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- What is fosinopril sodium, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- Is fosinopril sodium available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for fosinopril sodium?
- What are the side effects of fosinopril sodium?
- What is the dosage for fosinopril sodium?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with fosinopril sodium?
- Is fosinopril sodium safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about fosinopril sodium?
What is fosinopril sodium, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Fosinopril is in a class of drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. ACE inhibitors are used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure and for preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes. Other ACE inhibitors include enalapril (Vasotec), quinapril (Accupril), captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), benazepril (Lotensin), lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil), moexipril (Univasc) and trandolapril (Mavik). ACE is an enzyme in blood which controls the formation of angiotensin II, a chemical that circulates in blood and causes constriction of arteries and veins. Constriction of arteries and veins elevates blood pressure. ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and block the formation of angiotensin II. By blocking the formation of angiotensin II, fosinopril relaxes the arteries and veins and lowers blood pressure. By reducing blood pressure, fosinopril also reduces the work that the heart must do to pump blood through the arteries and veins. This improves the output of blood from the heart especially when the heart is failing. The FDA approved fosinopril in May 1991.
What are the side effects of fosinopril sodium?
Fosinopril is generally well tolerated. The most common side effects are:
Other important and serious side effects, although rare, include:
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What is the dosage for fosinopril sodium?
The recommended adult dose for treating hypertension or heart failure is 10-40 mg once or twice daily. The maximum dose is 80 mg daily. Fosinopril is generally prescribed once daily, although some patients may need two doses per day. Patients with reduced kidney function need lower doses since their kidneys do not eliminate fosinopril from the body as well as normal kidneys. Fosinopril may be taken with or without food.
Which drugs or supplements interact with fosinopril sodium?
Combining fosinopril with potassium supplements, potassium containing salt substitutes, or potassium-conserving diuretics such as amiloride (Moduretic), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyazide, Maxzide), can lead to dangerously high blood levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) since fosinopril has a tendency to reduce the excretion of potassium. Fosinopril should not be taken at the same time as aluminum or magnesium-based antacids, such as simethicone (Mylanta, Gas-X, etc.) or Maalox since these antacids bind fosinopril and decrease the amount of fosinopril that is absorbed from the intestine. Patients should take antacids and fosinopril at least two hours apart.
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Medipren, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, etc.), indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve) may reduce the effects of ACE inhibitors on blood pressure. Combining fosinopril or other ACE inhibitors with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with poor kidney function may result in reduced kidney function, including kidney failure. These effects usually are reversible. Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) may occur when injectable gold sodium aurothiomalate (Myochrysine), used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is combined with ACE inhibitors, including fosinopril.
Is fosinopril sodium safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
ACE inhibitors, including fosinopril, can be harmful to the fetus and should not be taken by pregnant women.
Fosinopril is secreted in breast milk and is not recommended for nursing mothers.
What else should I know about fosinopril sodium?
What preparations of fosinopril sodium are available?
Tablets: 10, 20, and 40 mg
How should I keep fosinopril sodium stored?
Tablets should be stored between 15-30 C (59-86 F).
Fosinopril sodium (Monopril) is an ACE inhibitor drug prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and post-heart attack treatment. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) OverviewCongestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
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Type 2 diabetes is first treated with:
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
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High Blood Pressure Hypertension
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Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
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Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
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