Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication. Read more: Gout Article
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Gout Quiz: What is Gout? Is There a Gout Diet?
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Picture of Gout
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Related Disease Conditions
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout), viruses, fungi, and bacteria (plantar warts and athlete's foot), or even ingrown toenails. Pain and tenderness may be accompanied by joint looseness, swelling, weakness, discoloration, and loss of function. Minor foot pain can usually be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation and OTC medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Severe pain should be treated by a medical professional.
Bursitis of the hip results when the fluid-filled sac (bursa) near the hip becomes inflamed due to localized soft tissue trauma or strain. Symptoms include stiffness and pain around the hip joint. If the hip bursa is not infected, hip bursitis can be treated with ice compresses, rest, and anti-inflammatory and pain medications.
Fever in Adults and Children
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy, injuries, diseases, infections, lymphedema, or blood clots.
Kidney Stones (nephrolithiasis)
Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies, and should be discussed with your physician.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain)
Sacroiliac joint (SI) dysfunction is a general term to reflect pain in the SI joints. Causes of SI joint pain include osteoarthritis, abnormal walking pattern, and disorders that can cause SI joint inflammation including gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Treatment includes oral medications, cortisone injections, and surgery.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Signs, Causes, Diet, and Treatment
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Acute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee pain include redness, swelling, difficulty walking, and locking of the knee. To diagnose knee pain, a physician will perform a physical exam and also may order X-rays, arthrocentesis, blood tests, or a CT scan or MRI. Treatment of knee pain depends upon the cause of the pain.
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20% over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build.
Pseudogout, a form of arthritis, results when deposits of crystals collect in and around the joints. Symptoms of pseudogout include pain, stiffness, warmth, and joint swelling of the knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and/or wrists. Treatment for pseudogout aims to decrease inflammation through the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ice, and rest.
Bursitis of the knee results when any of the three fluid-filled sacs (bursae) become inflamed due to injury or strain. Symptoms include pain, swelling, warmth, tenderness, and redness. Treatment of knee bursitis depends on whether infection is involved. If the knee bursa is not infected, knee bursitis may be treated with ice compresses, rest, and anti-inflammatory and pain medications.
Hydroxyapatite Crystal Disease
Hydroxyapatite crystal disease is the inflammation caused by hydroxyapatite crystals. These tiny crystals of hydroxyapatite deposit by mistake in or around joints and may cause inflammation of the joints and nearby tissues such as the tendons and ligaments (particularly causing rotator cuff problems in the shoulder). Treatment options include: rest, cold application, medications to reduce inflammation, and cortisone-related medication injections.
A bursa is a fluid-filled sac found in the joints that cushions them. Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursae, most commonly caused by repetitive motion. Bursitis can be caused by a bacterial infection and should be treated with antibiotics. Doctors also recommend icing and resting the joint.
Chronic pain is pain (an unpleasant sense of discomfort) that persists or progresses over a long period of time. In contrast to acute pain that arises suddenly in response to a specific injury and is usually treatable, chronic pain persists over time and is often resistant to medical treatments.
Enthesitis and Enthesopathy
The area where ligament or tendon inserts to bone is called the enthesis. Inflammation of the enthesis is called enthesitis. An abnormality of the entheses is referred to as enthesopathy. Swelling, stiffness, pain, and warmth are symptoms of enthesitis and enthesopathy. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory drugs, rest, and applying cold packs.
The common bunion, an enlargement of the inner portion of the joint at the base of the big toe, primarily affects women. The signs and symptoms of bunions include inflammation, redness, tenderness, and pain of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The little toe may also develop a bunion (tailor's bunion). Rest, walking shoes, stretching, cold packs, and anti-inflammatory medications may alleviate pain. Surgery is also a treatment option.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as losing a job or getting into trouble with the law. It can cause myriad health problems, including cirrhosis of the liver, birth defects, heart disease, stroke, psychological problems, and dementia. Counseling and a few medications can be effective for alcoholism treatment.
Rheumatology is the study of rheumatic diseases and conditions. Rheumatologists are internal medicine physicians who treat these illnesses, in particular arthritis.
Local ResourcesFind a local Rheumatologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- How Is Knee Arthrocentesis Performed?
- What Is Ankle Arthrocentesis?
- Cortisone Injection
- What Is Elbow Arthrocentesis?
- What Is Hip Arthroscopy?
- Cupping Therapy
- Steroids: for the Treatment of Arthritis
- Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)
- Sedimentation Rate
- What Is Metacarpophalangeal Arthrocentesis?
- What Is a Medial Epicondyle Injection For?
- What Is an Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injuries?
- What Is a Metatarsophalangeal Arthrocentesis?
- What Is Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)?
- What Is an Ulnar Gutter Splint Used For?
- What Is an Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty?
- What Is Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)?
- Joint Redness
- Hip Pain
- Swollen Knee
- Knee Pain
- Joint Warmth
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Toe Pain
- Hand Pain
- Arm Pain
- Leg Pain
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Finger Pain
- Joint Stiffness
- Joint Pain
- Foot Pain
- Bumps on Skin
- Ankle Pain
- Elbow Pain
- Swollen Ankles and/or Swollen Feet
- Wrist Pain
- Swollen Joints
- Unsteady Gait
- Gout FAQs
- Feet Facts FAQs
- Gout & Aspirin
- Gout & Pseudogout - 2001 National Meeting Reports
- Gout: 2004 Perspectives
- National Arthritis Meeting 2004
- Arthritis or Injury: Ice or Heat - Which To Apply
- Are Gout and Aplastic Anemia Related?
- Are There Gout Drugs Other than Indomethacin & Allopurinol?
- What Is Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy?
- What Is Intercritical Gout?
- Can Chronic Gout Cause More Serious Problems?
- Can You Get Gout in Your Back?
- Side Effects of Zyloprim (Allopurinol) for Kidney Damage Prevention
- Can Gout Nodules Be Surgically Removed?
- Do NSAIDs Interact With Coumadin?
- Can Blood Pressure Make Gout Worse?
- Can You Get Gout in Your Small Toe?
- Should You Exercise with Gout Inflammation?
- Can Gout Cause Aplastic Anemia?
- What Are Foods that Cause Gout to Flare up?
- Does Aspirin Cause Gout?
- Kidney Stone Causes
- Gout Symptoms
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Kidney Stones?
- Ask the Experts - Rheumatology
- Gout: 2005 Arthritis Conference Highlights
Medications & Supplements
- allopurinol - oral, Zyloprim
- colchicine - oral
- sulfinpyrazone - oral
- probenecid - oral
- naproxen - oral, Anaprox, Naprosyn
- naproxen sustained-release - oral, Naprelan
- naproxen suspension - oral, Naprosyn
- indomethacin - oral liquid, Indocin
- indomethacin - oral, Indocin
- naproxen enteric-coated tablet - oral, EC-Naprosyn
- indomethacin - rectal, Indocin
- prednisolone (Orapred, Pediapred)
- Allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim)
- sulindac (Clinoril)
- colchicine/probenecid - oral, Col-Benemid
- probenecid, (Benemid - brand no longer available)
- Otezla (apremilast) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Side Effects of Xeljanz (tofacitinib)
- lesinurad (Zurampic)
- Side Effects of Actemra (tocilizumab)
- Orencia (abatacept) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- sulfinpyrazone (Anturane - discontinued in the US)
- Side Effects of Rayos (prednisone)
- dexamethasone (Decadron, DexPak)
- naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn)
- acetaminophen (Tylenol, Tylenol Arthritis Pain, Tylenol Ext, Little Fevers Children's Fever/Pain)
- indomethacin, Indocin, Indocin-SR (Discontinued Brand in U.S.)
- febuxostat (Uloric)
- potassium citrate (Urocit-K)
- Aleve (naproxen) vs. Celebrex (celecoxib)
- colchicine (Colcrys)
- citric acid/sodium citrate
- diclofenac, Voltaren, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Cambia
- citric acid/potassium-sodium citrates - oral, Cytra-3, Polycitra
- Zyloprim (allopurinol) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Side Effects of Anturane (sulfinpyrazone - discontinued in US)
- Side Effects of Tolectin (tolmetin)
- Side Effects of Kineret (anakinra)
- Side Effects of Orapred (prednisolone)
Prevention & Wellness
- Certain Diabetes Meds May Lower Gout Risk, Too
- Cheap, Older Gout Drug Could Be a Lifesaver After Heart Attack
- Some May Be Vulnerable to Severe Skin Reaction While Using Gout Drug
- Many Americans With Rheumatic Disease Face Financial, Lifestyle Pressures
- Younger Gout Patients Have Higher Odds for Blood Clots
- Gout Drug Uloric Increases Risk of Death: FDA
- Genes, Not Diet, May Be Key to Gout Flare-Ups
- Study Sees No Link Between Gout Drug, Kidney Disease
- Injected Drug May Be New Weapon Against Gout
- Sleep Apnea Might Raise Odds for Painful Gout
- Does a Low-Fat Dairy Habit Boost Parkinson's Risk?
- Eat This Diet to Lower Your Odds for Painful Gout
- Health Tip: Help Ward Off Gout
- Health Tip: Why Can't I Stop Sweating?
- Blood Pressure-Lowering Diet May Help Treat Gout
- Steroid May Be Safe, Effective Gout Treatment, Study Finds
- Zurampic Approved for Gout
- Gout's Silver Lining: A Lower Risk for Alzheimer's?
- Gout Attacks More Common at Night: Study
- Gout May Be Linked to Raised Diabetes Risk: Study
- Common Gout Drug Tied to Lower Risk of Early Death in Study
- CT Scans Might Help Diagnose Gout in Some Cases
- Can You Have Both Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gout?
- Health Tip: Know Risk Factors for Gout
- Will New Gout Findings Get a Toehold?
- Scientists ID New Genetic Connection for Gout
- Gout Management Is Focus of New Guidelines
- Gout Linked to Low Levels of Lead
- Foods to Avoid if You Want to Avoid Gout Attacks
- Enriched Milk May Ease Gout
- Drug Already on Market May Be a Boon to Gout Patients
- High Uric Acid Linked to Both Gout and Diabetes
- Wrong Shoes Make Gout Pain Worse
- FDA Panel Rejects Gout Drug on Safety Concerns
- Caffeine May Trigger Gout Attacks
- Arthritis on the Increase; Obesity Partly to Blame
- Gout Survey Offers Peek at the Pain
- 40-Year-Old Gout Drug Shows Promise Against Angina
- Age, Drinking Raise Women's Gout Risk
- Health Tip: Understanding Gout
- Vitamin C May Help Prevent Gout
- New Gout Drug Gets FDA Panel Nod
- Gout Drug Cuts Teen High Blood Pressure
- Coffee Lowers Gout Risk