- What other names is Ginkgo known by?
- What is Ginkgo?
- Is Ginkgo effective?
- How does Ginkgo work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Ginkgo.
Abricot Argenté Japonais, Adiantifolia, Arbre aux Écus, Arbre aux Quarante Écus, Arbre du Ciel, Arbre Fossile, Bai Guo Ye, Baiguo, Extrait de Feuille de Ginkgo, Extrait de Ginkgo, Fossil Tree, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf, Ginkgo Extract, Ginkgo Folium, Ginkgo Leaf Extact, Ginkgo Seed, Graine de Ginkgo, Herba Ginkgo Biloba, Japanese Silver Apricot, Kew Tree, Maidenhair Tree, Noyer du Japon, Pei Go Su Ye, Salisburia Adiantifolia, Yen Xing, Yinhsing.
Ginkgo is a large tree with fan-shaped leaves. Although Ginkgo is native parts of Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea, it has been grown in Europe since around 1730 and in the United States since around 1784.
Ginkgo leaf is often taken by mouth for memory disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It is also used for conditions that seem to be due to reduced blood flow in the brain, especially in older people. These conditions include memory loss, headache, ringing in the ears, vertigo, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and hearing disorders. Some people use it for other problems related to poor blood flow in the body, including leg pain when walking (claudication), and Raynaud's syndrome (a painful response to cold, especially in the fingers and toes).
Some people use ginkgo to treat sexual performance problems. It is sometimes used to reverse the sexual performance problems that can accompany taking certain antidepressants called SSRIs.
Ginkgo been used for eye problems including glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), as well as attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, heart disease and heart complications, high cholesterol, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and bloody diarrhea. Ginkgo leaf is also taken by mouth for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), schizophrenia, and to prevent winter depression, preventing mountain sickness and aging, controlling stomach acid, improving liver and gallbladder function, and controlling blood pressure. It is also taken by mouth to treat asthma, allergies, bronchitis, and for disorders of the central nervous system.
The list of other uses of ginkgo is very long. This may be because this herb has been around for so long. Ginkgo biloba is one of the longest living tree species in the world. Ginkgo trees can live as long as a thousand years. Using ginkgo for asthma and bronchitis was described in 2600 BC.
In manufacturing, ginkgo leaf extract is used in cosmetics. In foods, roasted ginkgo seed, which has the pulp removed, is an edible delicacy in Japan and China.
There is some scientific evidence that ginkgo can slow the loss of memory and social skills in people with Alzheimer's disease. Ginkgo might also help normal memory loss in older people and can possibly sharpen the thinking skills of younger people.
Ginkgo might also help people who experience leg pain when they walk due to poor bloodflow. Ginkgo seems to be able to help people with this condition walk farther before the pain starts. It might also help people with balance problems, ease some of the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (especially breast tenderness), improve distance vision in people with macular degeneration, improve color vision in people with diabetes, and reverse the sexual side effects of certain medications for depression (such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, etc.).
There isn't enough information to know if ginkgo leaf is effective for the other conditions people use it for, including: attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), blood clots, heart disease, high cholesterol, “hardening” of the arteries, depression, mountain sickness, and others.
Possibly Effective for...
- Anxiety. Research shows that taking a specific ginkgo extract (EGb 761, Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) for 4 weeks can reduce symptoms of anxiety.
- Mental function. Although some conflicting evidence exists, most research suggests that ginkgo can slightly improve memory, speed of thinking, and attention in healthy adults. Doses of 120-240 mg per day seem to be as effective as or more effective than higher doses up to 600 mg per day. Some research has investigated the effects of ginkgo when used with other supplements. Some evidence suggests that taking ginkgo in combination with Panax ginseng or codonopsis can improve memory better than the individual ingredients alone. However, a specific combination of ginkgo and Panax ginseng (Gincosan, Pharmaton Natural Health Products) does not seem to improve mood or thinking in postmenopausal women. Also, taking a specific product containing ginkgo and brahmi (Blackmores Ginkgo Brahmi) does not seem to improve memory or problem solving in healthy adults.
- Dementia. Some evidence shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth modestly improves symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular, or mixed dementias. However, there are concerns that findings from many of the early ginkgo studies may not be reliable. Although most clinical trials show ginkgo helps for symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, there are some conflicting findings, suggesting it may be hard to determine which people might benefit.
Early research shows that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 (Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) daily for 22-24 weeks seems to be as effective as the drug donepezil (Aricept) for treating mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. But, other research suggests that ginkgo leaf extract might be less effective than the conventional drugs donepezil (Aricept) and tacrine (Cognex).
While ginkgo may help treat various types of dementia, ginkgo does not appear to help prevent dementia from developing.
- Vision problems in people with diabetes. There is some evidence that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth can improve color vision in people with retinal damage caused by diabetes.
- Vision loss (glaucoma). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth for up to 12.3 years seems to improve pre-existing damage to the visual field in some people with normal tension glaucoma. However, conflicting research shows that ginkgo does not prevent glaucoma progression when taken for only 4 weeks.
- Leg pain when walking due to poor blood flow (peripheral vascular disease). Some evidence shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract increases the distance people with poor blood circulation in their legs can walk without pain. Taking ginkgo might also reduce the chance of requiring surgery. However, people with this condition may need to take ginkgo for at least 24 weeks before they see improvement.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to relieve breast tenderness and other symptoms associated with PMS when started during the 16th day of the menstrual cycle and continued until the 5th day of the following cycle.
- Schizophrenia. Research shows that taking ginkgo daily in addition to conventional antipsychotic medications can reduce symptoms of schizophrenia. It may also reduce adverse effects associated with the antipsychotic medication, haloperidol.
- A movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is caused by certain antipsychotic drugs. Research shows that taking a specific ginkgo extract (EGb 761, Yi Kang Ning, Yang Zi Jiang Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Jiangsu, China) can reduce the severity of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in people with schizophrenia who are taking antipsychotic drugs.
- Vertigo and dizziness. Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to improve symptoms of dizziness and balance disorders.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Age-related memory loss. Some research suggests that ginkgo leaf extract might slightly improve memory and mental function in people with age-related memory problems. But most evidence shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth does not improve memory or attention in older people with normal mental function, in those with mild mental problems, or in those with dementia and age-related memory loss. Ginkgo also does not seem to prevent age-related memory loss from developing.
- Sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressant drugs. Although some early research suggests that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth might improve sexual problems caused by antidepressant drugs, more recent research suggests it is probably not effective.
- Mental problems caused by chemotherapy. Research shows that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 (Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) twice daily starting before the second cycle of chemotherapy and continuing until one month after chemotherapy treatment ends does not prevent mental problems caused by the chemotherapy in people being treated for breast cancer.
- High blood pressure. Research shows that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761) by mouth for up to 6 years does not reduce blood pressure in older people with high blood pressure.
- Multiple sclerosis. Taking ginkgo leaf extract or ginkgolide B, a specific chemical found in ginkgo extract, does not improve mental function or disability in people with multiple sclerosis.
- Seasonal depression (seasonal affective disorder). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth does not seem to prevent winter depression symptoms in people with seasonal depression.
- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth does not seem to improve ringing in the ears.
Likely Ineffective for...
- Heart disease. Taking a specific ginkgo extract (EGb 761, Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) does not reduce the chance of having a heart attack, chest pain, or stroke in elderly people.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Age-related vison loss (age-related macular degeneration). There is some early evidence that ginkgo leaf extract might improve symptoms and distance vision in people with age-related vision loss.
- Hayfever (allergic rhinitis). Early research shows that applying specific eye drops (Trium, SOOFT) that contain ginkgo extract and hylauronic acid three times daily for one month can reduce eye redness, swelling and discharge in people with swollen eyes due to seasonal allergies.
- Altitude sickness. Research on the effects of ginkgo leaf extract on altitude sickness is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking ginkgo leaf extract can reduce altitude sickness symptoms when taken 4 days before climbing. However, other research shows that using a specific ginkgo extract (GK501, Pharmaton Natural Health Products) for 1-2 days before climbing does not prevent altitude sickness.
- Asthma. Research shows that taking two capsules of a specific product containing ginkgo extract, ginger, and Picrorhiza kurroa (AKL1, AKL International Ltd) twice daily for 12 weeks does not improve lung function or asthma symptoms in adults with asthma.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is early evidence that a specific combination product (AD-fX, CV Technologies, Canada) containing ginkgo leaf extract, in combination with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), might help improve ADHD symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in 3 to 17 year-old children. However, other research shows that taking ginkgo extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru Pharmaceuticals) does not improve ADHD symptoms compared to methylphenidate, a drug used to treat ADHD, in children 6-14 years-old.
- Autism. Research shows that taking a specific ginkgo extract (Ginko T.D. Tolidaru Pharmaceuticals) daily for 10 weeks along with conventional medication does not improve autism symptoms in children.
- A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Research shows that taking a specific product that contains ginkgo extract, ginger, and Picrorhiza kurroa (AKL1, AKL International Ltd) twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve lung function in people with COPD.
- Cocaine addiction. Research suggests that taking a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 twice daily for 10 weeks does not help people with a cocaine addiction.
- Colorectal cancer. Early research suggests that using a specific ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761, ONC) intravenously (by IV) together with anticancer drugs might benefit people with colorectal cancer.
- Dyslexia. Early research suggests that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761) can help reduce dyslexia in children aged 5-16 years.
- Fibromyalgia. Early research suggests that taking specific ginkgo leaf extract tablets (Bio- Biloba, Pharma Nord) together with coenzyme Q-10 capsules (Bio Quinone Q10, Pharma Nord) by mouth might increase feelings of wellness and perception of overall health and reduce pain in people with fibromyalgia.
- Stomach cancer. Early research suggests that taking carbohydrates from the outer layer of the ginkgo fruit by mouth twice daily for 30 days might reduce tumor size in people with stomach cancer.
- Hearing loss. There is some early evidence that taking ginkgo might help short-term hearing loss due to unknown causes. However, many of these people recover hearing on their own. It is hard to know if ginkgo has any effect.
- Hemorrhoids. Early research suggests that taking a combination of ginkgo and certain conventional medications might decrease some symptoms of hemorrhoids, including bleeding and pain.
- Migraine. Early research shows that taking ginkgolide B, a chemical found in ginkgo leaf extract, might help prevent migraines in children and women.
- Ovarian cancer. Evidence suggests that using ginkgo leaf extract is associated with a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
- Pancreatic cancer. Early research suggests that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761) intravenously (by IV) together with anticancer drugs might slow the progression of pancreatic cancer in some people.
- Quality of life. Early evidence suggests that taking ginkgo extract (LI 1370, Lichtwer Pharma) might improve quality of life measures such as activities in daily living, mood, sleep, and alertness in older people.
- Radiation exposure. Early research suggests that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761, Tanakan Ipsen) might reduce some of the negative effects of radiation on the body.
- Skin toxicity caused by radiation. Early research suggests that applying a specific cream product (Radioskin 2, Herbalab di Perazza Massimiliano Company) that contains ginkgo extract, Aloe vera, and metal esculetina along with another product (Radioskin 1, Herbalab di Perazza Massimiliano Company) might improve skin moisture and reduce toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving radiation treatments.
- Blood vessel disorder (Raynaud's syndrome). Some research suggests that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth can decrease the number of painful attacks per week in people with a blood vessel disorder called Raynaud's syndrome. However, other research suggests that ginkgo is not beneficial or is less effective than drugs such as nifedipine.
- Sexual dysfunction. Some research shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract daily for 8 weeks does not improve sexual function in women with sexual arousal disorder. However, taking a specific combination product containing ginkgo, ginseng, damiana, L-arginine, multivitamins, and minerals (ArginMax for Women) appears to improve sexual satisfaction in women with sexual dysfunction.
- Stroke. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of ginkgo for improving recovery in people with strokes caused by a clot. Some evidence suggests that people may improve more after a stroke when treated with ginkgo. However, other research shows no benefit.
- Skin discolorations (Vitiligo). There is some early research that taking a specific ginkgo leaf extract (Ginkgo Plus, Seroyal) might decrease the size and spread of skin lesions.
- High cholesterol.
- "Hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis).
- Blood clots.
- Thinking problems related to Lyme disease.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Bloody diarrhea.
- Urinary problems.
- Digestion disorders.
- Skin sores.
- Other conditions.
Ginkgo seems to improve blood circulation, which might help the brain, eyes, ears, and legs function better. It may slow down Alzheimer's disease by interfering with changes in the brain that interfere with thinking.
Ginkgo seeds contain substances that might kill the bacteria and fungi that cause infections in the body. The seeds also contain a toxin that can cause side effects like seizure and loss of consciousness.
Ginkgo LEAF EXTRACT is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in appropriate doses. It can cause some minor side effects such as stomach upset, headache, dizziness, constipation, forceful heartbeat, and allergic skin reactions.
There is some concern that ginkgo leaf extract might increase the risk of liver and thyroid cancers. However, this has only occurred in animals given extremely high doses of ginkgo. There is not enough information to know if it could happen in humans.
Ginkgo fruit and pulp can cause severe allergic skin reactions and irritation of mucous membranes. Ginkgo might cause an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, mango rind, or cashew shell oil.
There is some concern that ginkgo leaf extract might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. Ginkgo thins the blood and decreases its ability to form clots. A few people taking ginkgo have had bleeding into the eye and into the brain, and excessive bleeding following surgery. Ginkgo leaf extract can cause allergic skin reactions in some people.
Ginkgo LEAF EXTRACT is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used intravenously (by IV), short-term. It has been used safely for up to 10 days.
The ROASTED SEED or CRUDE GINKGO PLANT is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. Eating more than 10 roasted seeds per day can cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. The FRESH SEED is even more dangerous. Fresh seeds are poisonous and are LIKELY UNSAFE. Eating fresh ginkgo seeds could cause seizures and death.
There isn't enough reliable information available to know if ginkgo is safe when applied to the skin.
Not enough is known about the safety of ginkgo when applied to the skin to determine if it is safe.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Ginkgo is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. It might cause early labor or extra bleeding during delivery if used near that time. Not enough is known about the safety of using ginkgo during breast-feeding. Do not use ginkgo if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Infants and children: Ginkgo leaf extract is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for a short time. Some research suggests that a specific combination of ginkgo leaf extract plus American ginseng might be safe in children when used short-term. Do not let children eat the ginkgo seed. It is LIKELY UNSAFE.
Diabetes: Ginkgo might interfere with the management of diabetes. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar closely.
Seizures: There is a concern that ginkgo might cause seizures. If you have ever had a seizure, don't use ginkgo.
Deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD): Ginkgo might cause severe anemia in people have G6PD enzyme deficiency. Until more is known, use cautiously or avoid using ginkgo if you have G6PD deficiency.
Surgery: Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using ginkgo at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
TalinololInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Taking ginkgo leaf extract multiple times per day might increase levels of talinolol. In theory, this might increase the effects and side effects of talinolol. However, taking a single dose of ginkgo does not seem to affect talinolol levels.
Alprazolam (Xanax)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking ginkgo along with alprazolam might decrease the effects of alprazolam in some people.
AtorvastatinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down atorvastatin to get rid of it. Ginkgo might increase how quickly the body gets rid of atorvastatin. However, it's not clear if this is a big concern. Ginkgo does not appear to influence the effects of atorvastatin on cholesterol levels. Until more is known, use cautiously.
Buspirone (BuSpar)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginkgo seems to affect the brain. Buspirone (BuSpar) also affects the brain. One person felt hyper and overexcited when taking ginkgo, buspirone (BuSpar), and other medications. It is unclear if this interaction was caused by ginkgo or the other medications.
Efavirenz (Sustiva)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Efavirenz (Sustiva) is used to treat HIV infection. Taking efavirenz (Sustiva) along with ginkgo extract might decrease the effects of efavirenz (Sustiva). Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take efavirenz (Sustiva).
Fluoxetine (Prozac)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking ginkgo along with buspirone (BuSpar), St. John's wort, melatonin, and fluoxetine (Prozac) might cause you to feel irritated, nervous, jittery, and excited. This is called hypomania. It's not known if this is a concern when just ginkgo is taken with fluoxetine (Prozac).
IbuprofenInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. Ibuprofen can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo with ibuprofen might slow blood clotting too much and increase the chance of bruising and bleeding.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo with these medications might decrease how well the medication works. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin (Coumadin), and many others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with these medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase or decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. This might decrease the effectiveness of the medication or increase its side effects. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), diltiazem (Cardizem), estrogens, indinavir (Crixivan), triazolam (Halcion), and others.
Medications for depression (Antidepressant drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginkgo might decrease a brain chemical called serotonin. Some medications for depression increase serotonin. Taking ginkgo along with these medications for depression might decrease their effectiveness.
Some of these medications for depression include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), and others; and tricyclic and atypical antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil), clomipramine (Anafranil), imipramine (Tofranil), and others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. Ginkgo might increase or decrease insulin and blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Taking ginkgo along with diabetes medications might decrease how well your medication works. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications for HIV/AIDS (Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs))Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications used to treat HIV/AIDS are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This might decrease levels and the effects of these medications. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking certain medications for HIV/AIDS that are changed by the liver.
Some medications used for HIV/AIDS that are changed by the liver include delavirdine (Rescriptor), efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelence), nevirapine (Viramune), and rilpivirine (Edurant).
Medications that increase the chance of having a seizure (Seizure threshold lowering drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications increase the chance of having a seizure. Taking ginkgo might cause seizures in some people. If this combination is taken, it might greatly increase the chance of having a seizure. Do not take ginkgo with medications that increase the chance of having a seizure.
Some medications that increase the chance of having a seizure include anesthesia (propofol, others), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antibiotics (amphotericin, penicillin, cephalosporins, imipenem), antidepressants (bupropion, others), antihistamines (cyproheptadine, others), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), narcotics (fentanyl, others), stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline, and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Ginkgo can also affect chemicals in the brain in a way that might possibly decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.
Risperidone (Risperdal)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications, including risperidone, which might increase the risk of side effects. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking risperidone.
Simvastatin (Zocor)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
The body breaks down simvastatin (Zocor) to get rid of it. Ginkgo might increase how quickly the body gets rid of simvastatin (Zocor). However, it's not clear if this is a big concern as it does not appear to reduce the drug's effect on cholesterol levels. Until more is known, use cautiously.
Trazodone (Desyrel)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Trazodone (Desyrel) affects chemicals in the brain. Ginkgo can also affect chemicals in the brain. Taking trazodone (Desyrel) along with ginkgo might cause serious side effects in the brain. One person taking trazodone and ginkgo went into a coma. Do not take ginkgo if you are taking trazodone (Desyrel).
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginkgo might also slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
HydrochlorothiazideInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Hydrochlorothiazide is used to help decrease swelling and control blood pressure. Taking hydrochlorothiazide along with ginkgo might increase blood pressure. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take medications for high blood pressure.
NifedipineInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking both ginkgo and nifedipine by mouth might increase nifedipine levels in the body. This might cause increased side effects, including headaches, dizziness, and hot flushes. However, taking nifedipine intravenously (by IV) while taking ginkgo by mouth does not seem to have the same effect.
Omeprazole (Prilosec)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Omeprazole (Prilosec) is changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase how fast the liver breaks down omeprazole (Prilosec). Taking ginkgo with omeprazole (Prilosec) might decrease how well omeprazole (Prilosec) works.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For anxiety: 80 mg or 160 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 has been taken three times per day for 4 weeks.
- For dementia: a dosage of 120-240 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761), divided in two or three doses.
- For retinal damage caused by diabetes: 120 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 has been taken daily for 6 months.
- For improving mental function: single doses of 240-600 mg of ginkgo extract have been used. A ginkgo extract called EGb 761 has been taken in a dosage of 120-240 mg per day for 4 weeks to 4 months. A ginkgo leaf extract called LI 1370 has been taken in a dosage of 120-300 mg for two days. Also, a combination product containing ginkgo extract and Panax ginseng (Ginkoba M/E) has been taken in a dosage of 60-360 mg for 12 weeks.
- For walking pain due to poor circulation (claudication, peripheral vascular disease): a dosage of 120-240 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761), divided into two or three doses, has been used for up to 6.1 years. The higher dose may be more effective.
- For vertigo: 160 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 has been taken once daily or in two divided doses daily for 3 months.
- For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 80 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 has been taken twice daily, starting on the sixteenth day of the menstrual cycle until the fifth day of the next cycle. Also 40 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called Ginko T.D. has been taken three times daily starting on the sixteenth day of the menstrual cycle until the fifth day of the next cycle.
- For the treatment of glaucoma: 120 to 160 mg of ginkgo leaf extract has been taken in two or three divided doses per day for up to 12.3 years.
- For schizophrenia: 120-360 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761 (Yi Kang Ning, Yang Zi Jiang Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Jiangsu, China) has been used daily for 8-16 weeks.
- For tardive dyskinesia: 80 mg of a ginkgo leaf extract called EGb 761, three times daily for 12 weeks, has been used.
You should avoid crude ginkgo plant parts. These can contain dangerous levels of the toxic chemicals found in the seed of the plant and elsewhere. These chemicals can cause severe allergic reactions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Bal Dit, Sollier C., Caplain, H., and Drouet, L. No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study. Clin Lab Haematol. 2003;25(4):251-253. View abstract.
Baliutyte, G., Baniene, R., Gendviliene, V., Martisiene, I., Trumbeckaite, S., Borutaite, V., and Toleikis, A. Influence of ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves on the isolated rat heart work and mitochondria functions. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(5):450-457. View abstract.
Biber, A. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba extracts. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003;36 Suppl 1:S32-S37. View abstract.
Birks, J. and Grimley, Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD003120. View abstract.
Bredie, S. J. and Jong, M. C. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(3):215-221. View abstract.
Brinkley, T. E., Lovato, J. F., Arnold, A. M., Furberg, C. D., Kuller, L. H., Burke, G. L., Nahin, R. L., Lopez, O. L., Yasar, S., and Williamson, J. D. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(5):528-533. View abstract.
Brochet, B., Guinot, P., Orgogozo, J. M., Confavreux, C., Rumbach, L., and Lavergne, V. Double blind placebo controlled multicentre study of ginkgolide B in treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. The Ginkgolide Study Group in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58(3):360-362. View abstract.
Burkard G. [The efficacy and safety of ginkgo biloba extract in dementia]. Fortschr Med [Supp] 1991;109(107):6-8.
Canter, P. H. and Ernst, E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(5):265-278. View abstract.
Choi, W. S., Choi, C. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. H., Song, C. H., Chung, J. H., Ock, S. M., Lee, J. B., and Kim, C. M. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(5):553-559. View abstract.
Cockle, S. M., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation on activities of daily living in free living older volunteers: a questionnaire survey. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(4):227-235. View abstract.
D'Andrea, G., Bussone, G., Allais, G., Aguggia, M., D'Onofrio, F., Maggio, M., Moschiano, F., Saracco, M. G., Terzi, M. G., Petretta, V., and Benedetto, C. Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Neurol.Sci 2009;30 Suppl 1:S121-S124. View abstract.
Dardano, A., Ballardin, M., Caraccio, N., Boni, G., Traino, C., Mariani, G., Ferdeghini, M., Barale, R., and Monzani, F. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on genotoxic damage in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma receiving thyroid remnant ablation with iodine-131. Thyroid 2012;22(3):318-324. View abstract.
Deng, F. and Zito, S. W. Development and validation of a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous identification and quantification of marker compounds including bilobalide, ginkgolides and flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. extract and pharmaceutical preparations. J Chromatogr.A 1-31-2003;986(1):121-127. View abstract.
Deng, Y. K., Wei, F., and An, B. Q. [Effect of ginkgo biloba extract on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor during peri-operative period of cardiac surgery]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2009;29(1):40-42. View abstract.
Donfrancesco, R. and Ferrante, L. Ginkgo biloba in dyslexia: a pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(6):367-370. View abstract.
Engelsen, J., Nielsen, J. D., and Hansen, K. F. [Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]. Ugeskr.Laeger 4-28-2003;165(18):1868-1871. View abstract.
Esposito, M. and Carotenuto, M. Ginkgolide B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label study. Neurol.Sci 9-25-2010; View abstract.
Fan, L., Tao, G. Y., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., He, Y. J., Li, Q., Lei, H. P., Jiang, F., Hu, D. L., Huang, Y. F., and Zhou, H. H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(5):944-949. View abstract.
Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, and Clarke L. Ginkgo biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67(1):33-35.
Guillon, J. M., Rochette, L., and Baranes, J. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 2 models of experimental myocardial ischemia]. Presse Med 9-25-1986;15(31):1516-1519. View abstract.
Han, S. S., Nam, E. C., Won, J. Y., Lee, K. U., Chun, W., Choi, H. K., and Levine, R. A. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2012;83(8):821-827. View abstract.
Hao, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, H., Wu, Q., Yan, C., and Gu, S. Improvement of contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion rats by ginkgolide B pretreatment. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2009;54(1):3-9. View abstract.
Hauns, B., Haring, B., Kohler, S., Mross, K., Robben-Bathe, P., and Unger, C. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(12):1030-1034. View abstract.
He, M., Zhang, X. M., and Yuan, H. Q. [Clinical study on treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with ginkgo extract]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(3):222-224. View abstract.
Herrschaft, H., Nacu, A., Likhachev, S., Sholomov, I., Hoerr, R., and Schlaefke, S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg. J Psychiatr.Res 2012;46(6):716-723. View abstract.
Ito, T. Y., Trant, A. S., and Polan, M. L. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27(5):541-549. View abstract.
Janssen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., Velasco, Garrido M., and Busse, R. Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):539-546. View abstract.
Janssens, D., Michiels, C., Delaive, E., Eliaers, F., Drieu, K., and Remacle, J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 9-28-1995;50(7):991-999. View abstract.
Jiang, W., Qiu, W., Wang, Y., Cong, Q., Edwards, D., Ye, B., and Xu, C. Ginkgo may prevent genetic-associated ovarian cancer risk: multiple biomarkers and anticancer pathways induced by ginkgolide B in BRCA1-mutant ovarian epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(6):508-517. View abstract.
Kampman, K., Majewska, M. D., Tourian, K., Dackis, C., Cornish, J., Poole, S., and O'Brien, C. A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addict.Behav 2003;28(3):437-448. View abstract.
Kaschel, R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement--a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(5):345-370. View abstract.
Kaschel, R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine 11-15-2011;18(14):1202-1207. View abstract.
Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Mauri, P. L., and Scholey, A. B. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):199-210. View abstract.
Kim, T. E., Kim, B. H., Kim, J., Kim, K. P., Yi, S., Shin, H. S., Lee, Y. O., Lee, K. H., Shin, S. G., Jang, I. J., and Yu, K. S. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2009;31(10):2249-2257. View abstract.
Koltai, M., Tosaki, A., Hosford, D., and Braquet, P. Ginkgolide B protects isolated hearts against arrhythmias induced by ischemia but not reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol 5-19-1989;164(2):293-302. View abstract.
Kose, K. and Dogan, P. Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 1. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):1-8. View abstract.
Laws, K. R., Sweetnam, H., and Kondel, T. K. Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(6):527-533. View abstract.
Leadbetter, G., Keyes, L. E., Maakestad, K. M., Olson, S., Tissot van Patot, M. C., and Hackett, P. H. Ginkgo biloba does--and does not--prevent acute mountain sickness. Wilderness.Environ.Med 2009;20(1):66-71. View abstract.
Lee, J., Sohn, S. W., and Kee, C. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 5-16-2012; View abstract.
Lei, H. P., Wang, G., Wang, L. S., Ou-yang, D. S., Chen, H., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Fan, L., He, Y. J., and Zhou, H. H. Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(4):726-731. View abstract.
Lin, Y. Y., Chu, S. J., and Tsai, S. H. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and Ginkgo biloba. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82(10):1289-1290. View abstract.
Lovera, J. F., Kim, E., Heriza, E., Fitzpatrick, M., Hunziker, J., Turner, A. P., Adams, J., Stover, T., Sangeorzan, A., Sloan, A., Howieson, D., Wild, K., Haselkorn, J., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 9-18-2012;79(12):1278-1284. View abstract.
Lovera, J., Bagert, B., Smoot, K., Morris, C. D., Frank, R., Bogardus, K., Wild, K., Oken, B., Whitham, R., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mult.Scler. 2007;13(3):376-385. View abstract.
May, B. H., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Owens, M. D., Bennett, L., Head, R., Cobiac, L., Li, C. G., Hugel, H., Story, D. F., and Xue, C. C. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials. Biogerontology. 2009;10(2):109-123. View abstract.
Napryeyenko, O., Sonnik, G., and Tartakovsky, I. Efficacy and tolerability of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 by type of dementia: analyses of a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol.Sci 8-15-2009;283(1-2):224-229. View abstract.
Nicolai, S. P., Gerardu, V. C., Kruidenier, L. M., Prins, M. H., and Teijink, J. A. From the Cochrane library: Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Vasa 2010;39(2):153-158. View abstract.
Oberpichler, H., Beck, T., Abdel-Rahman, M. M., Bielenberg, G. W., and Krieglstein, J. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents related to protection against brain damage caused by hypoxia. Pharmacol Res Commun 1988;20(5):349-368. View abstract.
Ozgoli, G., Selselei, E. A., Mojab, F., and Majd, H. A. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(8):845-851. View abstract.
Parsad, D., Pandhi, R., and Juneja, A. Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo. Clin Exp.Dermatol. 2003;28(3):285-287. View abstract.
Patel, N. Herbal remedies. Br.Dent.J 8-28-2010;209(4):153. View abstract.
Pedroso, J. L., Henriques Aquino, C. C., Escorcio Bezerra, M. L., Baiense, R. F., Suarez, M. M., Dutra, L. A., Braga-Neto, P., and Povoas Barsottini, O. G. Ginkgo biloba and cerebral bleeding: a case report and critical review. Neurologist. 2011;17(2):89-90. View abstract.
Penzak, S. R., Busse, K. H., Robertson, S. M., Formentini, E., Alfaro, R. M., and Davey, R. T., Jr. Limitations of using a single postdose midazolam concentration to predict CYP3A-mediated drug interactions. J Clin Pharmacol 2008;48(6):671-680. View abstract.
Plaschke, K., Bergmann, M., and Kopitz, J. Ginkgo extract EGb 761((R)) shields from slowly accumulating neurodegenerative-like changes in a newly developed cell culture model induced by the combined action of low doses of antimycin A1 and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. J Neural Transm. 2011;118(8):1247-1254. View abstract.
Robertson, S. M., Davey, R. T., Voell, J., Formentini, E., Alfaro, R. M., and Penzak, S. R. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on lopinavir, midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(2):591-599. View abstract.
Russo, V., Rago, A., Russo, G. M., Calabro, R., and Nigro, G. Ginkgo biloba: an ancient tree with new arrhythmic side effects. J Postgrad.Med 2011;57(3):221. View abstract.
Russo, V., Stella, A., Appezzati, L., Barone, A., Stagni, E., Roszkowska, A., and Delle, Noci N. Clinical efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19(3):331-336. View abstract.
Satoh, H. Comparative Electropharmacological Actions of Some Constituents from Ginkgo biloba Extract in Guinea-pig Ventricular Cardiomyocytes. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med. 2004;1(3):277-284. View abstract.
Schennen, A. and Holzl, J. [6-Hydroxykynurenic Acid, the First N-Containing Compound from the Ginkgo biloba Leaf.]. Planta Med 1986;52(3):235-236. View abstract.
Scripnikov, A., Khomenko, A., and Napryeyenko, O. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomised controlled trial. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):295-300. View abstract.
Singh, B., Song, H., Liu, X. D., Hardy, M., Liu, G. Z., Vinjamury, S. P., and Martirosian, C. D. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Gingko biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;10(4):52-56. View abstract.
Singh, V., Singh, S. P., and Chan, K. Review and meta-analysis of usage of ginkgo as an adjunct therapy in chronic schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13(2):257-271. View abstract.
Skogh, M. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba and bleeding or haemorrhage. Lancet 10-3-1998;352(9134):1145-1146. View abstract.
Snitz, B. E., O'Meara, E. S., Carlson, M. C., Arnold, A. M., Ives, D. G., Rapp, S. R., Saxton, J., Lopez, O. L., Dunn, L. O., Sink, K. M., and DeKosky, S. T. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 12-23-2009;302(24):2663-2670. View abstract.
Sticher, O. Quality of Ginkgo preparations. Planta Med 1993;59(1):2-11. View abstract.
Sumboonnanonda, K. and Lertsithichai, P. Clinical study of the Ginko biloba--Troxerutin-Heptaminol Hce in the treatment of acute hemorrhoidal attacks. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 2004;87(2):137-142. View abstract.
Suter, A., Niemer, W., and Klopp, R. A new ginkgo fresh plant extract increases microcirculation and radical scavenging activity in elderly patients. Adv.Ther 2011;28(12):1078-1088. View abstract.
Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., and Doly, M. Direct measurement of free radicals in ischemic/reperfused diabetic rat retina. Clin Neurosci. 1997;4(5):240-245. View abstract.
Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., and Doly, M. EGb 761 and the recovery of ion imbalance in ischemic reperfused diabetic rat retina. Ophthalmic Res 1995;27(2):102-109. View abstract.
Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., Doly, M., and Braquet, P. Free radical-mediated effects in reperfusion injury: a histologic study with superoxide dismutase and EGB 761 in rat retina. Ophthalmic Res 1991;23(4):225-234. View abstract.
Thomas, M., Sheran, J., Smith, N., Fonseca, S., and Lee, A. J. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC.Pulm.Med 2007;7:4. View abstract.
Thorpe, L. B., Goldie, M., and Dolan, S. Central and local administration of Gingko biloba extract EGb 761(R) inhibits thermal hyperalgesia and inflammation in the rat carrageenan model. Anesth.Analg. 2011;112(5):1226-1231. View abstract.
Trick, L., Boyle, J., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(7):531-537. View abstract.
Van Dongen, M., van Rossum, E., Kessels, A., Sielhorst, H., and Knipschild, P. Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(4):367-376. View abstract.
Vellas, B., Coley, N., Ousset, P. J., Berrut, G., Dartigues, J. F., Dubois, B., Grandjean, H., Pasquier, F., Piette, F., Robert, P., Touchon, J., Garnier, P., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., and Andrieu, S. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(10):851-859. View abstract.
Victoire C, Haag-Berrurier M, Lobstein-Guth A, and et al. Isolation of flavonoid glycosides from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med 1988;54:245-247.
Wang, B. S., Wang, H., Song, Y. Y., Qi, H., Rong, Z. X., Wang, B. S., Zhang, L., and Chen, H. Z. Effectiveness of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive symptoms of dementia with a six-month treatment: a bivariate random effect meta-analysis. Pharmacopsychiatry 2010;43(3):86-91. View abstract.
Wang, F. M., Yao, T. W., and Zeng, S. Disposition of quercetin and kaempferol in human following an oral administration of Ginkgo Biloba extract tablets. Eur.J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2003;28(3):173-177. View abstract.
Weinmann, S., Roll, S., Schwarzbach, C., Vauth, C., and Willich, S. N. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC.Geriatr. 2010;10:14. View abstract.
Woelkart, K., Feizlmayr, E., Dittrich, P., Beubler, E., Pinl, F., Suter, A., and Bauer, R. Pharmacokinetics of bilobalide, ginkgolide A and B after administration of three different Ginkgo biloba L. preparations in humans. Phytother.Res 2010;24(3):445-450. View abstract.
Xie, Z. Q., Liang, G., Zhang, L., Wang, Q., Qu, Y., Gao, Y., Lin, L. B., Ye, S., Zhang, J., Wang, H., Zhao, G. P., and Zhang, Q. H. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with lovastatin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(9):1262-1275. View abstract.
Xu, A. H., Chen, H. S., Sun, B. C., Xiang, X. R., Chu, Y. F., Zhai, F., and Jia, L. C. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(11):2424-2427. View abstract.
Yancheva, S., Ihl, R., Nikolova, G., Panayotov, P., Schlaefke, S., and Hoerr, R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial. Aging Ment.Health 2009;13(2):183-190. View abstract.
Yang Z, Li W Huang T Chen J Zhang X. Meta-analysis of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Neural Regeneration Research. 2011;6(15):1125-1129.
Yoshioka, M., Ohnishi, N., Koishi, T., Obata, Y., Nakagawa, M., Matsumoto, T., Tagagi, K., Takara, K., Ohkuni, T., Yokoyama, T., and Kuroda, K. Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. IV. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine in healthy volunteers. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27(12):2006-2009. View abstract.
Yoshioka, M., Ohnishi, N., Sone, N., Egami, S., Takara, K., Yokoyama, T., and Kuroda, K. Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. III. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27(12):2042-2045. View abstract.
Zaghlool SS, Hanaf LK Afifi NM Ibrahim ER. Histological and immunohistochemical study on the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in male albino rat retinal cells. The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2012;35(1):176-188.
Zhang, S. J. and Xue, Z. Y. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia. Asian Pac.J Trop.Med 2012;5(8):661-664. View abstract.
Zhang, S., Chen, B., Wu, W., Bao, L., and Qi, R. Ginkgolide B reduces inflammatory protein expression in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated human vascular endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2011;57(6):721-727. View abstract.
Zhang, W. F., Tan, Y. L., Zhang, X. Y., Chan, R. C., Wu, H. R., and Zhou, D. F. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(5):615-621. View abstract.
Zhang, X. Y., Zhou, D. F., Zhang, P. Y., Wu, G. Y., Su, J. M., and Cao, L. Y. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(11):878-883. View abstract.
Zhou, Y. and Zeng, R. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on anticoagulation and blood drug level of warfarin in healthy wolunteers]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011;36(16):2290-2293. View abstract.
Zhu, L., Gao, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, X. N., and Zhang, Z. X. Neuron degeneration induced by verapamil and attenuated by EGb761. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1997;8(4):301-314. View abstract.
Brochet, B., Orgogozo, J. M., Guinot, P., Dartigues, J. F., Henry, P., and Loiseau, P. [Pilot study of Ginkgolide B, a PAF-acether specific inhibitor in the treatment of acute outbreaks of multiple sclerosis]. Rev.Neurol (Paris) 1992;148(4):299-301.View abstract.
Nathan, P. J., Tanner, S., Lloyd, J., Harrison, B., Curran, L., Oliver, C., and Stough, C. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2004;19(2):91-96.View abstract.
Rejali, D., Sivakumar, A., and Balaji, N. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin.Otolaryngol.Allied Sci. 2004;29(3):226-231.View abstract.
Usai, S., Grazzi, L., and Bussone, G. Gingkolide B as migraine preventive treatment in young age: results at 1-year follow-up. Neurol.Sci 2011;32 Suppl 1:S197-S199.View abstract.
Amri H, Ogwuegbu SO, Boujrad N, et al. In vivo regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine and glucocorticoid synthesis by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and isolated ginkgolides. Endocrinology 1996;137:5707-18. View abstract.
Arenz A, Kelin M, Flehe K, et al. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4'-O-methylpyridoxine in ginkgo biloba leaves, ginkgo medications and Japanese ginkgo food. Planta Med 1996;62:548-51. View abstract.
Aruna D, Naidu MU. Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63:333-8. View abstract.
Ashton AK, Ahrens K, Gupta S, Masand PS. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction and Ginkgo biloba. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:836-7. View abstract.
Balon R. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction? J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:1-2. View abstract.
Barton DL, Burger K, Novotny PJ, Fitch TR, Kohli S, Soori G, Wilwerding MB, Sloan JA, Kottschade LA, Rowland KM Jr, Dakhil SR, Nikcevich DA, Loprinzi CL. The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, N00C9. Support Care Cancer 2013;21(4):1185-92. View abstract.
Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Dore S, et al. The ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death induced by beta-amyloid. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12:1882-90. View abstract.
Bebbington A, Kulkarni R, Roberts P. Ginkgo biloba: Persistent bleeding after total hip arthroplasty caused by herbal self-medication. J Arthroplasty 2005;20:125-6. . View abstract.
Benjamin J, Muir T, Briggs K, Pentland B. A case of cerebral haemorrhage-can Ginkgo biloba be implicated? Postgrad Med J 2001;77:112-3. View abstract.
Bent S, Goldberg H, Padula A, Avins AL. Spontaneous bleeding associated with Ginkgo biloba: a case report and systematic review of the literature. J Gen Intern Med 2005;20;657-61. View abstract.
Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(2):CD003120. View abstract.
Brautigam MR, Blommaert FA, Verleye G, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine 1998;5:425-34. View abstract.
Briskin DP. Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiol 2000;124(2):507-14. View abstract.
Brockwell C, Ampikaipakan S, Sexton DW, Price D, Freeman D, Thomas M, Ali M, Wilson AM. Adjunctive treatment with oral AKL1, a botanical nutraceutical, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014;9:715-21. View abstract.
Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. View abstract.
Burschka MA, Hassan HA, Reineke T, et al. Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001;258:213-9. View abstract.
Bush TM, Rayburn KS, Holloway SW, et al. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey. Altern Ther Health Med 2007;13:30-5. View abstract.
Buss K, Drewke C, Lohmann S, et al. Properties and interaction of heterologously expressed glutamate decarboxylase isoenzymes GAD(65kDa) and GAD(67kDa) from human brain with ginkgotoxin and its 5'-phosphate. J Med Chem 2001;44:3166-74. View abstract.
Campos-Toimil M, Lugnier C, Droy-Lefaix M, et al. Inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase by rolipram and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) decreases agonist-induced rises in internal calcium in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:e34-e40. View abstract.
Canevelli M, Adali N, Kelaiditi E, Cantet C, Ousset PJ, Cesari M; ICTUS/DSA Group. Effects of Gingko biloba supplementation in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: data from the ICTUS study. Phytomedicine 2014;21(6):888-92. View abstract.
Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, et al. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Adv Ther 1998;15:291-304. View abstract.
Chatterjee SS, Doelman CJ, Noldner M, et al. Influence of the Ginkgo extract EGb 761 on rat liver cytochrome P450 and steroid metabolism and excretion in rats and man. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005;57:641-50. View abstract.
Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther 1998;24:139-43. View abstract.
Dai LL, Fan L, Wu HZ, Tan ZR, Chen Y, Peng XD, Shen MX, Yang GP, Zhou HH. Assessment of a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between simvastatin and Ginkgo biloba extracts in healthy subjects. Xenobiotica 2013;43(10):862-7. View abstract.
Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, et al. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:395-9. View abstract.
Davydov L, Stirling AL. Stevens-Johnson syndrome with Ginkgo biloba. J Herb Pharmacother 2001;1:65-9.
DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia. JAMA 2008;300:2253-62. View abstract.
Destro MW, Speranzini MB, Cavalheiro Filho C, et al. Bilateral haematoma after rhytidoplasty and blepharoplasty following chronic use of Ginkgo biloba. Br J Plast Surg 2005;58:100-1. View abstract.
Di Franco R, Sammarco E, Calvanese MG, De Natale F, Falivene S, Di Lecce A, Giugliano FM, Murino P, Manzo R, Cappabianca S, Muto P, Ravo V. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams. Radiat Oncol 2013;8:57. View abstract.
Diamond BJ, Johnson SK, Kaufman M, Shiflett SC, Graves L. A randomized controlled pilot trial: the effects of EGb 761 on information processing and executive function in multiple sclerosis. Explore (NY) 2013;9(2):106-7. View abstract.
Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Reiwel N, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:668-78. View abstract.
Dodge HH, Zitzelberger T, Oken BS, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline. Neurology 2008;70(19 Pt 2):1809-17. View abstract.
Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:73. View abstract.
Dugoua JJ, Mills E, Perri D, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2006;13:e277-84. View abstract.
Dupuis C. Poison ivy. Pharmacy Practice 1995;11:51-2,54-5.
Ellison JM, DeLuca P. Fluoxetine-induced genital anesthesia relieved by Ginkgo biloba extract. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:199-200. View abstract.
Emerit I, Ogansian N, Sarkisian T, et al. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract. Radiat Res 1995;144:198-205. View abstract.
Engelsen J, Nielsen JD, Winther K. Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in stable, long-term warfarin treated outpatients. A randomised, double blind, placebo-crossover trial. Thromb Haemost 2002;87:1075-6. View abstract.
Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD001775. View abstract.
Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res 2009;60:68-73. View abstract.
Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67:33-5. View abstract.
Fies P, Dienel A. [Ginkgo extract in impaired vision--treatment with special extract EGb 761 of impaired vision due to dry senile macular degeneration]. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002;152:423-6. View abstract.
Fong KC, Kinnear PE. Retrobulbar haemorrhage associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:531-2.. View abstract.
Forstl H. Clinical issues in current drug therapy for dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2000;14:S103-S108. View abstract.
Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Volkow ND et al. Evidence that gingko biloba extract does not inhibit MAO A and B in living human brain. Life Sci 2000;66:141-6. View abstract.
Galluzzi S, Zanetti O, Binetti G, et al. Coma in a patient with Alzheimer's disease taking low dose trazodone and Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:679-80. View abstract.
Gardiner P, Wornham W. Recent review of complementary and alternative medicine used by adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000;12:298-302. View abstract.
Gardner CD, Taylor-Piliae RE, Kiazand A, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2008;28:258-65. View abstract.
Gaudineau C, Beckerman R, Welbourn S, Auclair K. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2004;318:1072–8. View abstract.
Gertsch JH, Basnyat B, Johnson EW, et al. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT). BMJ 2004;328:797. View abstract.
Ginkgo biloba for SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1997;13(9):130916.
Granger AS. Ginkgo biloba precipitating epileptic seizures. Age Ageing 2001;30:523-5. View abstract.
Gregory PJ. Seizure associated with Ginkgo biloba? Ann Intern Med 2001;134:344. View abstract.
Guo CX, Pei Q, Yin JY, Peng XD, Zhou BT, Zhao YC, Wu LX, Meng XG, Wang G, Li Q, Ouyang DS, Liu ZQ, Zhang W, Zhou HH. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on pharmacokinetics and efficacy of atorvastatin based on plasma indices. Xenobiotica 2012;42(8):784-90. View abstract.
Guo X, Kong X, Huang R, Jin L, Ding X, He M, Liu X, Patel MC, Congdon NG. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on visual field and contrast sensitivity in Chinese patients with normal tension glaucoma: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55(1):110-6. View abstract.
Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276-87.. View abstract.
Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Clinical assessment of potential cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interactions. AAPS Ann Mtg & Expo Indianapolis, IN: 2000; Oct 29 - Nov 2:presentation #3460.
Haguenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, Pierart H. [Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. A multicenter, double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. Presse Med 1986;15:1569-72. View abstract.
Hartley, D. E., Elsabagh, S., and File, S. E. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr.Neurosci. 2004;7(5-6):325-333. View abstract.
Hasanzadeh E, Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh A, Rezazadeh SA, Tabrizi M, Rezaei F, Akhondzadeh S. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorders. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2012;43(5):674-82. View abstract.
Hauns B, Haring B, Kohler S, et al. Phase II study of combined 5-fluorouracil/ Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) therapy in 5-fluorouracil pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Phytother Res 2001;15:34-38.. View abstract.
Hauser D, Gayowski T, Singh N. Bleeding complications precipitated by unrecognized Gingko biloba use after liver transplantation. Transpl Int 2002;15:377-9. View abstract.
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7. View abstract.
Hofferberth B. The efficacy of Egb 761 in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on different levels of investigation. Human Psychopharmacol 1994;9:215-22.
Holgers KM, Axelsson A, Pringle I. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of tinnitus. Audiol 1994;33:85-92. View abstract.
Hopfenmuller W. [Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract. Meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency in old age]. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:1005-13. View abstract.
Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2010;299:184-7. View abstract.
Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N; GOTADAY Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 2012;45:41-6. View abstract.
Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, et al. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998;34:391-7. View abstract.
Jalloh MA, Gregory PJ, Hein D, et al. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Jan;28(1):4-15. View abstract.
Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1370-8. View abstract.
Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59:425-32. View abstract.
Kajiyama Y, Fujii K, Takeuchi H, Manabe Y. Ginkgo seed poisoning. Pediatrics 2002;109:325-7. View abstract.
Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:279-84. View abstract.
Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb 761) in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56. View abstract.
Kellermann AJ, Kloft C. Is there a risk of bleeding associated with standardized ginkgo biloba extract therapy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31:490-502. View abstract.
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;151:416-23. View abstract.
Kim BH, Kim KP, Lim KS, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: An open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2010;32:380-90. View abstract.
Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;34:352-8. View abstract.
Kohler S, Funk P, Kieser M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2004;15:303–9. View abstract.
Kressmann S, Muller WE, Blume HH. Pharmaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54:661-9. View abstract.
Kudolo G. Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis. Alt Ther 2001;7:105.
Kudolo GB, Delaney D, Blodgett J. Short-term oral ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) reduces malondialdehyde levels in washed platelets of type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;68:29-38. View abstract.
Kudolo GB, Dorsey S, Blodgett J. Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects. Thromb Res 2002;108:151-60.. View abstract.
Kudolo GB, Wang W, Elrod R, et al. Short-term ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract does not alter whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic or type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:123-34. View abstract.
Kudolo GB, Wang W, Javors M, Blodgett J. The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects-A double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:606-16. View abstract.
Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose tolerant individuals. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:647-54. View abstract.
Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:600-11. View abstract.
Kuller LH, Ives DG, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Does Ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular events? Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:41-7. View abstract.
Kupiec T, Raj V. Fatal seizures due to potential herb-drug interactions with Ginkgo biloba. J Anal Toxicol 2005:755-8. View abstract.
Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the Cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:217-26. View abstract.
Lai SW, Chen JH, Kao WY. Acute hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency complicated by Ginkgo biloba. Acta Haematol 2013;130(4):288-90. View abstract.
Lanthony P, Cosson JP. [The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary, double-blind versus placebo study]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11:671-4. View abstract.
Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA 1997;278:1327-32. View abstract.
Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:230-7. View abstract.
Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. [Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. (Abstract). Presse Med 1986;15:1556-8. View abstract.
Levine SB. Caution recommended. J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:2-5. View abstract.
Li AL, Shi YD, Landsmann B, et al. Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1998;19:417-21. View abstract.
Li W, Fitzloff JF, Farnsworth NR, Fong HH. Evaluation of commercial Ginkgo biloba dietary supplements for the presence of colchicine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytomedicine 2002;9:442-6. View abstract.
Lingaerde O, Foreland AR, Magnusson A. Can winter depression be prevented by Ginkgo biloba extract? A placebo-controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100:62-6. View abstract.
Lininger S. The Natural Pharmacy. Prima Health. Rocklin, CA: 1998.
Lister RE. An open, pilot study to evaluate the potential benefits of coenzyme Q10 combined with Ginkgo biloba extract in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res 2002;30:195-9. View abstract.
Logani S, Chen MC, Tran T, et al. Actions of Ginkgo Biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia. Life Sci 2000;67:1389-96. View abstract.
Lu WJ, Huang JD, Lai ML. The effects of ergoloid mesylates and ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:628-34. View abstract.
Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, et al. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001;26:221-8. View abstract.
Marcilhac A, Dakine N, Bourhim N, et al. Effect of chronic administration of Ginkgo biloba extract or Ginkgolide on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. Life Sci 1998;62:2329-40. View abstract.
Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Lindsay DeVane C, et al. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;23:576-81. View abstract.
Matthews, MK. Association of Ginkgo biloba with intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 1998;50:1934.
Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double blind study. Eur J Neruol 2006;13:981-5. View abstract.
Mazzanti G, Mascellino MT, Battinelli L, Coluccia D, et al. Antimicrobial investigation of semipurified fractions of Ginkgo biloba leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:83-8. View abstract.
Meisel C, Johne A, Roots I. Fatal intracerebral mass bleeding associated with Ginkgo biloba and ibuprofen. Atherosclerosis 2003;167:367. View abstract.
Meston CM, Rellini AH, Telch MJ. Short- and long-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in women. Arch Sex Behav 2008;37:530-47. View abstract.
Meydani M. Effect of functional food ingredients: vitamin E modulation of cardiovascular diseases and immune status in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1665S-8S. View abstract.
Meyer B. [Multicenter, randomized, double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract]. Presse Med 1986;15:1562-4. View abstract.
Miller LG, Freeman B. Possible subdural hematoma associated with Ginkgo biloba. J Herb Pharmacother 2002;2:57-63. View abstract.
Miwa H, Iijima M, Tanaka S, Mizuno Y. Generalized convulsions after consuming a large amount of gingko nuts. Epilepsia 2001;42:280-1. View abstract.
Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:219-29. View abstract.
Mix JA, Crews WD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:267-277.. View abstract.
Mohutsky MA, Anderson GD, Miller JW, Elmer GW. Ginkgo biloba: evaluation of CYP2C9 drug interactions in vitro and in vivo. Am J Ther 2006;13:24-31. View abstract.
Morgenstern C, Biermann E. The efficacy of Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in patients with tinnitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;40:188-197.. View abstract.
Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud's disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc Med 2002;7:265-7. View abstract.
Naccarato M, Yoong D, Gough K. A potential drug-herbal interaction between Ginkgo biloba and efavirenz. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2012;11(2):98-100. doi: 10.1177/1545109711435364. Epub 2012 Feb 9. View abstract.
Nasab NM, Bahrammi MA, Nikpour MR, Rahim F, Naghibis SN. Efficacy of rivastigmine in comparison to ginkgo for treating Alzheimer's dementia. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62(7):677-80. View abstract.
Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al. The acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:45-9.. View abstract.
National Institutes of Health. Clinical trials. Available at: www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/gui/c/r (Accessed 15 June 2000).
National Toxicology Program. Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Ginkgo biloba extract in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Research Triangle Park, NC. March 2013. NIH publication number 13-5920. Available at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/TR578_508.pdf (Accessed 9 May 2013).
Nicolaï SPA, Kruidenier LM, Bendermacher BL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;6:CD006888. View abstract.
Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15. View abstract.
Olson RE. Osteoporosis and vitamin K intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1031-2. View abstract.
Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. An alternative medicine study of herbal effects on the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes and the integrity of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. Fertil Steril 1999;71:517-22. View abstract.
Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. Inhibition of human sperm motility by specific herbs used in alternative medicine. J Assist Reprod Genet 1999;16:87-91. View abstract.
Paick J, Lee J. An experimental study of the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. J Urol 1996;156:1876-80. View abstract.
Pennisi RS. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis induced by the herbal remedy Ginkgo biloba. Med J Aust 2006;184:583-4. View abstract.
Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication - a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. Vasa 1998;27:106-10. View abstract.
Petty HR, Fernando M, Kindzelskii AL, et al. Identification of colchicine in placental blood from patients using herbal medicines. Chem Res Toxicol 2001;14:1254-8. View abstract.
Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2000;108:276-81. View abstract.
Polich J, Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:409-16. View abstract.
Porsolt RD, Roux S, Drieu K. Evaluation of a ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in functional tests for monoamine oxidase inhibition. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50:232-5. View abstract.
Quaranta L, Bettelli S, Uva MG, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2003;110:359-62.. View abstract.
Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr Med Res Opin 1991;12:350-5. View abstract.
Rainer M, Mucke H, Schlaefke S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in the treatment of dementia: a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the Austrian setting. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2013;125(1-2):8-15. View abstract.
Ramassamy, C., Christen, Y., Clostre, F., and Costentin, J. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb761, increases synaptosomal uptake of 5- hydroxytryptamine: in-vitro and ex-vivo studies. J Pharm Pharmacol 1992;44(11):943-945. View abstract.
Ranchon I, Gorrand JM, Cluzel J, et al. Functional protection of photoreceptors from light-induced damage by dimethylurea and Ginkgo biloba extract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:1191-9. View abstract.
Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res 1999;13:408-15. View abstract.
Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D'Arbigny P. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67:445-52. View abstract.
Rosenblatt M, Mindel T. Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1108. View abstract.
Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural hemotomas with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion. Neurology 1996;46:1775-6. View abstract.
Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi MR, et al. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010;34:76-80. View abstract.
Schneider LS, DeKosky ST, Farlow MR, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Curr Alzheimer Res 2005;2:541-51. View abstract.
Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:35-44.. View abstract.
Schweizer J, Hautmann C. Comparison of two dosages of Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontain's stage llb / a randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:900-4. View abstract.
Shannon M, McElroy EA, Liebelt EL. Toxic seizures in children: Case scenarios and treatment strategies. Pediatr Emerg Care 2003;19:206-10. View abstract.
Siegers CP. Cytotoxicity of alkylphenols from Ginkgo biloba. Phytomedicine 1999;6:281-3. View abstract.
Singh B, Kaur P, Singh GRD, Ahuja PS. Biology and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterapia 2008;79(6):401-18.
Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:835-40. View abstract.
Spinella M, Eaton LA. Hypomania induced by herbal and pharmaceutical psychotropic medicines following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2002;16:359-67. View abstract.
Stoddard GJ, Archer M, Shane-McWhorter L, Bray BE, Redd DF, Proulx J, Zeng-Treitler Q. Ginkgo and Warfarin Interaction in a Large Veterans Administration Population. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2015 Nov 5;2015:1174-83. View abstract.
Stough C, Clarke J, Lloyd J, Nathan PJ. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2001;4:131-4 . View abstract.
Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. The psychopharmacological effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1984;4:89-93. View abstract.
Szczurko O, Shear N, Taddio A, Boon H. Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of vitiligo vulgaris: an open label pilot clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:21. View abstract.
Tamborini A, Taurelle R. [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1993;88:447-57. View abstract.
Vale S. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with Ginkgo biloba. Lancet 1998;352:36. View abstract.
van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1183-94. View abstract.
von Moltke LL, Weemhoff JL, Bedir E, et al. Inhibition of human cytochromes P450 by components of Ginkgo biloba. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:1039-44. View abstract.
Vorberg G. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE): A long-term study of chronic cerebral insufficiency in geriatric patients. Clin Trials J 1985;22:149-57.
Wang H, Ng TB. Ginkbilobin, a novel antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds with sequence similarity to embryo-abundant protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;279:407-11. View abstract.
Wesnes K, Simmons D, Rook M, Simpson P. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly. Human Psychopharmacol 1987;2:159-69.
Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;152:353-61.. View abstract.
Wettstein A. Cholinesterase inhibitors and Gingko extracts- are they comparable in the treatment of dementia? Comparison of published, placebo-controlled efficacy studies of at least six months duration (abstract). Phytomedicine 2000;6:393-401. View abstract.
Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19:545-8. View abstract.
White HL, Scates PW, Cooper BR. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase. Life Sci 1996;58:1315-21. View abstract.
Wiegman DJ, Brinkman K, Franssen EJ. Interaction of Ginkgo biloba with efavirenz. AIDS 2009;23:1184-5. View abstract.
Woelk H, Arnoldt KH, Kieser M, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res 2007;41:472-80. View abstract.
Yagmur E, Piatkowski A, Groger A, et al. Bleeding complication under Gingko biloba medication. Am J Hematol 2005;79:343-4. View abstract.
Yakoot M, Salem A, Helmy S. Effect of Memo, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Clin Interv Aging 2013;8:975-81. View abstract.
Yale SH, Glurich I. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:433-9. View abstract.
Yang M, Xu DD, Zhang Y, Liu X, Hoeven R, Cho WC. A systematic review on natural medicines for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease with meta-analyses of intervention effect of ginkgo. Am J Chin Med 2014;42(3):505-21. View abstract.
Yang X, Chen J, Qian Z, Guo T. [Study on the antibacterial activity of ginkgolic acids]. Zhong Yao Cai 2002;25:651-3. View abstract.
Yasui-Furukori N, Furukori H, Kaneda A, et al. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44:538-42. View abstract.
Ye B, Aponte M, Dai Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba and ovarian cancer prevention: epidemiological and biological evidence. Cancer Lett 2007;251:43-52. View abstract.
Yin OQ, Tomlinson B, Waye MM, et al. Pharmacogenetics and herb-drug interactions: experience with Ginkgo biloba and omeprazole. Pharmacogenetics 2004;14:841-50. View abstract.
Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, Kehr J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol 2010;159:659-68. View abstract.
Zeng X, Liu M, Yang Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD003691. View abstract.