African Ginger, Amomum Zingiber, Ardraka, Black Ginger, Cochin Ginger, Gan Jiang, Gingembre, Gingembre Africain, Gingembre Cochin, Gingembre Indien, Gingembre Jamaïquain, Gingembre Noir, Ginger Essential Oil, Ginger Root, Huile Essentielle de Gingembre, Imber, Indian Ginger, Jamaica Ginger, Jengibre, Jiang, Kankyo, Kanshokyo, Nagara, Race Ginger, Racine de Gingembre, Rhizoma Zingiberi, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Shen Jiang, Sheng Jiang, Shoga, Shokyo, Shunthi, Srungavera, Sunth, Sunthi, Vishvabheshaja, Zingiber Officinale, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, Zinzeberis, Zinziber Officinale, Zinziber Officinalis.
Ginger is a plant with leafy stems and yellowish green flowers. The ginger spice comes from the roots of the plant. Ginger is native to warmer parts of Asia, such as China, Japan, and India, but now is grown in parts of South American and Africa. It is also now grown in the Middle East to use as medicine and with food.
Ginger is commonly used to treat various types of "stomach problems," including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), nausea, nausea caused by cancer treatment, nausea caused by HIV/AIDS treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite.
Other uses include pain relief from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, menstrual pain, upper respiratory tract infections, cough, respiratory problems, migraine headache, bronchitis, and diabetes. Ginger is also sometimes used for chest pain, low back pain, and stomach pain, discontinuing use of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), anorexia, to stimulate breast milk, as a diuretic, and to increase sweating. It is also used to treat cholera, bleeding, bacterial bloody diarrhea, baldness, malaria, inflamed testicles, poisonous snake bites, and toothaches.
Some people pour the fresh juice on their skin to treat burns. The oil made from ginger is sometimes applied to the skin to relieve pain. Ginger extract is also applied to the skin to prevent insect bites.
In foods and beverages, ginger is used as a flavoring agent.
In manufacturing, ginger is used as for fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.
One of the chemicals in ginger is also used as an ingredient in laxative, anti-gas, and antacid medications.
How does it work?
Ginger contains chemicals that may reduce nausea and inflammation. Researchers believe the chemicals work primarily in the stomach and intestines, but they may also work in the brain and nervous system to control nausea.
Possibly Effective for...
- Nausea and vomiting caused by HIV/AIDS treatment. Research suggests that taking ginger daily, 30 minutes before each dose of antiretroviral treatment for 14 days, reduces the risk of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving HIV treatment.
- Painful menstrual periods. Research shows that taking ginger powder 500-2000 mg during the first 3-4 days of a menstrual cycle modestly decreases pain in women with painful menstrual periods. Some specific doses that have been used include 500 mg of ginger three times daily and a specific ginger extract (Zintoma, Goldaru) 250 mg four times daily. Doses were given for 3 days starting at the beginning of the menstrual period. The specific ginger extract (Zintoma) seems to work about as well as the medications ibuprofen or mefenamic acid.
- Morning sickness. Taking ginger by mouth seems to reduce nausea and vomiting in some pregnant women. But it might work slower or not as well as some drugs used for nausea. Also, taking any herb or medication during pregnancy is a big decision. Before taking ginger, be sure to discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider.
- Osteoarthritis. Some research shows that taking ginger can modestly reduce pain in some people with a form of arthritis called "osteoarthritis." One study shows that taking 250 mg of a specific ginger extract (Zintona EC) four times daily reduces arthritis pain in the knee after 3 months of treatment. Another study shows that using a different ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a ginger with alpinia, also reduces pain upon standing, pain after walking, and stiffness. Some research has compared ginger to medications such as ibuprofen. In one study, a specific ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) did not reduce arthritis pain as well as taking 400 mg of ibuprofen three times daily. But in another study, taking 500 mg of ginger extract twice daily worked about as well as 400 mg of ibuprofen three times daily for hip and knee pain related to arthritis. In another study, a specific ginger extract combined with glucosamine (Zinaxin glucosamine, EV ext-35) worked as well as the anti-inflammatory medication diclofenac slow release (100 mg daily) plus glucosamine sulfate (1 gram daily). Research also suggests that massage therapy using an oil containing ginger and orange seems to reduce short-term stiffness and pain in people with knee pain.
- Nausea and vomiting following surgery. Most clinical research shows that taking 1 to 1.5 gram of ginger one hour before surgery seems to reduce nausea and vomiting during the first 24 hours after surgery. One study found ginger reduced nausea and vomiting by 38%. Also, applying 5% ginger oil to patients' wrists before surgery seems to prevent nausea in about 80% of patients. However, taking ginger by mouth might not reduce nausea and vomiting in the period 3-6 hours after surgery. Also, ginger might not have additive effects when used with medications for nausea and vomiting. In addition, ginger might not lower the risk of nausea and vomiting after surgery in people who have a low risk for this event.
- Dizziness (vertigo). Taking ginger seems to reduce the symptoms of dizziness, including nausea .
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Preventing motion sickness and seasickness. Most research suggests that taking ginger up to 4 hours before travel does not prevent motion sickness. Some people report feeling better, but actual measurements taken during studies suggest otherwise. But in one study, ginger appears to be more effective than the drug dimenhydrinate at reducing stomach upset associated with motion sickness.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Sudden respiratory system failure (Acute respiratory distress syndrome). Research suggests that administering 120 mg of ginger extract daily for up to 21 days increases the number of days without ventilator support, the amount of nutrients consumed, and reduces the time spent in intensive care units in people with sudden respiratory system a failure. However, ginger extract does not seem to affect death rates in people with this condition.
- Nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy for cancer. Some evidence suggests that taking ginger by mouth might help reduce nausea caused by chemotherapy. However, other evidence suggests that adding ginger is no more effective than standard anti-nausea treatments alone. Reasons for the conflicting results may be the type and dose of ginger used, as well as the time at which ginger treatment was started.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Research shows that taking two capsules of a specific combination product (AKL1, AKL International Ltd) containing ginger twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve respiratory symptoms in people with COPD.
- Diabetes. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of ginger on blood sugar control in people with diabetes. Some research suggests that taking ginger daily in two divided doses for 8 weeks reduces insulin levels, but not blood sugar. Another study shows that ginger affects blood sugar, but not insulin levels. Although it's not clear, the conflicting results may be due to the dose of ginger used or the length of time the patients had been diagnosed with diabetes.
- Upset stomach (dyspepsia). Research suggests that taking a single dose of 1.2 grams of ginger root powder one hour before eating speeds up how quickly food empties out of the some in people with dyspepsia.
- Alcohol hangover. Early research suggests that taking a combination of ginger, pith of Citrus tangerine, and brown sugar before drinking decreases symptoms of alcohol hangovers, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- High cholesterol. Research suggests that taking 1 gram of ginger three times daily for 45 days lowers triglyceride and cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
- Insect bites. Early research suggest that applying Trikatu to the skin, which contains ginger, long pepper, and black pepper extracts, does not reduce mosquito bite size.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of ginger on IBS symptoms. Some research suggests that taking ginger daily for 28 days does not improve symptoms. However, other research suggests that using an herbal mixture containing English horsemint, purple nut sedge tuber, and ginger tuber three times daily for 8 weeks is as effective as the drug mebeverine at reducing IBS symptoms. But it's not clear if ginger or the other ingredients promote symptom relief.
- Joint pain. Research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) containing ginger for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by 37%. But this product does not seem to reduce joint stiffness or improve joint function.
- Speeding up labor. Early evidence suggests that bathing in water containing ginger oil does not shorten the length of labor.
- Migraine headache. Some reports suggest that taking a combination of ginger and feverfew might reduce the length and intensity of migraine pain. However, it is not clear if the effects are from ginger, feverfew or the combination.
- Muscle pain after exercise. There is contradictory evidence about whether ginger helps for muscle pain caused by exercise. Some research shows benefits, while other research does not.
- Recovery after surgery. Evidence suggests that inhaling and applying a combination of lavender and ginger oils to the skin before surgery does not reduce distress in children after surgery.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is some early evidence that ginger might be helpful for decreasing joint pain in people with RA.
- Trouble swallowing. Evidence suggests that spraying a product containing ginger and clematix root (Tongyan) to the back of the throat improves severe problems swallowing in stroke victims. However, it is not beneficial in people with less severe problems swallowing.
- Weight loss. Research suggests that taking a supplement containing ginger, rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, turmeric, and gallic acid (Number Ten) daily for 8 weeks does not increase weight loss or reduce body weight in people who are overweight. But other research suggests that taking a combination supplement (Prograde Metabolism) containing ginger and other ingredients twice daily for 8 weeks reduce body weight, fat mass, waist circumference and hip circumference, when used along with dieting. But it's not clear if ginger is the cause for the weight loss.
- Bacterial infection of the intestine (Cholera).
- Discontinuing use of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
- Loss of appetite.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Ginger is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Some people can have mild side effects including heartburn, diarrhea, and general stomach discomfort. Some women have reported extra menstrual bleeding while taking ginger.
Ginger is POSSIBLY SAFE when it is applied to the skin appropriately, short-term. It might cause irritation on the skin for some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy: Ginger is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for medicinal uses during pregnancy. But using ginger during pregnancy is controversial. There is some concern that ginger might affect fetal sex hormones. There is also a report of miscarriage during week 12 of pregnancy in a woman who used ginger for morning sickness. However, studies in pregnant women suggest that ginger can be used safely for morning sickness without harm to the baby. The risk for major malformations in infants of women taking ginger does not appear to be higher than the usual rate of 1% to 3%. Also there doesn't appear to be an increased risk of early labor or low birth weight. There is some concern that ginger might increase the risk of bleeding, so some experts advise against using it close to your delivery date. As with any medication given during pregnancy, it's important to weigh the benefit against the risk. Before using ginger during pregnancy, talk it over with your healthcare provider.
Breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking ginger if you are breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Taking ginger might increase your risk of bleeding.
Diabetes: Ginger might increase your insulin levels and/or lower your blood sugar. As a result, your diabetes medications might need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.
Heart conditions: High doses of ginger might worsen some heart conditions.
NifedipineInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Taking ginger along with nifedipine might slow blood clotting and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginger might slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
PhenprocoumonInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Phenprocoumon is used in Europe to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with phenprocoumon might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your phenprocoumon might need to be changed.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking ginger two hours before taking cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. This might increase the side effects of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). However, ginger does not seem to affect how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs when taken at the same time.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginger might increase your insulin levels and/or decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking ginger along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginger might reduce blood pressure in a way that is similar to some medications for blood pressure and heart disease. Taking ginger along with these medications might cause your blood pressure to drop too low or cause an irregular heartbeat.
Some medications for high blood pressure and heart disease include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.
Metronidazole (Flagyl)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ginger can increase how much metronidazole (Flagyl) the body absorbs. Taking ginger along with metronidazole (Flagyl) might increase the side effects of metronidazole.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For nausea and vomiting caused by HIV/AIDS treatment: 1 gram of ginger daily in two divided doses 30 minutes before each antiretroviral treatment for 14 days has been used.
- For painful menstrual periods: 250 mg of a specific ginger extract (Zintoma, Goldaru) four times daily for 3 days from the start of the menstrual period has been used. Also, 1500 mg of ginger powder daily in up to three divided doses, starting up to two days before menstruation and continuing for the first 3 days of the menstruation cycle, has been used.
- For morning sickness: 500 to 2500 mg of ginger daily in two to four divided doses for 3 days to 3 weeks has been used.
- For osteoarthritis: Many different ginger extract products have been used in studies. The dosing used differs depending on the product taken. One ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) 170 mg three times daily has been used. Another extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a ginger with an alpinia, 255 mg twice daily has also been used. Another ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily has also been used. Also, a ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 35; EV ext-35) 340 mg daily in combination with 1000 mg of glucosamine daily for 4 weeks has been used.
- For nausea and vomiting after surgery: 1-2 grams of powdered ginger root 30-60 minutes before induction of anesthesia has been used. Sometimes 1 gram of ginger is also given two hours after surgery.
- For dizziness (vertigo): 1 gram of ginger powder as a single dose one hour before causing dizziness has been used.
- For osteoarthritis: A specific gel containing ginger and plai (Plygersic gel, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research) 4 grams daily in four divided doses for 6 weeks has been used.
- For nausea and vomiting after surgery: A solution of ginger essential oil has been used. Aromatherapy with ginger alone, or in combination with spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, has been inhaled through the nose and exhaled through the mouth three times after surgery.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Digestive Disorders Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abdel Halim, A. S. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2008;38(2):385-392. View abstract.
Abdel-Aziz, H., Nahrstedt, A., Petereit, F., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. 5-HT3 receptor blocking activity of arylalkanes isolated from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 2005;71(7):609-616. View abstract.
Abdel-Aziz, H., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. Eur.J Pharmacol. 1-13-2006;530(1-2):136-143. View abstract.
Ahui, M. L., Champy, P., Ramadan, A., Pham, Van L., Araujo, L., Brou, Andre K., Diem, S., Damotte, D., Kati-Coulibaly, S., Offoumou, M. A., Dy, M., Thieblemont, N., and Herbelin, A. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8(12):1626-1632. View abstract.
Aktan, F., Henness, S., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., Roufogalis, B. D., and Ammit, A. J. Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity. Planta Med 2006;72(8):727-734. View abstract.
al Yahya, M. A., Rafatullah, S., Mossa, J. S., Ageel, A. M., Parmar, N. S., and Tariq, M. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. Am.J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-56. View abstract.
Alzoreky, N. S. and Nakahara, K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol. 2-15-2003;80(3):223-230. View abstract.
Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(11):892-897. View abstract.
Asnani, V. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64(1):35-37. View abstract.
Asnani, V. M. and Verma, R. J. Ameliorative effects of ginger extract on paraben-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2009;66(3):225-228. View abstract.
Awang DV. Ginger. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal (Canada) 1992;125:309-311.
Bhandari, U., Sharma, J. N., and Zafar, R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61(2):167-171. View abstract.
Chung, S. W., Kim, M. K., Chung, J. H., Kim, D. H., Choi, J. S., Anton, S., Seo, A. Y., Park, K. Y., Yokozawa, T., Rhee, S. H., Yu, B. P., and Chung, H. Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation by a short-term feeding of zingerone in aged rats. J Med Food 2009;12(2):345-350. View abstract.
Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2010;24(5):649-656. View abstract.
Dugasani, S., Pichika, M. R., Nadarajah, V. D., Balijepalli, M. K., Tandra, S., and Korlakunta, J. N. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of -gingerol, -gingerol, -gingerol and -shogaol. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):515-520. View abstract.
El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118(3):367-372. View abstract.
Ficker, C. E., Arnason, J. T., Vindas, P. S., Alvarez, L. P., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., De Souza, C., and Smith, M. L. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts. Mycoses 2003;46(1-2):29-37. View abstract.
Ficker, C., Smith, M. L., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., Zhang, J., Durst, T., Assabgui, R., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(8):897-902. View abstract.
Fouda, A. M. and Berika, M. Y. Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104(3):262-271. View abstract.
Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52(5):288-290. View abstract.
Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig.Dis.Sci 2005;50(10):1889-1897. View abstract.
Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Afridi, M. B., and Houghton, P. J. Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are mediated through multiple pathways. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2005;43(4):234-241. View abstract.
Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86(5):264-271. View abstract.
Griffenhagen GB. Materia medica of Christopher Columbus. Pharmacy in History (USA) 1992;34:131-145.
Guh, J. H., Ko, F. N., Jong, T. T., and Teng, C. M. Antiplatelet effect of gingerol isolated from Zingiber officinale. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 1995;47(4):329-332. View abstract.
Gupta, Y. K. and Sharma, M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2001;23(9):501-503. View abstract.
Gusseva-Badmaeva AP, Hammermann AF, and Sokolov WS. Drugs of Tibet. Planta Medica (Germany) 1972;21:161-172.
Habib, S. H., Makpol, S., Abdul, Hamid NA, Das, S., Ngah, W. Z., and Yusof, Y. A. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63(6):807-813. View abstract.
Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1195-1201. View abstract.
Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225. View abstract.
Horie, S., Yamamoto, H., Michael, G. J., Uchida, M., Belai, A., Watanabe, K., Priestley, J. V., and Murayama, T. Protective role of vanilloid receptor type 1 in HCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(4):303-312. View abstract.
Ippoushi, K., Azuma, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Higashio, H. -Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci 11-14-2003;73(26):3427-3437. View abstract.
Ippoushi, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Azuma, K. Mechanism of inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration by -gingerol. Planta Med 2005;71(6):563-566. View abstract.
Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Akhtar, M. S., Ghayur, M. N., and Gilani, A. H. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-30-2006;106(2):285-287. View abstract.
Janssen, P. L., Meyboom, S., van Staveren, W. A., de Vegt, F., and Katan, M. B. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(11):772-774. View abstract.
Jolad, S. D., Lantz, R. C., Solyom, A. M., Chen, G. J., Bates, R. B., and Timmermann, B. N. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 2004;65(13):1937-1954. View abstract.
Jung, H. W., Yoon, C. H., Park, K. M., Han, H. S., and Park, Y. K. Hexane fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus extract inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells via the NF-kappaB pathway. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1190-1197. View abstract.
Kadnur, S. V. and Goyal, R. K. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43(12):1161-1164. View abstract.
Kamtchouing, P., Mbongue Fandio, G. Y., Dimo, T., and Jatsa, H. B. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl 2002;4(4):299-301. View abstract.
Kim, H. W., Murakami, A., Abe, M., Ozawa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Williams, M. V., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of mioga ginger and ginger constituents on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation, and the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2005;7(11-12):1621-1629. View abstract.
Krutzfeldt K. Ginger - heavenly fire. AZ Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 2003;143:83-91.
Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Sarihan, M., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 2007;14(2-3):123-128. View abstract.
Lawrence BM. Major tropical spices ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1984;9:1, 3, 6-8, 10, 12-13, 16-18, 20-22, 24-26, 28-40.
Lee, T. Y., Lee, K. C., Chen, S. Y., and Chang, H. H. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 4-24-2009;382(1):134-139. View abstract.
Liu, N., Huo, G., Zhang, L., and Zhang, X. [Effect of Zingiber OfficinaleRosc on lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemia rats]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2003;32(1):22-23. View abstract.
Liu, P. H. and Ho, H. L. Ginger and drug bezoar induced small bowel obstruction. J R.Coll.Surg.Edinb. 1983;28(6):397-398. View abstract.
Lohsiriwat, S., Rukkiat, M., Chaikomin, R., and Leelakusolvong, S. Effect of ginger on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2010;93(3):366-372. View abstract.
Lumb, A. B. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb.Haemost. 1994;71(1):110-111. View abstract.
Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B. M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):988-991. View abstract.
Mansour, M. S., Ni, Y. M., Roberts, A. L., Kelleman, M., Roychoudhury, A., and St-Onge, M. P. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism 2012;61(10):1347-1352. View abstract.
Norajit, K., Laohakunjit, N., and Kerdchoechuen, O. Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils. Molecules. 2007;12(8):2047-2060. View abstract.
Oliveira, C. H., Moraes, M. E., Moraes, M. O., Bezerra, F. A., Abib, E., and De, Nucci G. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2005;19(1):54-57. View abstract.
Onogi, T., Minami, M., Kuraishi, Y., and Satoh, M. Capsaicin-like effect of (6)-shogaol on substance P-containing primary afferents of rats: a possible mechanism of its analgesic action. Neuropharmacology 1992;31(11):1165-1169. View abstract.
Onyenekwe, P. C. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger rhizomes. Nahrung 2000;44(2):130-132. View abstract.
Park, M., Bae, J., and Lee, D. S. Antibacterial activity of -gingerol and -gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria. Phytother.Res 2008;22(11):1446-1449. View abstract.
Phan, P. V., Sohrabi, A., Polotsky, A., Hungerford, D. S., Lindmark, L., and Frondoza, C. G. Ginger extract components suppress induction of chemokine expression in human synoviocytes. J Altern.Complement Med 2005;11(1):149-154. View abstract.
Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(11):950-956. View abstract.
Prajapati, V., Tripathi, A. K., Aggarwal, K. K., and Khanuja, S. P. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour.Technol. 2005;96(16):1749-1757. View abstract.
Pushpanathan, T., Jebanesan, A., and Govindarajan, M. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102(6):1289-1291. View abstract.
Qian, Q. H., Yue, W., Wang, Y. X., Yang, Z. H., Liu, Z. T., and Chen, W. H. Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced vomiting by down regulating 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and substance P expression in minks. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32(4):565-573. View abstract.
Qureshi, S., Shah, A. H., Tariq, M., and Ageel, A. M. Studies on herbal aphrodisiacs used in Arab system of medicine. Am J Chin Med 1989;17(1-2):57-63. View abstract.
Rahuman, A. A., Gopalakrishnan, G., Venkatesan, P., Geetha, K., and Bagavan, A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2008;22(8):1035-1039. View abstract.
Rong, X., Peng, G., Suzuki, T., Yang, Q., Yamahara, J., and Li, Y. A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2009;54(2):118-123. View abstract.
Sambaiah, K. and Srinivasan, K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung 1991;35(1):47-51. View abstract.
Schwertner, H. A., Rios, D. C., and Pascoe, J. E. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107(6):1337-1343. View abstract.
Sekiya, K., Ohtani, A., and Kusano, S. Enhancement of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by ginger. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):153-156. View abstract.
Sharma, S. S. and Gupta, Y. K. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(1):49-55. View abstract.
Shen, C. L., Hong, K. J., and Kim, S. W. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators in sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants. J Med Food 2003;6(4):323-328. View abstract.
Shin, S. G., Kim, J. Y., Chung, H. Y., and Jeong, J. C. Zingerone as an antioxidant against peroxynitrite. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-21-2005;53(19):7617-7622. View abstract.
Shukla, Y. and Singh, M. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45(5):683-690. View abstract.
Sripramote, M. and Lekhyananda, N. A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2003;86(9):846-853. View abstract.
Srivastava, K. C. Isolation and effects of some ginger components on platelet aggregation and eicosanoid biosynthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1986;25(2-3):187-198. View abstract.
Tao, Q. F., Xu, Y., Lam, R. Y., Schneider, B., Dou, H., Leung, P. S., Shi, S. Y., Zhou, C. X., Yang, L. X., Zhang, R. P., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, X., Stockigt, J., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., and Zhao, Y. Diarylheptanoids and a monoterpenoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale: antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71(1):12-17. View abstract.
Thongson, C., Davidson, P. M., Mahakarnchanakul, W., and Vibulsresth, P. Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104. J Food Prot. 2005;68(10):2054-2058. View abstract.
Verma, S. K., Singh, J., Khamesra, R., and Bordia, A. Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. Indian J Med.Res 1993;98:240-242. View abstract.
Wu, C. X., Wei, X. B., Ding, H., Sun, X., and Cheng, X. M. [Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29(8):810-813. View abstract.
Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Lee, C. M. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2008;20(5):436-440. View abstract.
Yamahara J, Rong HQ, Iwamoto M, and et al. Active components of ginger exhibiting anti-serotonergic action. Phytotherapy Res 1989;3(2):70-71.
Yamahara, J., Huang, Q. R., Li, Y. H., Xu, L., and Fujimura, H. Gastrointestinal motility enhancing effect of ginger and its active constituents. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(2):430-431. View abstract.
Yamahara, J., Mochizuki, M., Rong, H. Q., Matsuda, H., and Fujimura, H. The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23(2-3):299-304. View abstract.
Yu, Y., Zick, S., Li, X., Zou, P., Wright, B., and Sun, D. Examination of the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients of ginger in humans. AAPS.J. 2011;13(3):417-426. View abstract.
Zhang, G. F., Yang, Z. B., Wang, Y., Yang, W. R., Jiang, S. Z., and Gai, G. S. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poult.Sci 2009;88(10):2159-2166. View abstract.
Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(8):1930-1936. View abstract.
Zick, S. M., Turgeon, D. K., Vareed, S. K., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Wright, B. D., Alrawi, S., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2011;4(11):1929-1937. View abstract.
Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27:391-401. View abstract.
Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol 1994;32:31-6. View abstract.
Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:101-5. View abstract.
Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, et al. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:660-6. View abstract.
Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, et al. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:1280-4. View abstract.
Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2531-38. View abstract.
Anon. Case problem: presenting conventional and complementary approaches for relieving nausea in a breast cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:257-9. View abstract.
Apariman S, Ratchanon S, Wiriyasirivej B. Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:2003-9. View abstract.
Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995;23:449-52. View abstract.
Argento A, Tiraferri E, Marzaloni M. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction]. Ann Ital Med Int. 2000;15:139-43. View abstract.
Backon J. Ginger as an antiemetic: possible side effects due to its thromboxane synthetase activity. Anaesthesia. 1991;46(8):705-6.. View abstract.
Backon J. Ginger in preventing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; a caveat due to its thromboxane synthetase activity and effect on testosterone binding. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;42:163-4. View abstract.
Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:227-30. View abstract.
Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O'Connor PJ. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. J Pain 2010;11:894-903. View abstract.
Black CD, O'Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on muscle pain induced by eccentric exercise. Phytother Res 2010;24:1620-6. View abstract.
Black CD, Oconnor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on quadriceps muscle pain during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008;18:653-64. View abstract.
Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:9-12. View abstract.
Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al. Ginger root-a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 1990;45:669-71. View abstract.
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, et al. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:849-56. View abstract.
Brockwell C, Ampikaipakan S, Sexton DW, Price D, Freeman D, Thomas M, Ali M, Wilson AM. Adjunctive treatment with oral AKL1, a botanical nutraceutical, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014;9:715-21. View abstract.
Cady RK, Goldstein J, Nett R, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine. Headache 2011;51:1078-86. View abstract.
Cady RK, Schreiber CP, Beach ME, et al. Gelstat Migraine (sublingually administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:I65-69. View abstract.
Calvert I. Ginger: an essential oil for shortening labour? Pract Midwife. 2005;8:30-4. View abstract.
Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, et al. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:95-9. View abstract.
Chiang HM, Chao PD, Hsiu SL, et al. Ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine in rats. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:845-55. View abstract.
Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:15-20. View abstract.
Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52(8):1408-17. View abstract.
Dabaghzadeh F, Khalili H, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Abbasian L, Moeinifard A. Ginger for prevention of antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2014;13(7):859-66. View abstract.
Daily JW, Zhang X, Kim da S, et al. Efficacy of Ginger for Alleviating the Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Pain Med. 2015;16(12):2243-55. View abstract.
Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J Alt Compl Med 2012;18:583-8. View abstract.
Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, et al. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg 2003;96:995-8. View abstract.
Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:367-71. View abstract.
Feng XG, Hao WJ, Ding Z, et al. Clinical study on tongyan spray for post-stroke dysphagia patients: a randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:345-9. View abstract.
Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;38:19-24. View abstract.
Frondoza CG, Sohrabi A, Polotsky A, et al. An in vitro screening assay for inhibitors of proinflammatory mediators in herbal extracts using human synoviocyte cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2004;40:95-101. View abstract.
Geiger J. The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia. Int J Aromather 2005;15:7-14.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005;45:74-80. View abstract.
Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1737-41. View abstract.
Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness: a controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1998;105:45-9. View abstract.
Grontved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1986;48:282-6. View abstract.
Haghighi M, Khalva A, Toliat T, Jallaei S. Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Iran Med 2005;8:267-71.
Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Holst L. Safety of ginger use in pregnancy: results from a large population-based cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012 Jun 17. View abstract.
Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, et al. The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989;108:168-74. View abstract.
Hu ML, Rayner CK, Wu KL, et al. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:105-10. View abstract.
Hunt R, Dienemann J, Norton HJ, Hartley W, Hudgens A, Stern T, Divine G. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial. Anesth Analg 2013;117(3):597-604. View abstract.
Islam MS, Choi H. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. J Med Food. 2008;11:152-9. View abstract.
Jenabi E. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63(1):8-10. View abstract.
Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD000145. View abstract.
Kalava A, Darji SJ, Kalstein A, Yarmush JM, SchianodiCola J, Weinberg J. Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013;169(2):184-8. View abstract.
Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.
Khodaie L, Sadeghpoor O. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2015;10(1):e18402. View abstract.
Kruth P, Brosi E, Fux R, et al. Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:257-60. View abstract.
Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther 1998;15:25-44. View abstract.
Leach MJ, Kumar S. The clinical effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in adults with osteoarthritis. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2008;6:311-20. View abstract.
Lee J, Oh H. Ginger as an antiemetic modality for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncol Nurs Forum 2013;40(2):163-70. View abstract.
Lesho EP, Saullo L, Udvari-Nagy S. A 76-year-old woman with erratic anticoagulation. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71:651-6. View abstract.
Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, et al. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G481-9. View abstract.
Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., and Ferrando, A. A. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):22. View abstract.
Lumb AB. Mechanism of antiemetic effect of ginger. Anaesthesia 1993;48:1118. View abstract.
Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tiyaboonchai W, Tawatsin A, Rojanawiwat A, Thavara U. Efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu preparation in, relieving mosquito bite reactions: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):34-9. View abstract.
Maghbooli M, Golipour F, Moghimi Esfandabadi A, Yousefi M. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine. Phytother Res 2014;28(3):412-5. View abstract.
Mahluji S, Attari VE, Mobasseri M, Payahoo L, Ostadrahimi A, Golzari SE. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2013;64(6):682-6. View abstract.
Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, et al. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:1063-9. View abstract.
Marcus DM, Suarez-Almazor ME. Is there a role for ginger in the treatment of osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2461-2. View abstract.
Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, et al. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;CD007575. View abstract.
Micklefield GH, Redeker Y, Meister V, et al. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;37:341-6. View abstract.
Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, et al. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:817-20. View abstract.
Morin AM, Betz O, Kranke P, et al. [Is ginger a relevant antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting?]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004;39:281-5. View abstract.
Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet. 1982;1:655-7. View abstract.
Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Talaei B, Jalali BA, Najarzadeh A, Mozayan MR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):9-16. View abstract.
Nagabhushan M, Amonkar AJ, Bhide SV. Mutagenicity of gingerol and shogaol and antimutagenicity of zingerone in Salmonella/microsome assay. Cancer Lett 1987;36:221-33.. View abstract.
Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:S130-6. View abstract.
Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154. View abstract.
Niempoog S, Siriarchavatana P, Kajsongkram T. The efficacy of Plygersic gel for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai 2012;95 Suppl 10:S113-9. View abstract.
Nord D, Belew J. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2009;24:307-12. View abstract.
Ojewole JA. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20:764-72. View abstract.
Okonta JM, Uboh M, Obonga WO. Herb-Drug Interaction: A Case Study of Effect of Ginger on the Pharmacokinetic of Metronidazole in Rabbit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India) 2008;70(230):232.
Ozgoli G, Goli M, Moattar F. Comparison of effects of ginger, mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:129-32. View abstract.
Paramdeep G. Efficacy and tolerability of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in patients of osteoarthritis of knee. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;57(2):177-83. View abstract.
Pattanittum P, Kunyanone N, Brown J, et al. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD002124. View abstract.
Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate. A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia 1993;48:393-5. View abstract.
Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)-an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia 1993;48:715-7. View abstract.
Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, et al. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:234-8. View abstract.
Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:244-50. View abstract.
Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:1703-9. View abstract.
Portnoi G, Chng LA, Karimi-Tabesh L, et al. Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1374-7.. View abstract.
Rahnama P, Montazeri A, Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Naseri M. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:92. View abstract.
Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007;10:184-8. View abstract.
Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:1479-89. View abstract.
Sahib AS. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using a selected herbal combination of Iraqi folk medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;148(3):1008-12. View abstract.
Schechter JO. Treatment of disequilibrium and nausea in the SRI discontinuation syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:431-2. View abstract.
Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, et al. Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel Med 1994;1:102-106.
Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1237-47. View abstract.
Shariatpanahi ZV, Taleban FA, Mokhtari M, et al. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010;25:647-50. View abstract.
Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:639-45. View abstract.
Smith C, Crowther C, Wilson K et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:639-45. View abstract.
Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Med Hypotheses 1989;29:25-8. View abstract.
Srivastava KC. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;35:183-5. View abstract.
Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 1991;42:111-20. View abstract.
Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuasa K, et al. Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constitutents, (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol. J Pharmacobiodyn 1984;7:836-48. View abstract.
Takahashi M, Li W, Koike K, et al. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms. J Nat Med. 2010;64:487-91. View abstract.
Tavlan A, Tuncer S, Erol A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: combined antiemetic treatment with dexamethasone and ginger versus dexamethasone alone. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26:209-14. View abstract.
Terry R, Posadzki P, Watson LK, Ernst E. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials. Pain Med 2011;12:1808-18. View abstract.
Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, et al. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002;67:475-8. View abstract.
Thomson M, Corbin R, Leung L. Effects of ginger for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. J Am Board Fam Med 2014;27(1):115-22. View abstract.
Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z, Mokhtari M, Taleban FA, Alavi F, Salehi Surmaghi MH, Mehrabi Y, Shahbazi S. Effect of enteral feeding with ginger extract in acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Crit Care 2013;28(2):217.e1-6. View abstract.
van Tilburg MA, Palsson OS, Ringel Y, Whitehead WE. Is ginger effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome? A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):17-20. View abstract.
Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutr J 2014;13:20. View abstract.
Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1998;53:506-10. View abstract.
Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:577-82. View abstract.
Weidner MS, Sigwart K. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a zingiber officinale extract in the rat. Reprod Toxicol 2001;15:75-80.. View abstract.
Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003;11:783-9. View abstract.
Wilkinson JM. Effect of ginger tea on the fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol 2000;14:507-12.. View abstract.
Wilkinson JM. What do we know about herbal morning sickness treatments? A literature survey. Midwifery 2000;16:224-8. View abstract.
Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, et al. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff 1988;6:129-36. View abstract.
Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med. 2008;16:131-8. View abstract.
Young HY, Liao JC, Chang YS, et al. Synergistic effect of ginger and nifedipine on human platelet aggregation: a study in hypertensive patients and normal volunteers. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:545-51. View abstract.
Zahmatkash M, Vafaeenasab MR. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:715-9. View abstract.
Zick, S. M., Ruffin, M. T., Lee, J., Normolle, D. P., Siden, R., Alrawi, S., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support.Care Cancer 2009;17(5):563-572. View abstract.