brain and determine the cause of the stroke symptoms. If the CT scan indicates an ischemic stroke, and if the patient’s stroke symptoms started within 4.5 hours of when they are evaluated, then the treatment can be similar to that of heart attacks (a clot dissolving medication may be administered) if there are no contraindications.
In certain cases, individuals with certain types of ischemic strokes may be candidates for procedures to open up the blocked artery, even if they are outside this time-window. Ultimately, the treatment decisions generally are made with the input from various specialists (neurologist, emergency physician, interventional radiologist) and the treatment options may vary depending on many different factors.
Hemorrhagic strokes can be difficult to treat. Medical treatment includes tightly controlling blood pressure, stopping medications that may increase the bleeding, and monitoring/controlling the pressure inside the brain with surgical placement of a drain to remove blood. A decompressive craniotomy (opening up the skull to relieve the pressure and/or remove blood from around the brain) is an emergency surgery procedure that also may be considered by a neurosurgeon. Other surgical procedures may be undertaken to clamp or seal up a ruptured/leaking aneurysm or damaged vessel.
Patients with severe heart attacks or severe strokes may require assisted ventilation (life-support).
If you survive the initial event, the prognosis for heart attacks and strokes is highly variable. Some individuals may recover fully and lead normal lives, whereas other individuals may suffer severe permanent disability and require lifelong care. The prognosis depends on the severity of the person’s initial stroke or heart attack, whether they are able to seek medical treatment in a timely manner, their underlying health and medical problems, and the effectiveness of the treatment options available to the them when they are evaluated. The elderly individuals with chronic medical illnesses (such as COPD, diabetes or cancer, for example) often have worse outcomes.
The prognosis for heart attacks is somewhat worse than strokes, as heart attacks are the leading cause of death in the US.
Because heart attacks and strokes have many of the same risk factors, the measures to reduce the risk of these two diseases are the same.
Various lifestyle modifications can decrease the risk of developing a heart attack or stroke. No matter what your age, you can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke by engaging in a regular exercise program and by eating a well-balanced healthy diet. A low-fat diet with plenty of vegetables and fruit, in addition to moderate exercise several days a week is recommended.
Other things you can do to prevent a heart attack or stroke include:
For certain individuals, taking the above measures can also help decrease their risk of developing high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol, which are all risk factors for having a heart attack or stroke. However, if you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol, and you are prescribed medications to help manage these conditions, it is very important to take these medications as instructed to better control these chronic illnesses. Regular check-ups with your doctor or other healthcare professional also are important to monitor and manage these conditions.
UPMC Health Beat. "Stroke Vs Heart Attack: Signs and Symptoms." Sep 02, 2015.
National Stroke Association. "Act FAST."
Please share your experience with heart attack or stroke. It may help others.Post
What symptoms and signs did you or someone you know experience with a heart attack or stroke?Post
As a woman, in addition to the classic symptoms of a heart attack or stroke, what other symptoms and signs did you have?Post
What treatment did you have for a heart attack or stroke? What is your prognosis?Post
Stroke is a serious medical condition. If you think you or someone you know is having a stroke call 911 immediately.
There are two main types of strokes, hemorrhagic and ischemic (the most common type).
A hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to a blood vessel rupture in the brain. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel in the brain, which causes a loss of blood supply to the brain, possibly causing brain tissue death.
FAST is an acronym that helps people identify stroke signs and symptoms so they can act fast and call 911. Face drooping, Arm weakness, and Speech difficulty are indicators that a person may be having a stroke and it is Time to seek emergency medical treatment. Additional signs and symptoms of stroke may include weakness, difficulty walking, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, confusion, difficulty speaking, and loss of sensation. .
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the US. Early identification and treatment of stroke helps reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.
CT scan (computerized tomography) is a procedure that uses X-rays to scan and take images of cross-sections of parts of the body. CT scan can help diagnose broken bones, tumors or lesions in areas of the body, blood clots in the brain, legs, and lung, and lung infections or diseases like pneumonia or emphysema.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a procedure that uses strong magnetic fields and radiofrequency energy to make images of parts of the body, particularly, the organs and soft tissues like tendons and cartilage.
Both CT and MRI are painless, however, MRI can be more bothersome to some individuals who are claustrophobic, or suffer from anxiety or panic disorders due to the enclosed space and noise the machine makes.
MRI costs more than CT, while CT is a quicker and more comfortable test for the patient.
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include:
Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include
A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.