Gallstones are stones that form in the bile within the gallbladder or bile ducts when substances in the bile fluid harden and form stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Certain conditions increase the likelihood of developing gallstones. These include female gender, obesity, increasing age, rapid weight loss, pregnancy, birth control pill or hormone therapy use, and Crohn's disease. The medical term for gallstones is cholelithiasis.
Gallstones themselves typically do not cause symptoms or signs, and people who have gallstones may not know they are present. When signs and symptoms of gallstones occur, it is largely due to the passage of gallstones pass into the bile ducts, leading to a blockage in bile flow. Symptoms associated with this condition, known as biliary colic, include severe pain in the upper-right abdomen, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Cause of gallstones
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
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