What is Diflucan (fluconazole)? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
Diflucan (fluconazole) is an anti-fungal medication related to clotrimazole (Lotrimin), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), and miconazole (Micatin, Monistat). Fluconazole prevents growth of fungi by preventing production of the membranes that surround fungal cells.
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- What is Diflucan (fluconazole)? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What are the uses for Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- What are the side effects of Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- What is the dosage for Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- Is Diflucan (fluconazole) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about Diflucan (fluconazole)?
What are the uses for Diflucan (fluconazole)?
Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain, inflammation and fever caused by many and diverse diseases. It is used for treating menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea), osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Intravenous ibuprofen is used for treating patent ductus arteriosus.
- Diflucan is used for treating vaginal, oral, and esophageal fungal infections caused by Candida. It is used for treating uncomplicated, complicated, or recurrent vaginal Candida infections.
- Diflucan also may be effective in treating urinary tract infections, peritonitis, pneumonia and disseminated infections caused by Candida.
- Diflucanis used for treating cryptococcal meningitis, and prevention of Candida infections in patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation after bone marrow transplantation.
What are the side effects of Diflucan (fluconazole)?
Common side effects of fluconazole include
Other important side effects include
Possible serious side effects include
- reduced number of white blood cells,
- reduced number of blood platelets, and
- toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Rarely, serious allergic reactions, including angioedema (swelling of tissues), may also occur. Liver dysfunction (jaundice, hepatitis) and abnormal heart beats have been associated with fluconazole. Stevens-Johnson syndrome has also been reported.
What is the dosage for Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- The usual adult dose is 50-400 mg daily depending on the type of infection. Although symptoms of oral Candida infections may subside in a few days, treatment is continued for 2 weeks.
- Esophageal Candida infections are treated for 3 weeks or longer.
- Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis may last for 10-12 weeks after cerebrospinal fluid cultures become negative.
Which drugs or supplements interact with Diflucan (fluconazole)?
- Hydrochlorothiazide increases the blood concentration of fluconazole by 40%. However, dosage modification is not recommended when both drugs are combined.
- Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifadin, Rifater, Rifamate) reduces the blood concentration of oral fluconazole, probably by increasing the elimination of fluconazole in the liver; therefore, reducing the effectiveness of fluconazole.
- Fluconazole may increase the concentration of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) in blood by reducing the elimination of warfarin. Therefore, the effect of warfarin may increase, leading to an increased tendency to bleed.
- Fluconazole also increases the concentration of the following drugs in the blood, and as a result, the risk of side effects of these drugs may increase. These drugs include:
- phenytoin (Dilantin),
- zidovudine (Retrovir),
- saquinavir (Invirase),
- theophylline (Theo-Dur, Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair, Uniphyl, Slo-Phyllin),
- glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase),
- triazolam (Glucotrol),
- midazolam (Versed),
- celecoxib (Celebrex),
- fentanyl (Sublimaze),
- atorvastatin (Lipitor),
- simvastatin (Zocor), and
- lovastatin (Mevacor).
- As a result, the risk of side effects from the above drugs may increase.
- Combining fluconazole with amiodarone (Cordarone), pimozide (Orap), bepridil (Vascor) or other drugs that affect heart rhythm may increase the risk of abnormal heart rhythms.
Infectious Disease Resources
Is Diflucan (fluconazole) safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate studies of Diflucan in pregnant women. There are reports of harmful effects to the fetus when high dose fluconazole was administered to pregnant women for a few months. Use of fluconazole during pregnancy is not recommended.
- Diflucan is secreted in breast milk at concentrations similar to the mother's blood level. However, fluconazole is used for treating neonates with fungal infections and for treating lactation associated Candida infections. Available evidence suggests that use of fluconazole during breastfeeding has little risk.
What else should I know about Diflucan (fluconazole)?
Preparations available for Diflucan
- Tablets: 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg.
- Oral Suspension: 10 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml.
- Injection: 2 mg/ml
How to keep Diflucan (fluconazole) stored
- Tablets and dry powder should be stored below 86 F (30 C).Injection and reconstituted suspension should be stored between 5 C and 30 C (41 F and 86 F).
- Unused portions of the reconstituted suspension should be protected from freezing and discarded after 2 weeks.
When was Diflucan (fluconazole) approved by the FDA?
- The FDA approved fluconazole in January 1990.
Generic and prescription avialability
- Diflucan is available in generic form. You need a prescription ffor Diflucan from your doctor.
Diflucan (fluconazole) is a drug prescribed to treat fungal infections caused by Candida, for example, vaginal, oral, esophageal, urinary tract, pneumonia, and peritonitis. Side effects include nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, rash, indigestion, and abdominal pain.
Drug interactions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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