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- Who should get genetic for breast cancer genes?
- What are the facts about families that have multiple members with breast cancer?
- How do you decide whether she should get genetic testing?
- Women at risk for a genetic breast cancer disorder must understand what the genetic testing process involves.
- What about the many women who do not fit the pattern of a genetic breast cancer disorder? How worried should they be?
Who should get genetic for breast cancer genes?
Ms. G. is a 40-year-old woman with two small children. Like most women, she is concerned about her chances of developing breast cancer. She asks her doctor about her risks. Although breast cancer is a worry for most women, Ms. G. is especially worried because of a family history of breast cancer. Her mother and sister had breast cancers that were diagnosed at young ages.
A woman with a family history of breast cancer has a lot of concerns. Among other things, she is thinking of her job, children, and husband, as well as how her medical insurance and health team will be able to serve her needs in the future should she be diagnosed with breast cancer.
What are the facts about families that have multiple members with breast cancer?
Overall, inherited breast cancer disorders account for a small minority of breast cancers. Genes are the "messages" in each cell of the body that determine the ultimate design of our bodies. Genes can be damaged by the environment. Additionally, people can be born with defects in the genes that remove the body's defenses against cancers. Only in about 10% of all breast cancer cases is there actually an inherited genetic defect that can be detected by testing. In fact, most cases of breast cancer occur in women who do not have a family history of breast cancer. A complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors affects the development of breast cancer, and all the key factors have not yet been identified.
How do you decide whether she should get genetic testing?
The whole issue of genetic testing for breast cancer is complicated. Recent research indicates that the information women seek most often when they request genetic testing does not match what they can realistically determine from this testing. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to consider the role of this testing and what it involves.
Certain characteristics make a woman at higher risk for genetic breast cancer disorders. These factors include:
- family members with breast cancer, especially at a young age;
- breast cancer in a male family member;
- both breast and ovarian cancer in the family;
- bilateral breast cancer in a single family member;
- breast cancer diagnosed at very young ages; and
- being of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.
Ms. G. and her doctor determine that she falls within the group with higher risk factors because her sister and mother both had breast cancer at young ages.
Women at risk for a genetic breast cancer disorder must understand what the genetic testing process involves.
First, an expert reviews the family medical history to evaluate what sort of pattern of genetic breast cancer may be occurring. Next, the family member's tumor sample, if available, undergoes testing. It is impossible to run tests to analyze every single gene in a woman. Therefore, the nature of the specific disorder is narrowed by testing of the specific tumor from an affected family member. The tests are designed to determine if any of the known inherited genetic breast cancer genes is present. If the defect is found on the tissue sample of the woman's relative, the lab will then know exactly which defect should be tested in the blood sample of the woman herself. In this way, a woman will be able to be counseled about her own risk. Counseling, education, and emotional support are provided both before and after any testing, no matter what the result.
Prior to undergoing testing, it is essential that women consider the benefits and risks in light of the possible results. For example, if her test is positive (meaning she is affected by a genetic disorder) there are measures that can reduce her breast cancer risk. One of these is having breast tissue surgically removed, knows as prophylactic mastectomies. This is an unpleasant prospect for many women. Removal of the ovaries also appears to be helpful in reducing risk. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista) are two members of the class of drugs known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that have been shown in clinical trials to be effective in preventing breast cancer in women at high risk for the disease, but there are fewer data available on their effects in women who are BRCA mutation carriers. There have been no studies that show that tamoxifen actually prolongs survival in women at high risk for breast cancer, and rare but serious adverse events (uterine cancer, blood clots) have been reported. Raloxifene has been tested and shown to be effective in preventing breast cancer in postmenopausal women but its effectiveness is unknown in younger women. There are no medications specifically approved for use in reducing the risk in women with genetic mutations (BRCA genes) that are known to increase susceptibility to breast cancer.
While Ms. G. is considering these surgery options, she must also decide a variety of issues such as:
- whom she would tell,
- whether her own children should be tested, and
- how her health insurance and/or job will be affected.
The Genetic Information Non Discrimination Control Act of 2008 and the Affordable Care Act of 2010 have lessened concerns about insurers taking away insurance based on genetic testing. If she does not desire to inform anyone about a positive test and would not consider having surgery, then perhaps she may not want to be tested in the first place. On the other hand, what if the test results for Ms. G. are negative? This may be a relief. However, there is also the frustrating fact that even if a woman has a negative genetic test, she is still at higher risk for breast cancer than the general population due to the risk factor of having multiple family members with breast cancer. Another possibility with genetic testing is that a non-typical alteration in a breast cancer-related gene is detected, the significance of which is unclear.
What about the many women who do not fit the pattern of a genetic breast cancer disorder? How worried should they be?
Although most women who are surveyed think breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, heart disease is actually the leading cause of death in women. Heart disease kills one out of two women, far in excess of the number of deaths caused by breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs in nearly 240,000 women each year, but only about 40,000 die of it each year. It is important to keep the perspective that most women who have only one family member with breast cancer should actually be more concerned with discussing heart disease prevention with their physicians than breast cancer prevention.
In conclusion, any woman in Ms. G.'s situation needs to talk to a doctor who is specially educated to counsel high-risk women regarding if and when they should be tested and how to act on the different test result scenarios -- all prior to testing. There is further counseling after testing, whether results are positive or negative. Research is progressing rapidly, with the results of new studies coming out all the time.
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"BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing."
National Cancer Institute. 29 May 2009.
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Genetic Testing for Breast CancerIntensive genetic counseling is required before undergoing genetic tests for breast cancer. During this educational counseling session, the health care provider can fully explain the benefits and risks of genetic testing and answer any questions you may have. You will also be required to sign a consent form prior to participating in any genetic tests. The form is an agreement between you and your doctor, showing that you have discussed the test and how its results might affect your family.
Nature vs Nurture Theory Genes or Environment
In the nature vs. nurture debate, "nature" represents our genetic makeup. These are the genes you have inherited from your biological family, and that may affect your physical and mental health, for example, intelligence, disease, and psychological health. While "nurture" represents how our environment effects our intelligence, traits, personality, and mental and physical health. Studies have shown that a person's environment can alter his or her genes, and lower their risk of developing certain inherited diseases, conditions, and mental illnesses that run in his or her family.
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Researchers and doctors have found that particular physical traits like eye and skin color, and diseases like Huntington's chorea are the result of genetic inheritance (inherited from a family member). However, patterns of thinking and behavior can be attributed to both nature and nurture (your genes and your environment). Moreover, researchers who study the brain have found overwhelming evidence that a person's genetic factors and his or her experiences guide and support brain development. The human brain produces new nerve cells (neurons) into adulthood, and these nerve cells can change the strength of their connections throughout life, which can effect intelligence and other factors. Research also has shown that sensory input (sights, smells, sounds, touch, etc.) has a critical in the role of brain development in the first few days of our lives, and probably throughout our life.
The controversy over how much our genes and environment effect our psychological and physical health still continues, however.
NCBI. PubMed.gov. Brain development and the nature versues nurture debate. Prog Brain Res. 2011;189:3-22. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53884-0.00015-4.
NCBI Resources. Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2008.
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