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What is endotracheal intubation?
Endotracheal intubation is a procedure by which a tube is inserted through the mouth down into the trachea (the large airway from the mouth to the lungs). Before surgery, this is often done under deep sedation. In emergency situations, the patient is often unconscious at the time of this procedure.
What kind of tube is used?
The tube that is used today is usually a flexible plastic tube. It is called an endotracheal tube because it is slipped within the trachea.
How do they put the tube down into the trachea?
The doctor often inserts the tube with the help of a laryngoscope, an instrument that permits the doctor to see the upper portion of the trachea, just below the vocal cords. During the procedure the laryngoscope is used to hold the tongue aside while inserting the tube into the trachea. It is important that the head be positioned in the appropriate manner to allow for proper visualization. Pressure is often applied to the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple) to help with visualization and prevent possible aspiration of stomach contents.
What is the purpose of endotracheal intubation?
The endotracheal tube serves as an open passage through the upper airway. The purpose of endotracheal intubation is to permit air to pass freely to and from the lungs in order to ventilate the lungs. Endotracheal tubes can be connected to ventilator machines to provide artificial respiration. This can help when a patient is unconscious and by maintaining a patent airway, especially during surgery. It is often used when patients are critically ill and cannot maintain adequate respiratory function to meet their needs. The endotracheal tube facilitates the use of a mechanical ventilator in these critical situations.
What are the complications of endotracheal intubation?
If the tube is inadvertently placed in the esophagus (right behind the trachea), adequate respirations will not occur. Brain damage, cardiac arrest, and death can occur. Aspiration of stomach contents can result in pneumonia and ARDS. Placement of the tube too deep can result in only one lung being ventilated and can result in a pneumothorax as well as inadequate ventilation. During endotracheal tube placement, damage can also occur to the teeth, the soft tissues in the back of the throat, as well as the vocal cords.
This procedure should be performed by a physician with experience in intubation. In the vast majority of cases of intubation, no significant complications occur.
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"Direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in adults." UptoDate. Updated Aug 23, 2016.
Top Endotracheal Intubation Related Articles
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung condition in which trauma to the lungs leads to inflammation of the lungs, accumulation of fluid in the alveolar air sacs, low blood oxygen, and respiratory distress. ARDS can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms of are shortness of breath and low levels of oxygen in the blood, which can cause your organs to fail.
Causes of ARDS include:
- Aspiration into the lungs
- Severe blow to the chest
- Severe injury with shock
- Drug overdose
- Inflamed pancreas
- Other lung conditions and infections
- Near drowning
There have been genetic factors linked to ARDS. Treatment for includes supplemental oxygen, and/or medication. According to some studies, survival rates for ARDS depend upon the cause associated with it, but can vary from 48% to 68%.
Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Presentation." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016.
Harman, EM, MD. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome." Medscape. Updated: Aug 11, 2016.
PubMed Health. "ARDS." Updated: Jun 11, 2014.
Reynolds, HN. et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: estimated incidence and mortality rate in a 5 million-person population base. Crit Care. 1998; 2(1): 29–34. Published online 1998 Mar 12. doi: 10.1186/cc121
Esophagus PictureThe esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the throat (pharynx) with the stomach. See a picture of the Esophagus and learn more about the health topic.
Lungs Design And PurposeThe lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs.
Pneumonia FactsPneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
PneumothoraxA pneumothorax is free air in the chest outside the lung, that causes the lung to collapse (collapsed lung). There are two types of pneumothorax, spontaneous or primary pneumothorax and secondary pneumothorax. Symptoms include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, cough, and fatigue.
TracheostomyA tracheostomy is a surgically created opening in the neck leading directly to the trachea (the breathing tube). It is maintained open with a hollow tube called a tracheostomy tube. Tracheostomies are used to:
- bypass an obstructed airway,
- remove airway secretions, and
- easily deliver oxygen to the lungs.