Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes. Read more: Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy)) Article
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Second Source article from Government
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Pregnancy Planning (Tips)
Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes taking prenatal vitamins, eating healthy for you and your baby, disease prevention (for both parents and baby) to prevent birth defects and infections, avoiding certain medications that may be harmful to your baby, how much weight gain is healthy exercise safety and pregnancy, travel during pregnancy.
Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus)
Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC)
Taking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some medications that have been found to cause no problems in pregnancy, however, medications such as Accutane for acne, should never be taken during pregnancy.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Disease Prevention in Women
Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are commonly available through your general doctor. Some specialized tests may be available elsewhere.
Insulin Resistance (Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Reversal))
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use. Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication.
Pregnancy (Week by Week, Trimesters)
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating. Second trimester symptoms include backache, weight gain, itching, and possible stretch marks. Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
Pregnancy Diet (Menu Plans)
When a woman is pregnant she needs more vitamins, minerals, and other foods in her diet to stay healthy and deliver a healthy baby. A healthy pregnancy diet menu plan should consist of lots of fruits, vegetables, lean meats (unless you are vegan or vegetarian), and dairy. Examples of healthy pregnancy diet meal plans include: Holistic pregnancy diet Vegan or vegetarian diet Low-carb diets Begin your healthy eating plan around three months before you begin trying to conceive, and follow the same eating plan until after you have stopped breastfeeding. If you are overweight or obese, being pregnant is not the right time to try to lose weight. Discuss your options with your health-care professional.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Type 2 Diabetes Medications (Side Effects, Differences)
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may also help stabilize blood glucose levels. Keeping track of when you take your diabetic medicine, keeping track of food choices, eating the proper amount of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates, and fats will also help maintain proper blood glucose levels. Foods that raise blood sugar levels are "high glycemic index foods;" examples include: Pumpkin Melons Popcorn Short-grain white rice Foods that help maintain good blood sugar levels are foods that are low on the glycemic index, for example: Rolled or steel-cut oats Many fruits Non-starchy vegetables Beans Legumes Lentils
Diabetes Treatment (Type 1 and Type 2 Medications and Diet)
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Early Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs
Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, and not all women experience the same symptoms. When women do experience pregnancy symptoms they may include symptoms include missed menstrual period, mood changes, headaches, lower back pain, fatigue, nausea, breast tenderness, and heartburn. Signs and symptoms in late pregnancy include leg swelling and shortness of breath. Options for relief of pregnancy symptoms include exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes.
High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia)
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
Pregnancy Changes and Body Discomforts
Pregnancy can bring challenges like weight gain, stretch marks, varicose veins, heartburn, constipation, hemorrhoids, problems sleeping, and wondering if it is safe to have sex while pregnant. Learn how to manage and move through these challenges during pregnancy.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of type 1 diabetes that is life threatening. If a person thinks they may have diabetic ketoacidosis they should seek medical care immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when a person's insulin levels in the blood become dangerously low. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include dehydration, abdominal pain, confusion, and nausea and vomiting. Diabetic ketoacidosis needs medical treatment. It cannot be treated at home.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes (Similarities and Differences)
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women (Early and Late)
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Normal Blood Sugar Levels (Ranges) In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Local ResourcesFind a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diabetes FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Symptoms and Diabetes
- 11 Diabetes Diet Tips for the Holidays
- Diabetes Diet
- Top 10 Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Diabetes
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms
- Prediabetes Symptoms and Diagnosis
- Diabetes: Eating Well with Type 2 Diabetes
Medications & Supplements
- Precose (acarbose)
- insulin glargine (Lantus)
- Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations)
- Jardiance Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Victoza (liraglutide) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Amaryl (glimepiride) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Actos (pioglitazone) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Regranex (becaplermin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Baqsimi (glucagon)
- Side Effects of Tolinase (tolazamide)
- Side Effects of Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)
Prevention & Wellness
- Car Exhaust May Up High Blood Pressure Risk in Pregnant Women
- Mom-to-Be's Diabetes May Up Odds of Heart Disease in Her Kids
- Premature Babies Have Higher Risk of Diabetes
- Kidney Injury on the Rise in Women Hospitalized During Pregnancy
- Antidepressants Might Raise Odds for Serious Pregnancy Complication
- Pregnancy Weight Gain: What's Right for You?
- AHA News: Early Pregnancy May Be a Prime Time to Promote Heart Health
- Mediterranean Diet Has Big Benefits for Expectant Moms: Study
- AHA News: Could 'Cardio-Obstetrics' Curb Rise in Pregnancy-Related Deaths?
- Two Factors at Birth Can Boost a Child's Obesity Risk
- When Blood Sugar Rises in Pregnancy, Mom and Baby Pay the Price
- Blood Test in Early Pregnancy May Predict Mom's Diabetes Risk
- Health Tip: Getting Prenatal Tests
- Mom's Diabetes May Be Tied to Baby's Autism Risk: Study
- Get Fit to Cut Your Diabetes Risk During Pregnancy
- Health Tip: If You're Pregnant and Have Diabetes
- Mom-to-Be's High Blood Sugar May Raise Baby's Odds for Heart Defects
- Diabetes, High Blood Pressure While Pregnant Spells Trouble Later On
- Health Tip: Risk Factors for Prediabetes
- Women Who Gain Weight Between Babies at Higher Risk for Diabetes
- Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes Poses Risks for Mom, Baby
- Gestational Diabetes a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression: Study
- Tracking Blood Sugar in Pregnancy Might Lower Heart Defect Risk for Baby
- Too Much Iron Linked to Gestational Diabetes
- New Guidelines Urge Diabetics to Move More
- Can Pregnancy Problems Foretell Future Health Risks?
- Is Summer Peak Time for Diabetes Tied to Pregnancy?
- Diabetes During Pregnancy Could Pose Harm to Baby
- Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests
- Exercise May Keep Diabetes in Check During Pregnancy
- Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies
- Vitamin D While Pregnant Won't Boost Most Infants' Bone Health, Study Says
- Study Links Diabetes, Obesity in Moms-to-Be to Higher Autism Risk in Kids
- Pre-Pregnancy Potato Consumption Linked to Gestational Diabetes
- More Belly Fat in First Trimester Linked to Diabetes Risk Later in Pregnancy
- 'Organic Pollutants' Linked to Gestational Diabetes
- Exercise Can Cut Risk of Pregnancy-Related Diabetes: Study
- Could Diabetes Run in Your Relationship?
- Baby's Gender May Influence Mom's Diabetes Risk
- Is Gestational Diabetes Linked to Autism?
- Gestational Diabetes Drug Might Raise Babies' Complication Risk
- 2 Factors Greatly Boost New Moms' Odds of Type 2 Diabetes
- Many Women Gain Too Much Weight While Pregnant, Study Finds
- Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Some Pregnancy Complications, Raise Others
- Cost of Diabetes Care Keeps Climbing, Report Shows
- Gestational Diabetes May Influence Daughter's Weight Later
- Health Tip: Breast-feeding With Diabetes
- Fried Foods Linked to Raised Risk of Diabetes in Pregnancy
- Healthy Lifestyle Before Pregnancy May Cut Gestational Diabetes Risk
- 1 in 10 Moms-to-Be Develop Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes: CDC
- Obesity Linked to Increased Odds of Losing Baby, Study Finds
- Pregnancy-Related Diabetes Tied to Future Heart Risk
- U.S. Panel Urges Diabetes Screening for All Pregnant Women
- Testing for Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes Should Be Routine, Experts Say
- Health Tip: Understanding Gestational Diabetes
- Sleep Apnea Seen in Pregnant Women With Gestational Diabetes
- Bacteria Infection Risk May Be Higher for Pregnant Women With Diabetes
- Task Force: Screen for Gestational Diabetes After 24 Weeks of Pregnancy
- Vitamin D Important During Pregnancy, Study Suggests
- Ob/Gyn Group Urges Docs to Help Prevent 'Octomom'-Type Multiple Births
- Health Tip: Should I Be Screened for Prediabetes?
- Overweight? You Can Scale Back Weight Gain in Pregnancy
- Health Tip: Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Prevention: Start Small, Experts Say
- World Diabetes Day Designed to Raise Awareness
- Women Born Preterm May Face Pregnancy Risks
- Gestational Diabetes, Poverty Linked to ADHD
- Excess Weight, Diabetes Raise Risk of Big Babies
- Mom's Pot Use Doubles Risk of 'Preemie' Birth: Study
- Antipsychotic Drugs Linked to Higher Odds for Diabetes in Pregnancy
- Overweight Moms More Apt to Have Large Babies, Study Says
- Pregnancy After 40: Healthy Weight Improves Risk
- Overweight Pregnant Women at Higher Risk for Complications
- Heavier Baby Girls at Higher Risk for Diabetes, Heart Woes as Adults
- Pregnancy Complications May Predict Heart Trouble Later
- Fatty Diet Before Pregnancy Linked to Gestational Diabetes
- Mom's Poverty, Diabetes Might Raise ADHD Risk in Kids
- Preterm Birth Rates Heading in Right Direction, Barely
- 49 Million Americans Struggle to Put Food on the Table
- No More Co-pay for Birth Control
- What's the Best Test for Children's Diabetes?
- Breastfeeding by Diabetic Moms Cuts Babies' Obesity Risk
- New Guidelines on Women's Heart Risk
- CDC: 26 Million Americans Have Diabetes
- Kids' Behavior Not Linked to Obese Moms-to-Be
- Breastfeeding May Lower Moms' Diabetes Risk
- Obesity May Increase Risk of Preterm Birth
- High Doses of Vitamin D May Cut Pregnancy Risks
- Exercise During Pregnancy for Smaller Baby
- Pregnant Women Don't Get Enough Exercise
- Gestational Diabetes Underdiagnosed
- Early Pregnancy Weight Gain Ups Diabetes Risk