- What is glipizide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for glipizide?
- Is glipizide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for glipizide?
- What are the side effects of glipizide?
- What is the dosage for glipizide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with glipizide?
- Is glipizide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about glipizide?
What is glipizide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Glipizide is an oral drug that is used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. It belongs to the sulfonylurea class of drugs which also includes glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase), tolbutamide and tolazamide. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas that when released into the blood causes cells in the body to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood and reduces the formation of glucose by the liver. Patients with type 2 diabetes have high glucose (sugar) levels in their blood because the cells in their bodies are resistant to the glucose-removing effect of the insulin, and the liver produces too much glucose. In addition, in type 2 diabetes the pancreas is unable to produce the increased amounts of insulin that are necessary to overcome the resistance. Glipizide reduces blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin.
Glipizide is not a cure for diabetes.
The FDA approved glipizide in May 1984.
What are the side effects of glipizide?
Side effects include:
Rare but serious side effects include:
Glipizide also may cause hypoglycemia. The risk of hypoglycemia increases when glipizide is combined with other glucose reducing agents.
What is the dosage for glipizide?
- The usual starting dose when using immediate release tablets is 5 mg daily administered 30 minutes before a meal.
- The maximum dose is 40 mg daily.
- Doses higher than 15 mg per day should be divided and given in divided doses daily.
- The starting dose when using extended-release tablets is 5 mg daily up to a maximum dose of 20 mg daily.
- Patients using immediate release tablets may be converted to the nearest equivalent extended-release dose.
Which drugs or supplements interact with glipizide?
- Alcohol may prolong the action of glipizide by delaying the absorption and elimination of glipizide. Patients taking glipizide should keep alcohol consumption to a minimum.
- Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) may reduce both the absorption and effects of glipizide. Glipizide should therefore be administered 1-2 hours before cholestyramine is given.
- Fluconazole (Diflucan) also can increase the absorption and effects of glipizide.
- Many drugs can potentially increase or decrease glucose levels thus increasing or decreasing the effects of glipizide. Drug interactions
that cause low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) can occur with:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example [ibuprofen]),
- sulfa drugs,
- warfarin (Coumadin),
- miconazole (Oravig),
- fluconazole (Diflucan),
- voriconazole (Vfend),
- beta-blockers (for example, propranolol [Inderal, Inderal LA, Innopran XL]),
- androgens (for example fluoxymesterone [Androxy]),
- cimetidine (Tagamet HB),
- ranitidine (Zantac),
- clarithromycin (Biaxin),
- MAO Inhibitors (for example, isocarboxazid [Marplan] and phenelzine [Nardil]),
- mifepristone (Mifeprex),
- quinolone antibiotics, and
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (for example paroxetine [Paxil], fluoxetine [Prozac], and sertraline [Zoloft].
- Drug interactions involving glipizide which can result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) can occur with:
- Rifampin may reduce the blood levels of glipizide and this may result in higher levels of sugar in the blood.
Is glipizide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Studies of adverse effects in animal studies indicate that glipizide crosses the placenta. It is not recommended to use glipizide for the routine management of diabetes in pregnant women. Insulin is preferred. In the event that glipizide is used during pregnancy, the manufacturer recommends that it be stopped at least 1 month before the expected date of delivery.
According to reports, glipizide is not found in breast milk. However, the risk of developing hypoglycemia in the nursing infant should be weighed against the potential benefit to the monther of taking glipizide and a decision should be made to discontinue the drug or to discontinue breastfeeding.
Glipizide, (Glipizide XL, Glucotrol) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Glipizide should be combined with diet and exercise for the best results. Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, patient efficacy should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.