- Type 2 Diabetes: Learn the Warning Signs
- Diabetes Friendly Dining
- Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
- What is glipizide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for glipizide?
- Is glipizide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for glipizide?
- What are the side effects of glipizide?
- What is the dosage for glipizide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with glipizide?
- Is glipizide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about glipizide?
What is glipizide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Glipizide is an oral drug that is used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. It belongs to the sulfonylurea class of drugs which also includes glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase), tolbutamide and tolazamide. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas that when released into the blood causes cells in the body to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood and reduces the formation of glucose by the liver. Patients with type 2 diabetes have high glucose (sugar) levels in their blood because the cells in their bodies are resistant to the glucose-removing effect of the insulin, and the liver produces too much glucose. In addition, in type 2 diabetes the pancreas is unable to produce the increased amounts of insulin that are necessary to overcome the resistance. Glipizide reduces blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin.
Glipizide is not a cure for diabetes.
The FDA approved glipizide in May 1984.
What are the side effects of glipizide?
Side effects include:
Rare but serious side effects include:
Glipizide also may cause hypoglycemia. The risk of hypoglycemia increases when glipizide is combined with other glucose reducing agents.
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What is the dosage for glipizide?
- The usual starting dose when using immediate release tablets is 5 mg daily administered 30 minutes before a meal.
- The maximum dose is 40 mg daily.
- Doses higher than 15 mg per day should be divided and given in divided doses daily.
- The starting dose when using extended-release tablets is 5 mg daily up to a maximum dose of 20 mg daily.
- Patients using immediate release tablets may be converted to the nearest equivalent extended-release dose.
Which drugs or supplements interact with glipizide?
- Alcohol may prolong the action of glipizide by delaying the absorption and elimination of glipizide. Patients taking glipizide should keep alcohol consumption to a minimum.
- Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) may reduce both the absorption and effects of glipizide. Glipizide should therefore be administered 1-2 hours before cholestyramine is given.
- Fluconazole (Diflucan) also can increase the absorption and effects of glipizide.
- Many drugs can potentially increase or decrease glucose levels thus increasing or decreasing the effects of glipizide. Drug interactions
that cause low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) can occur with:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example [ibuprofen]),
- sulfa drugs,
- warfarin (Coumadin),
- miconazole (Oravig),
- fluconazole (Diflucan),
- voriconazole (Vfend),
- beta-blockers (for example, propranolol [Inderal, Inderal LA, Innopran XL]),
- androgens (for example fluoxymesterone [Androxy]),
- cimetidine (Tagamet HB),
- ranitidine (Zantac),
- clarithromycin (Biaxin),
- MAO Inhibitors (for example, isocarboxazid [Marplan] and phenelzine [Nardil]),
- mifepristone (Mifeprex),
- quinolone antibiotics, and
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (for example paroxetine [Paxil], fluoxetine [Prozac], and sertraline [Zoloft].
- Drug interactions involving glipizide which can result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) can occur with:
- Rifampin may reduce the blood levels of glipizide and this may result in higher levels of sugar in the blood.
Is glipizide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Studies of adverse effects in animal studies indicate that glipizide crosses the placenta. It is not recommended to use glipizide for the routine management of diabetes in pregnant women. Insulin is preferred. In the event that glipizide is used during pregnancy, the manufacturer recommends that it be stopped at least 1 month before the expected date of delivery.
According to reports, glipizide is not found in breast milk. However, the risk of developing hypoglycemia in the nursing infant should be weighed against the potential benefit to the monther of taking glipizide and a decision should be made to discontinue the drug or to discontinue breastfeeding.
What else should I know about glipizide?
What preparations of glipizide are available?
: Immediate-release tablets; 5 and 10 mg. Extended-release tablets; 2.5, 5, and 10 mg.
How should I keep glipizide stored?
Glipizide should be stored between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F).
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Glipizide, (Glipizide XL, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Glipizide should be combined with diet and exercise for the best results. Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, patient efficacy should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage...
How Diabetes Can Affect Your Feet
Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot...
Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels
Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar swings. Beware of caffeine, sugary foods, spices, exercise,...
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain
Read about diabetic peripheral neuropathy and exercises to manage nerve pain. Learn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic...
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Slideshow: Diabetes Management Tips and Preventing Complications
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
Pictures of 10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
12 Tips to Avoid Diabetes Complications With Pictures
Diabetes complications can be serious problems for your health. Our experts suggest steps you can take to help cut your risk of...
Pictures of Famous People With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are...
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body....
Diabetes Treatment (Type 1 and Type 2 Medications and Diet)
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar....
Diabetes and Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves,...
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose...
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes (Similarities and Differences)
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million...
Diabetes and Eye Problems
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems...
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract...
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the...
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in...
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diabetes FAQs
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Medication Disposal - What to Do with Old or Unusable Medication
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Metformin Still Best as First Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
- Which Diabetes Drug Is Best?
- Metformin Safer for Heart Than Other Common Type 2 Diabetes Drugs: Study
- Blood Thinner, Certain Diabetes Drugs Are a Bad Combo
- Common Diabetes Drugs May Carry Risk, Study Suggests
- Popular Diabetes Meds Put to the Test
- Metformin Outperforms Common Class of Diabetes Drugs in Study
- Metformin: Safer for Heart Than Older Diabetes Drugs?
- New Drug May Help Treat Diabetes
Daily Health News
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Diabetes Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top glipizide Related ArticlesComplete List
Diabetes and Eye ProblemsDiabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Diabetes and Kidney DiseaseIn the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Diabetes Foot ProblemsLearn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot complications such as nerve damage, infection, and ulcers. Find tips for proper foot care to help prevent serious complications.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Take the Diabetes QuizTake the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic.
Diabetes Diet PlansDiscover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier meal combinations that retain all the foods and flavors you love.
Diabetes TreatmentThe major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- and a diabetic diet.
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special TimeTaking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
Diabetic Home Care and MonitoringManaging your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Foot Problems (Diabetes)Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Blood Sugar SwingsLearn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar swings. Beware of caffeine, sugary foods, spices, exercise, sleep, alcohol, and stress because these can all impact blood sugar levels and increase diabetes complications
Sexual and Urologic Problems of DiabetesHaving diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include:
- Urine odor
- Unintentional weight gain or loss
- Frequent urination
- Dark skin under the chin, armpits, or groin
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Treatment for type 2 diabetes are a healthy type 2 diabetes diet, exercise, stress reduction, and medication. Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease. Incorporating healthy lifestyle changes (for example, eating a healthy diet, exercising more, and reducing stress) can prevent type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes SlideshowLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes.