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What is evolocumab?
- Repatha is used along with diet, exercise and maximum tolerated doses of statins to reduce LDL cholesterol in adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (and inherited disorder that causes high levels of LDL) or adults with heart problems related to excess cholesterol in the body.
- Repatha is also used along with diet and other LDL-lowering treatments, for example, statins, ezetimibe (Zetia) and LDL apheresis, to reduce cholesterol in people with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (an inherited disorder that causes high levels of LDL).
What brand names are available for evolocumab?
Is evolocumab available as a generic drug?
Do I need a prescription for evolocumab?
What are the side effects of evolocumab?
The most common side effects associated with Repatha treatment include
Other side effects include
- muscle pain,
- muscle spasm,
- urinary tract infections (UTIs),
- allergic reactions,
- joint pain,
- confusion, and
A more serious side effect is:
- Hypersensitivity reactions: Repatha should not be used in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions to the product. Hypersensitivity reactions include itching, rash, and hives, have occurred. Repatha should be discontinued if signs or symptoms of serious allergic reactions occur.
What is the dosage for evolocumab?
- The recommended subcutaneous dose for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or adults with heart problems related to excess cholesterol in the body is either 140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg once monthly.
- The recommended subcutaneous dosage in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is 420 mg once monthly. LDL cholesterol levels should be measured 4 to 8 weeks after starting Repatha since response to therapy will depend on the degree of LDL-receptor function.
- LDL cholesterol levels should be measured within 4 to 8 weeks of starting therapy to assess response to treatment, and a decision should be made whether or not to adjust the dose.
- Repatha should only be injected subcutaneously into the thigh, abdomen, or upper arm. Injection sites should be rotated among different sites to prevent or reduce injection site reactions and irritation. Repatha should not be co-administered with other injectable drugs at the same injection site.
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Which drugs or supplements interact with evolocumab?
No clinically significant drug-drug interactions are known for Repatha.
Is evolocumab safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about evolocumab?
What preparations of evolocumab are available?
Single-use pre-filled syringe and single-use pre-filled Sureclick autoinjector, each designed to deliver 1 ml of 140 mg/ml solution.
How should I keep evolocumab stored?
Repatha should be stored in the refrigerator at 2 C to 8 C (36 F to 46 F) and protected from light. It should not be frozen.
IMAGESBrowse through our medical image collection to see illustrations of human anatomy and physiology See Images
Repatha (evolocumab) is a drug that belongs to the drug class called proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. Repatha is prescribed to reduce LDL cholesterol in adults with heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or adults with heart problems related to excess cholesterol in the body. Common side effects of Repatha include fatigue, headache, nausea, dizziness, flu- or cold-like symptoms. Drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed before taking this medication.
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How the Heart Works: Sides, Chambers, and Function
The heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout your body to sustain life. It is a fist-sized muscle that beats (expands and contracts) 100,000 times per day, pumping a total of five or six quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons per day.
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include: Smoking High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Family history Obesity Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
Cholesterol (Lowering Your Cholesterol)
High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Heartburn during Pregnancy
Heartburn during pregnancy is quite common. During pregnancy the lower esophageal sphincter muscle becomes weakened , which likely occurs due to the effect of the high levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy. Fortunately, this resolves after pregnancy. Management of heartburn during pregnancy are generally involves lifestyle changes and avoiding foods that promote heartburn, for example, don't smoke, avoid tight clothing, eat small, frequent meals, chew gum, or sip liquids. The effect of heartburn medications on the fetus is unknown, so it is best to check with your OB/GYN if you feel you need medication to treat heartburn.
Stress and Heart Disease
The connection between stress and heart disease is not clear. Stress itself may be a risk factor, or high levels of stress may make risk factors for heart disease worse. The warning signs of stress can be physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral. Reducing stressors in an individuals life not only can lead to a more productive life, but may also decrease the risk for heart disease and causes of heart disease.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Benefits, Uses, Foods)
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats that help decrease one's cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Omega-3s are found in: salmon, sardines, walnuts, and canola oil. These fats may help reduce the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death.
Low Cholesterol Diet
Cholesterol is naturally produced by the body, and is a building block for cell membranes and hormones. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is the "good" cholesterol. High levels of LDL and low levels of HDL cholesterol put a person at risk for heart attack, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA or mini stroke), and peripheral artery disease. High cholesterol can be lowered by eating foods that lower cholesterol, for example, eat more high soluble fiber foods (oatmeal, oat bran, vegetables, and certain fruits), use olive oil, eat foods fortified with plant sterols and stanols, soy, nuts, and omega-3 fatty acids. Foods that raise LDL or bad cholesterol include foods high in saturated and trans fats, fatty meats, limit egg yolks, limit milk products, limit crackers, muffins, and snacks, and avoid unhealthy fast foods that are high in fat and sugar High cholesterol treatment includes lifestyle changes (diet and exercise), and medications such as statins, bile acid resins, and fibric acid derivatives.
Fitness: Exercise for a Healthy Heart
Regular exercise can help reduce the risk of heart disease. To achieve maximum benefits, do a mix of stretching exercise, aerobic activity, and strengthening exercise. Aim to get 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least three to four times a week. Consult a doctor before exercising for the first time, especially if you have health problems.
Heart Attack Treatment
A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to prevent or stop this damage to the heart muscle. Heart attack treatments included medications, procedures, and surgeries to protect the heart muscle against injury.
Heart Disease in Women
Heart disease in women has somewhat different symptoms, risk factors, and treatment compared to heart disease in men. Many women and health professionals are not aware of the risk factors for heart disease in women and may delay diagnosis and treatment. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, tobacco use, overweight/obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, and depression influence heart disease risk in women. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes also increase women's risk of heart disease. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG), stress-ECG, endothelial testing, ankle-brachial index (ABI), echocardiogram, nuclear imaging, electron beam CT, and lab tests to assess blood lipids and biomarkers of inflammation are used to diagnose heart disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of heart disease in women saves lives. Heart disease can be prevented and reversed with lifestyle changes.
Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay
A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay includes graphics, pictures, and illustrations of diseased heart tissue and the mechanisms that lead to coronary artery disease, and possible heart attack. A coronary artery occlusion may be fatal, but most patients survive it. Death can occur when the occlusion leads to an abnormal heartbeat (severe arrhythmia) or death of heart muscle (extensive myocardial infarction).
Heart Attacks in Women
Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a heart attack than men. High cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, and high triglycerides are contributors to heart disease. Some of the common symptoms of a heart attack in women include chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint or woozy, and more. Heart disease can be prevented by lifestyle changes and controlling high blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and diseases such as diabetes.
High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions
Cholesterol occurs naturally in the body. High blood cholesterol levels increase a person's risk of developing heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, TIAs, and more. In addition to medication (fibrates, statins, bile acid sequestrants, and niacin), lifestyle changes can be made to lower blood cholesterol levels
Heart Attack Prevention
Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management. Symptoms of heart attack in men and women include chest discomfort and pain in the shoulder, neck, jaw, stomach, or back. Women experience the same symptoms as men; however, they also may experience: Extreme fatigue Pain in the upper abdomen Dizziness Fainting Leading a healthy lifestyle with a heart healthy low-fat diet, and exercise can help prevent heart disease and heart attack.
Smoking and Heart Disease
Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases blood pressure, blood clots, and damages coronary arteries. Learn how to quit smoking today, to prolong your life.
Heart Disease Treatment in Women
Heart disease treatment in women should take into account female-specific guidelines that were developed by the American Heart Association. Risk factors and symptoms of heart disease in women differ from those in men. Treatment may include lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight management, smoking cessation, stress reduction), medications, percutaneous intervention procedure (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Heart disease is reversible with treatment.
Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series
Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are interconnected and affect your risk for heart disease or heart attack. For better heart health, avoid the following: fried foods, hard margarine, commercial baked goods, most packaged and processed snack foods, high fat dairy, and processed meats such as bacon, sausage, and deli meats. Antioxidants and exercise also play a key role in heart attack and heart disease prevention. Lower your risk factors for heart disease and heart attack by: lowering cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, diabetes prevention, and smoking cesssation. Here are a few things you can do to prevent heart attacks: Eat whole, natural, fresh foods, eat five to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, eat more omega-3 fatty acids, drink water, tea, non-fat dairy and red wine, eat lean proteins, limit glycemic foods, and exercise daily.
Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety. There are fitness programs that fit any age or lifestyle.
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