Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Activin, Black Grape Raisins, Calzin, Draksha, Enocianina, European Wine Grape, Extrait de Feuille de Raisin, Extrait de Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Extrait de Peau de Raisin, Extrait de Pepins de Raisin, Feuille de Raisin, Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Feuille de Vigne Rouge AS 195, Flame Grape, Flame Raisins, Flame Seedless, Folia Vitis Viniferae, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Leaf, Grape Leaf Extract, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grape Seed Oil, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Grapes, Grapeseed, Huile de Pépins de Raisin, Kali Draksha, Leucoanthocyanin, Muscat, Muskat, Oligomères Procyanidoliques, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins, Oligomeric Procyanidins, OPC, OPCs, PCO, PCOs, Peau de Raisin, Pépin de Raisin, Petite Sirah, Proanthocyanidines Oligomériques, Proanthodyn, Proanthodyne, Procyanidines Oligomériques, Procyanidolic Oligomers, Purple Grape, Raisin, Raisin Blanc, Raisin de Table, Raisin de Vigne, Raisins, Raisins Noirs, Red Globe, Red Grape, Red Malaga, Red Vine Leaf AS 195, Red Vine Leaf Extract, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless, Uva, Vitis vinifera, White Grape, Wine Grape, Wine Grapes.


Grapes are the fruit of a vine (Vitis vinifera). The whole fruit, skin, leaves and seed of the grape plant are used as medicine. Grape seeds are by-products of the manufacturing of wine. Be careful not to confuse grape with grapefruit, and other similar sounding medicines.

Grape is used for preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, swelling after injury or surgery, heart attack, and stroke.

Some people also use grape as a mild laxative for constipation. You have probably heard of grape “fasts” as part of “detoxification.”

Grape seed is used for diabetes complications such as nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver disorders, and hay fever.

Dried grapes, raisins, or sultanas (white raisins) are used for cough.

Grape leaf is used for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), diarrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding, uterine bleeding, and canker sores.

Grape leaf is used as a food, particularly in Greek cooking.

How does it work?

Grape contains flavonoids, which can have antioxidant effects, lower the levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad cholesterol”), relax blood vessels, and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The antioxidants in grape might help to prevent heart disease and have other potentially beneficial effects. Red grape varieties provide more antioxidants than white or blush grape varieties.

Grape leaf might reduce inflammation and have astringent effects. In other words, grape leaf seems to be able to draw tissue together, which could help stop bleeding and diarrhea. These properties appear to be greatest in the red leaves.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Poor circulation that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency). Taking grape seed extract by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency such as tired or heavy legs, tension, and tingling and pain. Research suggests that taking a specific grape leaf extract (AS 195, Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim) by mouth decreases leg swelling after 6 weeks.
  • Eye stress. Taking grape seed extract by mouth might help decrease stress on the eyes from glare.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Hay fever. Taking grape seed extract for 8 weeks before ragweed pollen season does not seem to decrease seasonal allergy symptoms or the need to use allergy medications.
  • Tissue hardness and pain caused by radiation. Research shows that taking proanthocyanidin, a chemical found in grape seed extract, three times daily for 6 months does not reduce breast tissue hardness, pain, or tenderness in people treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer.
  • Nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Evidence shows that taking 4 ounces of chilled Concord grape juice 30 minutes before meals for a week following each cycle of chemotherapy does not seem to reduce nausea or vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
  • Weight loss. Evidence suggests that drinking Concord grape juice for 12 weeks does not reduce weight in overweight people.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Athletic performance. Early research shows that taking 400 mg of grape extract daily for one month might increase an athlete's overall power when jumping, but not the initial power or maintenance of power.
  • Heart disease. There is some early evidence that drinking grape juice or red wine might help to prevent heart disease by reducing cholesterol levels, reducing inflammation, and preventing clot formations.
  • Eye damage caused by diabetes (diabetic retinopathy). Early evidence suggests that taking a specific grape seed extract product (Endotelon) can slow the progression of eye damage caused by diabetes.
  • High cholesterol. Some research shows that taking 100 mg of grape seed extract twice daily for up to 2 months does not lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. However, other research shows that grape seed extract might lower cholesterol when taken in combination with other ingredients, including chromium or policosanol, tomato extract, and evening primrose oil.
  • High blood pressure. Research suggests that grape seed extract does not reduce blood pressure in healthy people or people with high blood pressure. However, in men with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart disease, taking freeze-dried, dehydrated whole grapes for 20 days seems to lower blood pressure. Additionally, some studies suggest that drinking grape juice can lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure; however, other research shows that grape juice does not have this effect.
  • Dark skin patches on the face (melasma). Early research suggests that taking grape seed extract by mouth for 6-11 months reduces dark skin discolorations in Japanese women.
  • Age-related mental decline. Early research shows that drinking Concord grape juice daily for 12 weeks can improve verbal learning, but does not improve memory, in older people with age-related mental decline.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that whole grapes might improve some of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart disease, in men. Taking freeze-dried, dehydrated whole grapes for 30 days lowers blood pressure and increases blood flow. However, it is not known if these changes decrease the risk for diabetes or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Also, other research shows that taking a specific product containing grape seed extract (Meganatural BP) for 4 weeks does not reduce blood pressure in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Poor night vision. Early research suggests grape seed extract containing chemicals called proanthocyanidins might improve night vision.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Research shows that taking grape seed extract twice daily for 3 months improves some but not all markers of liver damage compared to vitamin C supplementation in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Early research suggests that taking a specific grape seed extract product (Endetelon) might reduce PMS symptoms, including pain and swelling.
  • Treating varicose veins.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Constipation.
  • Cough.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Heavy menstrual periods.
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
  • Canker sores.
  • Liver damage.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of grape for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Grape is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods.

Grape is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts. Grape seed extracts have been used safely in studies for up to 14 weeks. Eating large quantities of grapes, dried grapes, raisins, or sultanas might cause diarrhea. Some people have allergic reactions to grapes and grape products. Some other potential side effects include stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, cough, dry mouth, sore throat, infections, headache, and muscular problems.


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Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of grape in medicinal amounts (supplements or amounts that are higher than normal food amounts) during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding conditions: Grape might slow blood clotting. Taking grape might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding conditions. However, there are no reports of this occurring in humans.

Surgery: Grape might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using medicinal amounts of grape at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape juice might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), caffeine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clomipramine (Anafranil), clopidogrel (Plavix), clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexaril), desipramine (Norpramin), diazepam (Valium), estradiol (Estrace, others), flutamide (Eulexin), fluvoxamine (Luvox), grepafloxacin (Raxar), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), mirtazapine (Remeron), naproxen (Naprosyn), nortriptyline (Pamelor), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propafenone (Rythmol), propranolol (Inderal), riluzole (Rilutek), ropinirole (Requip), ropivacaine (Naropin), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline (Theo-Dur, others), verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS, others), warfarin (Coumadin), and zileuton (Zyflo).

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Grape might slow blood clotting. Taking grape along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

PhenacetinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

The body breaks down phenacetin to get rid of it. Drinking grape juice might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenacetin. Taking phenacetin along with grape juice might decrease the effectiveness of phenacetin.

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Grape seed might also slow blood clotting. Taking grape seed along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape seed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape seed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and numerous others. Use grape cautiously or avoid in patients taking these drugs.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For poor blood flow in the legs (chronic venous insufficiency):
    • Standardized red vine grape extract AS 195 (Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim 360 mg or 720 mg once daily.
    • Grape seed extract as tablets or capsules dosed at 75-300 mg daily for three weeks followed by a maintenance dose of 40-80 mg daily.
    • Grape seed extract proanthocyanidin doses of 150-300 mg per day. Proanthocyanidin is one of the active ingredients in grape.
  • For reducing eye stress due to glare: Grape seed extract proanthocyanidin doses of 200-300 mg per day.

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A review of evidence on red vine leaf extract in the prevention and management of venous disease. J Wound Care 2006;15(9):393-396. View abstract.

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Agarwal, C., Singh, R. P., and Agarwal, R. Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(11):1869-1876. View abstract.

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Agarwal, C., Tyagi, A., and Agarwal, R. Gallic acid causes inactivating phosphorylation of cdc25A/cdc25C-cdc2 via ATM-Chk2 activation, leading to cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Mol.Cancer Ther 2006;5(12):3294-3302. View abstract.

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Ahmed, T., Sajid, M., Singh, T., Saini, G. S., Monif, T., Saha, N., and Pillai, K. K. Influence of grape juice and orange juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diltiazem in healthy human male subjects. Int.J Clin.Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46(10):511-518. View abstract.

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Akhtar, S., Meeran, S. M., Katiyar, N., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts by targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenic factors. Clin.Cancer Res 2-1-2009;15(3):821-831. View abstract.

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Al-Awwadi, N., Bornet, A., Delbosc, S., Cristol, J. P., Auger, C., Rouanet, J. M., Cros, G., and Teissedre, P. L. Skins and seeds grape polyphenolic extracts (anthocyanins, procyanidins and oligomers) reduce oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in insulin resistance-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular complications in the fructose fed rat. Bulletin de l'OIV 2005;78(891-892):361-375.

Albers, A. R., Varghese, S., Vitseva, O., Vita, J. A., and Freedman, J. E. The antiinflammatory effects of purple grape juice consumption in subjects with stable coronary artery disease. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2004;24(11):e179-e180. View abstract.

Aldini, G., Carini, M., Piccoli, A., Rossoni, G., and Facino, R. M. Procyanidins from grape seeds protect endothelial cells from peroxynitrite damage and enhance endothelium-dependent relaxation in human artery: new evidences for cardio-protection. Life Sci. 10-17-2003;73(22):2883-2898. View abstract.

Amico, V., Barresi, V., Chillemi, R., Condorelli, D. F., Sciuto, S., Spatafora, C., and Tringali, C. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4(1):27-34. View abstract.

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Argarate, N., Arestin, M., Ramon-Azcon, J., Alfaro, B., Barranco, A., Sanchez-Baeza, F., and Marco, M. P. Evaluation of immunoassays as an alternative for the rapid determination of pesticides in wine and grape samples. J AOAC Int. 2010;93(1):2-11. View abstract.

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Aslan, Y., Erduran, E., Mocan, H., Gedik, Y., Okten, A., Soylu, H., and Deger, O. Absorption of iron from grape-molasses and ferrous sulfate: a comparative study in normal subjects and subjects with iron deficiency anemia. Turk.J Pediatr 1997;39(4):465-471. View abstract.

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Bagchi, D., Garg, A., Krohn, R. L., Bagchi, M., Tran, M. X., and Stohs, S. J. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol.Pharmacol 1997;95(2):179-189. View abstract.

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Bagchi, D., Ray, S. D., Patel, D., and Bagchi, M. Protection against drug- and chemical-induced multiorgan toxicity by a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Drugs Exp.Clin.Res 2001;27(1):3-15. View abstract.

Bagchi, D., Sen, C. K., Ray, S. D., Das, D. K., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H. G., and Vinson, J. A. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat.Res 2003;523-524:87-97. View abstract.

Baliga, M. S. and Katiyar, S. K. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals. Photochem.Photobiol.Sci. 2006;5(2):243-253. View abstract.

Banerjee, B. and Bagchi, D. Beneficial effects of a novel ih636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Digestion 2001;63(3):203-206. View abstract.

Barona, J., Blesso, C. N., Andersen, C. J., Park, Y., Lee, J., and Fernandez, M. L. Grape consumption increases anti-inflammatory markers and upregulates peripheral nitric oxide synthase in the absence of dyslipidemias in men with metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2012;4(12):1945-1957. View abstract.

Barthomeuf, C., Lamy, S., Blanchette, M., Boivin, D., Gingras, D., and Beliveau, R. Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate- and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell chemotaxis by red grape skin polyphenols correlates with a decrease in early platelet-activating factor synthesis. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2-15-2006;40(4):581-590. View abstract.

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Berthier, L., Marchal, R., Debray, H., Bonnet, E., Jeandet, P., and Maujean, A. Isolation of isolectins from Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Chardonnay grape berries. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47(6):2193-2197. View abstract.

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Billard, C., Izard, J. C., Roman, V., Kern, C., Mathiot, C., Mentz, F., and Kolb, J. P. Comparative antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of resveratrol, epsilon-viniferin and vine-shots derived polyphenols (vineatrols) on chronic B lymphocytic leukemia cells and normal human lymphocytes. Leuk.Lymphoma 2002;43(10):1991-2002. View abstract.

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Brannan, R. G. Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels. J Food Sci. 2008;73(1):C36-C40. View abstract.

Brito, FF., Martinez, A., Palacios, R., Mur, P., Gomez, E., Galindo, P. A., Borja, J., and Martinez, J. Rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by vine pollen: a case report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103(2 Pt 1):262-266. View abstract.

Brooker, S., Martin, S., Pearson, A., Bagchi, D., Earl, J., Gothard, L., Hall, E., Porter, L., and Yarnold, J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration. Radiother.Oncol 2006;79(1):45-51. View abstract.

Brown, K. L., Shefler, A., Cohen, G., DeMunter, C., Pigott, N., and Goldman, A. P. Near-fatal grape aspiration with complicating acute lung injury successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003;4(2):243-245. View abstract.

Bub, A., Watzl, B., Heeb, D., Rechkemmer, G., and Briviba, K. Malvidin-3-glucoside bioavailability in humans after ingestion of red wine, dealcoholized red wine and red grape juice. Eur.J Nutr. 2001;40(3):113-120. View abstract.

Butkhup, L., Chowtivannakul, S., Gaensakoo, R., Prathepha, P., and Samappito, S. Study of the phenolic composition of Shiraz red grape cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in North-eastern Thailand and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2010;31(2):89-98.

Cabras, P., Angioni, A., Caboni, P., Garau, V. L., Melis, M., Pirisi, F. M., and Cabitza, F. Distribution of folpet on the grape surface after treatment. J Agric.Food Chem 2000;48(3):915-916. View abstract.

Cai, H., Marczylo, T. H., Teller, N., Brown, K., Steward, W. P., Marko, D., and Gescher, A. J. Anthocyanin-rich red grape extract impedes adenoma development in the Apc(Min) mouse: pharmacodynamic changes and anthocyanin levels in the murine biophase. Eur.J Cancer 2010;46(4):811-817. View abstract.

Caillet, S., Salmieri, S., and Lacroix, M. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of grape phenolic extracts by a fast colorimetric method. Acta Horticulturae 2007;744:425-429.

Carini, M., Stefani, R., Aldini, G., Ozioli, M., and Facino, R. M. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds inhibit the respiratory burst of activated human neutrophils and lysosomal enzyme release. Planta Med 2001;67(8):714-717. View abstract.

Castilla, P., Davalos, A., Teruel, J. L., Cerrato, F., Fernandez-Lucas, M., Merino, J. L., Sanchez-Martin, C. C., Ortuno, J., and Lasuncion, M. A. Comparative effects of dietary supplementation with red grape juice and vitamin E on production of superoxide by circulating neutrophil NADPH oxidase in hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2008;87(4):1053-1061. View abstract.

Castilla, P., Echarri, R., Davalos, A., Cerrato, F., Ortega, H., Teruel, J. L., Lucas, M. F., Gomez-Coronado, D., Ortuno, J., and Lasuncion, M. A. Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2006;84(1):252-262. View abstract.

Castillo-Pichardo, L., Martinez-Montemayor, M. M., Martinez, J. E., Wall, K. M., Cubano, L. A., and Dharmawardhane, S. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols. Clin.Exp.Metastasis 2009;26(6):505-516. View abstract.

Cefola, M., Pace, B., Buttaro, D., Santamaria, P., and Serio, F. Postharvest evaluation of soilless-grown table grape during storage in modified atmosphere. J Sci.Food Agric. 2011;91(12):2153-2159. View abstract.

Chacon, M. R., Ceperuelo-Mallafre, V., Maymo-Masip, E., Mateo-Sanz, J. M., Arola, L., Guitierrez, C., Fernandez-Real, J. M., Ardevol, A., Simon, I., and Vendrell, J. Grape-seed procyanidins modulate inflammation on human differentiated adipocytes in vitro. Cytokine 2009;47(2):137-142. View abstract.

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Chao, C. L., Chang, N. C., Weng, C. S., Lee, K. R., Kao, S. T., Hsu, J. C., and Ho, F. M. Grape seed extract ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory status of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Eur.J Nutr. 2011;50(6):401-409. View abstract.

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Etheridge, A. S., Black, S. R., Patel, P. R., So, J., and Mathews, J. M. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents. Planta Med 2007;73(8):731-741. View abstract.

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Gao, N., Budhraja, A., Cheng, S., Yao, H., Zhang, Z., and Shi, X. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by grape seed extract occurs via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Clin.Cancer Res 1-1-2009;15(1):140-149. View abstract.

Garcia-Alonso, M., Rimbach, G., Sasai, M., Nakahara, M., Matsugo, S., Uchida, Y., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C., and De Pascual-Teresa, S. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies on the free radical scavenging activity of wine anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2005;49(12):1112-1119. View abstract.

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Giacosa, A., Adam-Blondon, A. F., Baer-Sinnott, S., Barale, R., Bavaresco, L., Di, Gaspero G., Dugo, L., Ellison, R. C., Gerbi, V., Gifford, D., Janssens, J., La, Vecchia C., Negri, E., Pezzotti, M., Santi, L., Santi, L., and Rondanelli, M. Alcohol and wine in relation to cancer and other diseases. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21(1):103-108. View abstract.

Godichaud, S., Si-Tayeb, K., Auge, N., Desmouliere, A., Balabaud, C., Payrastre, B., Negre-Salvayre, A., and Rosenbaum, J. The grape-derived polyphenol resveratrol differentially affects epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in human liver myofibroblasts. Int.J Biochem.Cell Biol. 2006;38(4):629-637. View abstract.

Green, B., Yao, X., Ganguly, A., Xu, C., Dusevich, V., Walker, M. P., and Wang, Y. Grape seed proanthocyanidins increase collagen biodegradation resistance in the dentin/adhesive interface when included in an adhesive. J Dent. 2010;38(11):908-915. View abstract.

Gross, G., Jacobs, D. M., Peters, S., Possemiers, S., van, Duynhoven J., Vaughan, E. E., and van de Wiele, T. In vitro bioconversion of polyphenols from black tea and red wine/grape juice by human intestinal microbiota displays strong interindividual variability. J Agric.Food Chem 9-22-2010;58(18):10236-10246. View abstract.

Ha, do T., Chen, Q. C., Hung, T. M., Youn, U. J., Ngoc, T. M., Thuong, P. T., Kim, H. J., Seong, Y. H., Min, B. S., and Bae, K. Stilbenes and oligostilbenes from leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their cytotoxic activity. Arch.Pharm Res 2009;32(2):177-183. View abstract.

Hakimuddin, F., Paliyath, G., and Meckling, K. Treatment of mcf-7 breast cancer cells with a red grape wine polyphenol fraction results in disruption of calcium homeostasis and cell cycle arrest causing selective cytotoxicity. J Agric.Food Chem 10-4-2006;54(20):7912-7923. View abstract.

Hakimuddin, F., Tiwari, K., Paliyath, G., and Meckling, K. Grape and wine polyphenols down-regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB231 tumors in nu/nu mouse xenografts. Nutr.Res 2008;28(10):702-713. View abstract.

Han, J., Britten, M., St-Gelais, D., Champagne, C. P., Fustier, P., Salmieri, S., and Lacroix, M. Polyphenolic compounds as functional ingredients in cheese. Food Chemistry 2011;124(4):1589-1594.

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Hansen, A. S., Marckmann, P., Dragsted, L. O., Finne Nielsen, I. L., Nielsen, S. E., and Gronbaek, M. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2005;59(3):449-455. View abstract.

Hashemi, M., Kelishadi, R., Hashemipour, M., Zakerameli, A., Khavarian, N., Ghatrehsamani, S., and Poursafa, P. Acute and long-term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on vascular reactivity in paediatric metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2010;20(1):73-77. View abstract.

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Hsia, S. M., Wang, K. L., and Wang, P. S. Effects of resveratrol, a grape polyphenol, on uterine contraction and Ca(2)+ mobilization in rats in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 2011;152(5):2090-2099. View abstract.

Hsieh, T. C. and Wu, J. M. Grape-derived chemopreventive agent resveratrol decreases prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in LNCaP cells by an androgen receptor (AR)-independent mechanism. Anticancer Res 2000;20(1A):225-228. View abstract.

Hsu, C. P., Lin, Y. H., Chou, C. C., Zhou, S. P., Hsu, Y. C., Liu, C. L., Ku, F. M., and Chung, Y. C. Mechanisms of grape seed procyanidin-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res 2009;29(1):283-289. View abstract.

Hsu, Y. L., Liang, H. L., Hung, C. H., and Kuo, P. L. Syringetin, a flavonoid derivative in grape and wine, induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2009;53(11):1452-1461. View abstract.

Hu, H. and Qin, Y. M. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells. Chin Med J (Engl.) 3-5-2006;119(5):417-421. View abstract.

Huang, T. T., Shang, X. J., Yao, G. H., Ge, J. P., Teng, W. H., Sun, Y., and Huang, Y. F. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2008;14(4):331-333. View abstract.

Huber, K. and Superti-Furga, G. After the grape rush: sirtuins as epigenetic drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders. Bioorg.Med Chem 6-15-2011;19(12):3616-3624. View abstract.

Hudec, J., Mazur, R., Trebichalsky, P., Lacko-Bartosova, M., Losak, T., Musilova, J., Chlebo, P., and Kovacik, P. Effect of a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor on the quality of grape and red wine. J Sci.Food Agric. 8-30-2011;91(11):2045-2052. View abstract.

Ingersoll, G. L., Wasilewski, A., Haller, M., Pandya, K., Bennett, J., He, H., Hoffmire, C., and Berry, C. Effect of concord grape juice on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: results of a pilot study. Oncol.Nurs.Forum 2010;37(2):213-221. View abstract.

Inoue, J., Tanaka, M., Nanmoku, M., Yashiro, T., and Sato, R. Stabilization of small heterodimer partner mRNA by grape seed procyanidins extract in cultured hepatocytes. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2011;55(7):1052-1058. View abstract.

Iriti, M. and Faoro, F. Grape phytochemicals: a bouquet of old and new nutraceuticals for human health. Med Hypotheses 2006;67(4):833-838. View abstract.

Iriti, M. Melatonin in grape, not just a myth, maybe a panacea. J Pineal Res 2009;46(3):353. View abstract.

Islam, S. M., Hiraishi, N., Nassar, M., Sono, R., Otsuki, M., Takatsura, T., Yiu, C., and Tagami, J. In vitro effect of hesperidin on root dentin collagen and de/re-mineralization. Dent.Mater.J 2012;31(3):362-367. View abstract.

Jacobs, D. M., Fuhrmann, J. C., van Dorsten, F. A., Rein, D., Peters, S., van Velzen, E. J., Hollebrands, B., Draijer, R., van, Duynhoven J., and Garczarek, U. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome. J Agric.Food Chem 3-28-2012;60(12):3078-3085. View abstract.

Janle, E. M., Lila, M. A., Grannan, M., Wood, L., Higgins, A., Yousef, G. G., Rogers, R. B., Kim, H., Jackson, G. S., Ho, L., and Weaver, C. M. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled grape polyphenols in the periphery and the central nervous system following oral administration. J Med Food 2010;13(4):926-933. View abstract.

Jeronimo, E., Alfaia, C. M., Alves, S. P., Dentinho, M. T., Prates, J. A., Vasta, V., Santos-Silva, J., and Bessa, R. J. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality. Meat.Sci 2012;92(4):841-847. View abstract.

Jia, Z., Song, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., and Liu, P. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress via reducing NF-small ka, CyrillicB and MAPK protein expression. Mol.Vis 2011;17:210-217. View abstract.

Jimenez, J. P., Serrano, J., Tabernero, M., Arranz, S., Diaz-Rubio, M. E., Garcia-Diz, L., Goni, I., and Saura-Calixto, F. Effects of grape antioxidant dietary fiber in cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutrition 2008;24(7-8):646-653. View abstract.

Jing, Yu, Yumin, Xu, Khaoustov, V., and Yoffe, B. Identification of components of grape powder with anti-apoptotic effects. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2011;27(1):19-28. View abstract.

Jo, J. Y., de Mejia, E. G., and Lila, M. A. Cytotoxicity of bioactive polymeric fractions from grape cell culture on human hepatocellular carcinoma, murine leukemia and non-cancerous PK15 kidney cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44(10):1758-1767. View abstract.

Jo, J. Y., Gonzalez de, Mejia E., and Lila, M. A. Catalytic inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase II by interactions of grape cell culture polyphenols. J Agric.Food Chem 3-22-2006;54(6):2083-2087. View abstract.

Jo, J. Y., Gonzalez de, Mejia E., and Lila, M. A. Effects of grape cell culture extracts on human topoisomerase II catalytic activity and characterization of active fractions. J Agric.Food Chem 4-6-2005;53(7):2489-2498. View abstract.

Jongberg, S., Skov, S. H., Torngren, M. A., Skibsted, L. H., and Lund, M. N. Effect of white grape extract and modified atmosphere packaging on lipid and protein oxidation in chill stored beef patties. Food Chemistry 2011;128(2):276-283.

Joshi, S. S., Kuszynski, C. A., and Bagchi, D. The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Curr.Pharm Biotechnol. 2001;2(2):187-200. View abstract.

Joshi, S. S., Kuszynski, C. A., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on Chang liver cells. Toxicology 11-30-2000;155(1-3):83-90. View abstract.

Kalin, R., Righi, A., Del, Rosso A., Bagchi, D., Generini, S., Cerinic, M. M., and Das, D. K. Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis. Free Radic.Res 2002;36(8):819-825. View abstract.

Kaliora, A. C., Kountouri, A. M., and Karathanos, V. T. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.). J Med Food 2009;12(6):1302-1309. View abstract.

Kaliora, A. C., Kountouri, A. M., Karathanos, V. T., Koumbi, L., Papadopoulos, N. G., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60(6):792-799. View abstract.

Kalus, U., Koscielny, J., Grigorov, A., Schaefer, E., Peil, H., and Kiesewetter, H. Improvement of cutaneous microcirculation and oxygen supply in patients with chronic venous insufficiency by orally administered extract of red vine leaves AS 195: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Drugs R.D. 2004;5(2):63-71. View abstract.

Kamiyama, M., Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Andoh, K., Utsunomiya, K., and Kondo, K. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by Nagano purple grape (Vitis viniferaxVitis labrusca). J Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2009;55(6):471-478. View abstract.

Kar, P., Laight, D., Rooprai, H. K., Shaw, K. M., and Cummings, M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet.Med 2009;26(5):526-531. View abstract.

Kar, P., Laight, D., Shaw, K. M., and Cummings, M. H. Flavonoid-rich grapeseed extracts: a new approach in high cardiovascular risk patients? Int J Clin Pract 2006;60(11):1484-1492. View abstract.

Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52 Suppl 1:S71-S76. View abstract.

Katiyar, S. K. Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins. Endocr.Metab Immune.Disord Drug Targets. 2006;6(1):17-24. View abstract.

Katiyar, S. K., Singh, T., Prasad, R., Sun, Q., and Vaid, M. Epigenetic alterations in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis: interaction of bioactive dietary components on epigenetic targets. Photochem.Photobiol. 2012;88(5):1066-1074. View abstract.

Katsuzaki, H., Hibasami, H., Ohwaki, S., Ishikawa, K., Imai, K., Date, K., Kimura, Y., and Komiya, T. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from skin of black Glycine max and other anthocyanins isolated from skin of red grape induce apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Oncol.Rep. 2003;10(2):297-300. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Agarwal, C., and Agarwal, R. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. J Nutr. 2009;139(9):1806S-1812S. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract induces anoikis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation. Mol.Cancer Ther 2006;5(5):1265-1274. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Mandair, R., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Singh, R. P., Gu, M., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res 10-15-2006;12(20 Pt 1):6194-6202. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Tyagi, A., Singh, R. P., Sclafani, R. A., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract upregulates p21 (Cip1) through redox-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and posttranscriptional regulation leading to cell cycle arrest in colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2011;50(7):553-562. View abstract.

Kaur, M., Velmurugan, B., Rajamanickam, S., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Gallic acid, an active constituent of grape seed extract, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic effects against prostate carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice. Pharm Res 2009;26(9):2133-2140. View abstract.

Kedzierska, M., Olas, B., Wachowicz, B., Stochmal, A., Oleszek, W., and Erler, J. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds. Platelets. 2011;22(5):385-389. View abstract.

Keevil, J. G., Osman, H. E., Reed, J. D., and Folts, J. D. Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation. J Nutr. 2000;130(1):53-56. View abstract.

Khanna, S., Roy, S., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Sen, C. K. Upregulation of oxidant-induced VEGF expression in cultured keratinocytes by a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Free Radic.Biol.Med 7-1-2001;31(1):38-42. View abstract.

Khanna, S., Venojarvi, M., Roy, S., Sharma, N., Trikha, P., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Sen, C. K. Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins. Free Radic.Biol.Med 10-15-2002;33(8):1089-1096. View abstract.

Khoshbaten, M., Aliasgarzadeh, A., Masnadi, K., Farhang, S., Tarzamani, M. K., Babaei, H., Kiani, J., Zaare, M., and Najafipoor, F. Grape seed extract to improve liver function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver change. Saudi.J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(3):194-197. View abstract.

Kidd, P. M. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts. Altern.Med.Rev. 2009;14(3):226-246. View abstract.

Kijima, I., Phung, S., Hur, G., Kwok, S. L., and Chen, S. Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression. Cancer Res 6-1-2006;66(11):5960-5967. View abstract.

Kikalishvili, B. I., Zurabashvili, D. Z., Nikolaishvili, M. N., Zurabashvili, Z. A., and Giorgobiani, I. B. [The most biological important constances of Rkatsiteli grape oil and its effect as a 5% and 10% food-additive]. Georgian.Med News 2011;(195):85-87. View abstract.

Kim, E. J., Park, H., Park, S. Y., Jun, J. G., and Park, J. H. The grape component piceatannol induces apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. J Med Food 2009;12(5):943-951. View abstract.

Kim, H., Kim, J. Y., Song, H. S., Park, K. U., Mun, K. C., and Ha, E. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract inhibits interleukin-17-induced interleukin-6 production via MAPK pathway in human pulmonary epithelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch.Pharmacol. 2011;383(6):555-562. View abstract.

Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. H., Han, M. D., Mar, W., Kim, W. K., and Nam, K. W. Resveratrol, purified from the stem of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, inhibits food intake in C57BL/6J Mice. Arch.Pharm Res 2010;33(5):775-780. View abstract.

Kiyici, A., Okudan, N., Gokbel, H., and Belviranli, M. The effect of grape seed extracts on serum paraoxonase activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 2010;13(3):725-728. View abstract.

Koide, T., Kamei, H., Hashimoto, Y., Kojima, T., and Hasegawa, M. Antitumor effect of hydrolyzed anthocyanin from grape rinds and red rice. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 1996;11(4):273-277. View abstract.

Kolodziejczyk, J., Malinowska, J., Olas, B., Stochmal, A., Oleszek, W., and Erler, J. The polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds suppresses toxicity of homocysteine and its thiolactone on the fibrinolytic system. Thromb.Res 2011;127(5):489-491. View abstract.

Koo, M., Kim, S. H., Lee, N., Yoo, M. Y., Ryu, S. Y., Kwon, D. Y., and Kim, Y. S. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitory effect of Vitis vinifera. Fitoterapia 2008;79(3):204-206. View abstract.

Krešic, G., Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Saftic, M., and Blazevic, N. Cereal bakery products enriched with bioflavonoids - new possibilities of functional food. Flour - Bread '01: Proceedings of International Congress, 3rd Croatian Congress of Cereal Technologists, Opatija, Croatia 2002;111-121.

Krikorian, R., Nash, T. A., Shidler, M. D., Shukitt-Hale, B., and Joseph, J. A. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(5):730-734. View abstract.

Kulkarni, S., DeSantos, F. A., Kattamuri, S., Rossi, S. J., and Brewer, M. S. Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system. Meat.Sci. 2011;88(1):139-144. View abstract.

Kundu, J. K., Rouf, A. S., Hossain, M. N., Hasan, C. M., and Rashid, M. A. Antitumor activity of epifriedelanol from Vitis trifolia. Fitoterapia 2000;71(5):577-579. View abstract.

Kuo, P. L. and Hsu, Y. L. The grape and wine constituent piceatannol inhibits proliferation of human bladder cancer cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing Fas/membrane bound Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52(4):408-418. View abstract.

La, V. D., Bergeron, C., Gafner, S., and Grenier, D. Grape seed extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by macrophages and inhibits human MMP-1 and -9 activities. J Periodontol. 2009;80(11):1875-1882. View abstract.

Lafay, S., Jan, C., Nardon, K., Lemaire, B., Ibarra, A., Roller, M., Houvenaeghel, M., Juhel, C., and Cara, L. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 2009;8(3):468.

Lagrue, G., Olivier-Martin, F., and Grillot, A. [A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies (author's transl)]. Sem Hop 9-18-1981;57(33-36):1399-1401. View abstract.

Lanningham-Foster, L., Chen, C., Chance, D. S., and Loo, G. Grape extract inhibits lipid peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Biol.Pharm Bull. 1995;18(10):1347-1351. View abstract.

Larronde, F., Richard, T., Delaunay, J. C., Decendit, A., Monti, J. P., Krisa, S., and Merillon, J. M. New stilbenoid glucosides isolated from Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Planta Med 2005;71(9):888-890. View abstract.

Larrosa, M., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. Grape polyphenol resveratrol and the related molecule 4-hydroxystilbene induce growth inhibition, apoptosis, S-phase arrest, and upregulation of cyclins A, E, and B1 in human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells. J Agric.Food Chem 7-30-2003;51(16):4576-4584. View abstract.

Larrosa, M., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. The grape and wine polyphenol piceatannol is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells. Eur.J Nutr. 2004;43(5):275-284. View abstract.

Laurent, C., Besancon, P., and Caporiccio, B. Ethanol and polyphenolic free wine matrix stimulate the differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Influence of their association with a procyanidin-rich grape seed extract. J Agric.Food Chem 7-13-2005;53(14):5541-5548. View abstract.

Laurent, C., Besancon, P., Auger, C., Rouanet, J. M., and Caporiccio, B. Grape seed extract affects proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Agric.Food Chem 6-2-2004;52(11):3301-3308. View abstract.

Lazze, M. C., Pizzala, R., Gutierrez Pecharroman, F. J., Gaton, Garnica P., Antolin Rodriguez, J. M., Fabris, N., and Bianchi, L. Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. J Med Food 2009;12(3):561-568. View abstract.

Ledig, M., Holownia, A., Copin, J. C., Tholey, G., and Anokhina, I. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract. Neurochem.Res 1996;21(3):313-317. View abstract.

Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Cardioprotective actions of grape polyphenols. Nutr.Res 2008;28(11):729-737. View abstract.

Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity. Nutr.Res 2008;28(12):842-850. View abstract.

Lekakis, J., Rallidis, L. S., Andreadou, I., Vamvakou, G., Kazantzoglou, G., Magiatis, P., Skaltsounis, A. L., and Kremastinos, D. T. Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2005;12(6):596-600. View abstract.

Lesbre FX and Tigaud JD. [The effect of Endotelon on the capillary fragility index of a specified controlled group: cirrhosis patients]. Gazette Medicale de France 1983;90(24):2333-2337.

Li, B. Y., Li, X. L., Cai, Q., Gao, H. Q., Cheng, M., Zhang, J. H., Wang, J. F., Yu, F., and Zhou, R. H. Induction of lactadherin mediates the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to advanced glycation end products and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 and resveratrol. Apoptosis. 2011;16(7):732-745. View abstract.

Li, B. Y., Li, X. L., Gao, H. Q., Zhang, J. H., Cai, Q., Cheng, M., and Lu, M. Grape seed procyanidin B2 inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through regulating GSK3beta phosphorylation. Cell Biol.Int. 2011;35(7):663-669. View abstract.

Li, Q. Z., Cho, H. S., Jeun, S. H., Kim, K. J., Choi, S. J., and Sung, K. W. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2011;34(7):1109-1115. View abstract.

Li, S., Zhong, J., and Sun, F. [Study on the protective effect of grape procyanidins on DNA damage induced by irradiation]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2000;34(3):131-133. View abstract.

Lin, A. D., Mannikarottu, A., Kogan, B. A., Whitbeck, C., Leggett, R. E., and Levin, R. M. Effect of bilateral in vivo ischemia/reperfusion on the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase: response to a standardized grape suspension. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2007;296(1-2):11-16. View abstract.

Liu, J. Y. and Zhong, J. Y. [Study on protective effect of grape procyanidins in radiation injury in radiation-contacted persons]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2008;42(4):264-267. View abstract.

Liu, T., Zhao, J., Li, H., and Ma, L. Evaluation on anti-hepatitis viral activity of Vitis vinifer L. Molecules. 2010;15(10):7415-7422. View abstract.

Lluis, L., Munoz, M., Nogues, M. R., Sanchez-Martos, V., Romeu, M., Giralt, M., Valls, J., and Sola, R. Toxicology evaluation of a procyanidin-rich extract from grape skins and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(6):1450-1454. View abstract.

Long, J., Gao, H., Sun, L., Liu, J., and Zhao-Wilson, X. Grape extract protects mitochondria from oxidative damage and improves locomotor dysfunction and extends lifespan in a Drosophila Parkinson's disease model. Rejuvenation.Res 2009;12(5):321-331. View abstract.

Lu, J., Zhang, K., Chen, S., and Wen, W. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression. Carcinogenesis 2009;30(4):636-644. View abstract.

Lu, R. and Serrero, G. Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grape, exhibits antiestrogenic activity and inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol 1999;179(3):297-304. View abstract.

Ma, L., Gao, H. Q., Li, B. Y., Ma, Y. B., You, B. A., and Zhang, F. L. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecule expression induced by advanced glycation end products through activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2007;49(5):293-298. View abstract.

Maestre, R., Micol, V., Funes, L., and Medina, I. Incorporation and interaction of grape seed extract in membranes and relation with efficacy in muscle foods. J Agric.Food Chem 7-28-2010;58(14):8365-8374. View abstract.

Maffei, Facino R., Carini, M., Aldini, G., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., and Morelli, R. Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44(5):592-601. View abstract.

Mahadeswaraswamy, Y. H., Devaraja, S., Kumar, M. S., Goutham, Y. N., and Kemparaju, K. Inhibition of local effects of Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom by the methanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46(2):154-160. View abstract.

Mahadeswaraswamy, Y. H., Nagaraju, S., Girish, K. S., and Kemparaju, K. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract. Phytother.Res 2008;22(7):963-969. View abstract.

Mantena, S. K. and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UV-radiation-induced oxidative stress and activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes. Free Radic.Biol Med 5-1-2006;40(9):1603-1614. View abstract.

Mantena, S. K., Baliga, M. S., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(8):1682-1691. View abstract.

Marel, A. K., Lizard, G., Izard, J. C., Latruffe, N., and Delmas, D. Inhibitory effects of trans-resveratrol analogs molecules on the proliferation and the cell cycle progression of human colon tumoral cells. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52(5):538-548. View abstract.

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Martinez-Gil, A. M., Garde-Cerdan, T., Martinez, L., Alonso, G. L., and Salinas, M. R. Effect of oak extract application to Verdejo grapevines on grape and wine aroma. J Agric.Food Chem 4-13-2011;59(7):3253-3263. View abstract.

Marzulli, G., Magrone, T., Kawaguchi, K., Kumazawa, Y., and Jirillo, E. Fermented grape marc (FGM): immunomodulating properties and its potential exploitation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Pharm.Des 2012;18(1):43-50. View abstract.

Matias, A. A., Serra, A. T., Silva, A. C., Perdigao, R., Ferreira, T. B., Marcelino, I., Silva, S., Coelho, A. V., Alves, P. M., and Duarte, C. M. Portuguese winemaking residues as a potential source of natural anti-adenoviral agents. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2010;61(4):357-368. View abstract.

Matito, C., Agell, N., Sanchez-Tena, S., Torres, J. L., and Cascante, M. Protective effect of structurally diverse grape procyanidin fractions against UV-induced cell damage and death. J Agric.Food Chem 5-11-2011;59(9):4489-4495. View abstract.

McCurdy, S. A., Wiggins, P., Schenker, M. B., Munn, S., Shaieb, A. M., Weinbaum, Z., Goldsmith, D., McGillis, S. T., Berman, B., and Samuels, S. Assessing dermatitis in epidemiologic studies: occupational skin disease among California grape and tomato harvesters. Am J Ind.Med 1989;16(2):147-157. View abstract.

Medina, I., Lois, S., Lizarraga, D., Pazos, M., Tourino, S., Cascante, M., and Torres, J. L. Functional fatty fish supplemented with grape procyanidins. Antioxidant and proapoptotic properties on colon cell lines. J Agric.Food Chem 5-17-2006;54(10):3598-3603. View abstract.

Meeran, S. M. and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Exp Dermatol 2007;16(5):405-415. View abstract.

Meng, C. K., Zweigenbaum, J., Furst, P., and Blanke, E. Finding and confirming nontargeted pesticides using GC/MS, LC/quadrupole-time-of-flight MS, and databases. J AOAC Int. 2010;93(2):703-711. View abstract.

Mercolini, L., Mandrioli, R., and Raggi, M. A. Content of melatonin and other antioxidants in grape-related foodstuffs: measurement using a MEPS-HPLC-F method. J Pineal Res 2012;53(1):21-28. View abstract.

Merillon, J. M., Fauconneau, B., Teguo, P. W., Barrier, L., Vercauteren, J., and Huguet, F. Antioxidant activity of the stilbene astringin, newly extracted from Vitis vinifera cell cultures. Clin.Chem 1997;43(6 Pt 1):1092-1093. View abstract.

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Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Bajerska, J., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., and Gorecka, D. White grape pomace as a source of dietary fibre and polyphenols and its effect on physical and nutraceutical characteristics of wheat biscuits. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(2):389-395. View abstract.

Milella, R. A., Antonacci, D., Crupi, P., Incampo, F., Carrieri, C., Semeraro, N., and Colucci, M. Skin extracts from 2 Italian table grapes (Italia and Palieri) inhibit tissue factor expression by human blood mononuclear cells. J Food Sci 2012;77(8):H154-H159. View abstract.

Mitjans, M., del, Campo J., Abajo, C., Martinez, V., Selga, A., Lozano, C., Torres, J. L., and Vinardell, M. P. Immunomodulatory activity of a new family of antioxidants obtained from grape polyphenols. J Agric.Food Chem 12-1-2004;52(24):7297-7299. View abstract.

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Murgov, I., Acikbas, M., and Nikolova, R. Antimicrobial activity of citric acid and grape seed extract on pathogenic microorganisms and lactobacilli. Scientific Works of the University of Food Technologies - Plovdiv 2008;55(1):367-372.

Nair, M. P., Kandaswami, C., Mahajan, S., Nair, H. N., Chawda, R., Shanahan, T., and Schwartz, S. A. Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Biol.Res 2002;35(3-4):421-431. View abstract.

Nair, N., Mahajan, S., Chawda, R., Kandaswami, C., Shanahan, T. C., and Schwartz, S. A. Grape seed extract activates Th1 cells in vitro. Clin.Diagn.Lab Immunol. 2002;9(2):470-476. View abstract.

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Natella, F., Belelli, F., Gentili, V., Ursini, F., and Scaccini, C. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasma postprandial oxidative stress in humans. J Agric.Food Chem 12-18-2002;50(26):7720-7725. View abstract.

Nees, S., Weiss, D. R., Reichenbach-Klinke, E., Rampp, F., Heilmeier, B., Kanbach, J., and Esperester, A. Protective effects of flavonoids contained in the red vine leaf on venular endothelium against the attack of activated blood components in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53(5):330-341. View abstract.

Ng, W., Mankotia, M., Pantazopoulos, P., Neil, R. J., and Scott, P. M. Ochratoxin A in wine and grape juice sold in Canada. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21(10):971-981. View abstract.

Nikitina, N. A., Sobenin, I. A., Myasoedova, V. A., Korennaya, V. V., Mel'nichenko, A. A., Khalilov, E. M., and Orekhov, A. N. Antiatherogenic effect of grape flavonoids in an ex vivo model. Bull.Exp.Biol.Med 2006;141(6):712-715. View abstract.

Nishikawa, M., Ariyoshi, N., Kotani, A., Ishii, I., Nakamura, H., Nakasa, H., Ida, M., Nakamura, H., Kimura, N., Kimura, M., Hasegawa, A., Kusu, F., Ohmori, S., Nakazawa, K., and Kitada, M. Effects of continuous ingestion of green tea or grape seed extracts on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19(4):280-289. View abstract.

Nomoto, H., Iigo, M., Hamada, H., Kojima, S., and Tsuda, H. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by grape seed proanthocyanidin is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. Nutr Cancer 2004;49(1):81-88. View abstract.

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Richard, T., Poupard, P., Nassra, M., Papastamoulis, Y., Iglesias, M. L., Krisa, S., Waffo-Teguo, P., Merillon, J. M., and Monti, J. P. Protective effect of epsilon-viniferin on beta-amyloid peptide aggregation investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Bioorg.Med Chem 5-15-2011;19(10):3152-3155. View abstract.

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