European Mandrake

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What other names is European Mandrake known by?

Alraunwurzel, Mandragora, Mandragora officinarum, Mandragora vernalis, Mandragore, Mandragore Officinale, Mandragore des Sorcières, Mandrake, Manzana de Satán, Racine de Sorcière, Satan's Apple.

What is European Mandrake?

European mandrake is an herb that is the subject of many superstitions. Some people believe that it has magical powers. The root and leaves are used to make medicine.

People take European mandrake root for treating stomach ulcers, colic, constipation, asthma, hay fever, convulsions, arthritis-like pain (rheumatism), and whooping cough. It is also used to trigger vomiting, cause sleepiness (sedation), reduce pain, and increase interest in sexual activity.

European mandrake fresh leaves and leaf extracts are applied directly to the skin for treating skin ulcers.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Pain.
  • Stomach ulcers.
  • Constipation.
  • Colic.
  • Asthma.
  • Hay fever.
  • Convulsions.
  • Arthritis-like pain.
  • Whooping cough.
  • Causing sleepiness (sedation).
  • Skin ulcers, when the leaf or leaf extract is applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of European mandrake for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

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How does European Mandrake work?

European mandrake can reduce the actions of certain chemicals that can affect many body systems, including the eyes, bladder, lungs, bowels, and mouth.

Are there safety concerns?

European mandrake is POSSIBLY UNSAFE and should be avoided. It can cause many side effects, including confusion, drowsiness, dry mouth, heart problems, vision problems, overheating, problems with urination, and hallucinations. Large doses can be fatal.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

It is UNSAFE for anyone to use European mandrake, but people with the following conditions are especially likely to experience harmful side effects.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Don't take European mandrake by mouth if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. It can cause serious or even fatal side effects.

Children: Don't give European mandrake to children because they are especially sensitive to the harmful chemicals it contains.

Down syndrome: Don't give European mandrake to people with Down syndrome because they are especially sensitive to the harmful chemicals it contains.

Elderly people: Don't take European mandrake if you are elderly because you might be especially sensitive to the harmful chemicals it contains.

Heart conditions including heart failure, coronary artery disease, and fast and irregular heartbeat: Don't take European mandrake if you have one of these conditions. It could make your condition worse.

Liver problems: Don't take European mandrake if you have liver disease. It could make your condition worse.

Kidney problems: Don't take European mandrake if you have kidney disease. It could make your condition worse.

High blood pressure: Don't take European mandrake if you have high blood pressure. It could make your condition worse.

Over-active thyroid: Don't take European mandrake if you have thyroid problems. It could make your condition worse.

Myasthenia gravis: Don't take European mandrake if you have myasthenia gravis. It could make your condition worse.

Glaucoma: Don't take European mandrake if you have glaucoma. It could make your condition worse.

Spastic paralysis or brain damage: Don't take European mandrake if you have brain damage. It could make your condition worse.

Enlarged prostate: Don't take European mandrake if you have an enlarged prostate. It could make your condition worse.

Urinary problems: Don't take European mandrake if you have problems urinating. It could make your condition worse.

Digestive tract conditions such as heartburn or "gastroesophageal reflux disease" (GERD), a hiatal hernia, an infection, stomach ulcer, constipation, a blockage, ulcerative colitis, a serious condition called toxic megacolon, or other digestive disorders: Don't take European mandrake if you have any of these conditions. It could make your condition worse.

Are there any interactions with medications?



Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs)
Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Talk with your health provider.

European mandrake contains chemicals that cause a drying effect. It also affects the brain and heart. Drying medications called anticholinergic drugs can also cause these effects. Taking European mandrake and drying medications together might cause side effects including dry skin, dizziness, low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and other serious side effects.

Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, and some medications used for allergies (antihistamines), and for depression (antidepressants).



Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs)
Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Talk with your health provider.

European mandrake seems to slow down the bowels. Taking European mandrake along with medications taken by mouth might increase how much medicine your body absorbs. Increasing how much medicine your body absorbs can increase the effects and side effects of your medicines.

Dosing considerations for European Mandrake.

The appropriate dose of European mandrake depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for European mandrake. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Reviewed on 3/29/2011 12:35:40 PM

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