Angelica China, Angelica sinensis, Angelica polymorpha var. sinensis, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Angélique Chinoise, Angélique de Chine, Chinese Angelica, Dang Gui, Danggui, Danguia, Don Quai, Kinesisk Kvan, Ligustilides, Radix Angelicae Gigantis, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Tang Kuei, Tan Kue Bai Zhi, Tanggwi, Toki.
Dong quai is a plant. People use the root to make medicine.
Dong quai is used for menstrual cramps, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and menopausal symptoms. It is also used orally as a "blood purifier"; to manage hypertension, infertility, joint pain, ulcers, "tired blood" (anemia), and constipation; and in the prevention and treatment of allergic attacks. Dong quai is also used orally for the treatment of loss of skin color (depigmentation) and psoriasis.
Some men apply dong quai to the skin of the penis as part of a multi-ingredient preparation for treating premature ejaculation.
In Southeast Asia, other Angelica species are sometimes substituted for dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Most often these include Angelica acutiloba, which is predominantly found in Japan; and Angelica gigas, which is mainly found in Korea. Although these three species are similar, the chemicals they contain are different. Don't think of these species as interchangeable.
How does it work?
Dong quai root has been shown to affect estrogen and other hormones in animals. It is not known if these same effects happen in humans.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Heart disease. Early research suggests that injecting a specific product containing dong quai, ginseng, and astragalus (Yi-qi Huo-xue Injection) intravenously (by IV) reduces chest pain, improves heart function, and increases exercise tolerance in people with heart disease.
- Stroke. Early research suggests that injecting 200 mL of solution containing dong quai intravenously (by IV) for 20 days does not improve brain function in people who had a stroke due to a blocked blood flow to the brain.
- Menopausal symptoms. The effect of dong quai on menopausal symptoms is unclear. In a study evaluating dong quai, it was found to have no beneficial effect on menopausal symptoms. However, in some studies evaluating products containing dong quai and other ingredients hot flashes were decreased.
- Migraine. Early research suggests that taking a combination of soy, dong quai, and black cohosh for 24 weeks reduces migraines associated with menstruation.
- Problems during pregnancy. Early research suggests that taking a combination of dong quai, motherwort, white peony, Banks' rose, and Ligustica during pregnancy reduces the risk of having a miscarriage in pregnant women with maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility.
- High blood pressure arteries carrying blood from the heart to the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Early research suggests that injecting 250 mL of a dong quai solution intravenously (by IV) for up to 10 days reduces pressure and improves blood flow in people with pulmonary hypertension.
- Premature ejaculation. Early research shows that applying a cream contain dong quai and other herbs might improve premature ejaculation. The other herbs included in the cream are Panax ginseng root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, clove flower, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream).
- Painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhea).
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
- High blood pressure.
- Joint aches and pains.
- Skin discoloration and psoriasis.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Dong quai is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults when taken by mouth and when occasionally applied to the skin as an ingredient in a cream. More evidence is needed to determine its safety after prolonged or repeated use.
Dong quai can cause skin to become extra-sensitive to the sun. This might put you at greater risk for skin cancer. Wear sun block outside, especially if you are light-skinned.
Taking dong quai in large amounts for a long period of time is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Dong quai contains chemicals that are considered to be cancer-causing (carcinogens).
There isn't enough information about the safety of using dong quai during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and don't use it.
Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Dong quai might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use dong quai.
Protein S deficiency: People with protein S deficiency have an increased risk of forming blood clots. There is some concern that dong quai might increase the risk of clot formation in these people because it has some of the effects of estrogen. Don't use dong quai if you have protein S deficiency.
Surgery: Dong quai can slow blood clotting. It might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking dong quai at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Dong quai can also slow blood clotting. Taking dong quai along with warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
EstrogensInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Dong quai might act like the hormone estrogen. When taken together, dong quai might increase the risk for side effects.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Dong quai might slow blood clotting. Taking dong quai along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For menopausal symptoms: 15 chewable tablets of a specific combination product containing dong quai and chamomile (Climex) daily for 12 weeks. A combination formula containing American ginseng, black cohosh, dong quai, milk thistle, red clover, and vitex agnus-castus (Phyto-Female Complex) twice daily for 3 months. 500 mg of an herbal combination product containing burdock root, licorice root, motherwort, dong quai, and Mexican wild yam root three times daily for 3 months.
- For early orgasm in men (premature ejaculation): a multi-ingredient cream preparation containing Panax ginseng root, dong quai, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, clove flower, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream) was applied to the glans penis 1 hour before sex and washed off immediately before sex.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
anonymous. Adult lead poisoning from an Asian remedy for menstrual cramps-- Connecticut, 1997. MMWR Morb.Mortal.Wkly.Rep. 1-22-1999;48(2):27-29. View abstract.
Belford-Courtney R. Comparison of chinese and western uses of Angelica sinensis. Aust J Med Herbalism 1993;5(4):87-91.
Bian, X., Xu, Y., Zhu, L., Gao, P., Liu, X., Liu, S., Qian, M., Gai, M., Yang, J., and Wu, Y. Prevention of maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1998;111(7):585-587. View abstract.
Bradley, R. R., Cunniff, P. J., Pereira, B. J., and Jaber, B. L. Hematopoietic effect of Radix angelicae sinensis in a hemodialysis patient. Am.J Kidney Dis. 1999;34(2):349-354. View abstract.
Carroll, D. G. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am Fam.Physician 2-1-2006;73(3):457-464. View abstract.
Cheema, D., Coomarasamy, A., and El Toukhy, T. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a structured evidence-based review. Arch Gynecol.Obstet 2007;276(5):463-469. View abstract.
Cho, C. H., Mei, Q. B., Shang, P., Lee, S. S., So, H. L., Guo, X., and Li, Y. Study of the gastrointestinal protective effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis in rats. Planta Med 2000;66(4):348-351. View abstract.
Chou, C. T. and Kuo, S. C. The anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperuricemic effects of Chinese herbal formula danggui-nian-tong-tang on acute gouty arthritis: a comparative study with indomethacin and allopurinol. Am.J Chin Med 1995;23(3-4):261-271. View abstract.
Circosta, C., Pasquale, R. D., Palumbo, D. R., Samperi, S., and Occhiuto, F. Estrogenic activity of standardized extract of Angelica sinensis. Phytother.Res. 2006;20(8):665-669. View abstract.
Dantas SM. Menopausal synptoms and alternative medicine. Prim Care Update OB/Gyn 1999;6:212-220.
Dong, W. G., Liu, S. P., Zhu, H. H., Luo, H. S., and Yu, J. P. Abnormal function of platelets and role of angelica sinensis in patients with ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol 2-15-2004;10(4):606-609. View abstract.
Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, and et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense, Breast Cancer Res Prog, June 8-11 2000;
Fugate, S. E. and Church, C. O. Nonestrogen treatment modalities for vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38(9):1482-1499. View abstract.
Goy SY and Loh KC. Gynaecomastia and the herbal tonic "Dong Quai". Singapore Medical Journal 2001;42(3):115-116.
Haimov-Kochman, R. and Hochner-Celnikier, D. Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. What does the evidence tell us? Acta Obstet Gynecol.Scand 2005;84(10):972-979. View abstract.
Hann, S. K., Park, Y. K., Im, S., and Byun, S. W. Angelica-induced phytophotodermatitis. Photodermatol.Photoimmunol.Photomed. 1991;8(2):84-85. View abstract.
Haranaka, K., Satomi, N., Sakurai, A., Haranaka, R., Okada, N., and Kobayashi, M. Antitumor activities and tumor necrosis factor producibility of traditional Chinese medicines and crude drugs. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1985;20(1):1-5. View abstract.
He, Z. P., Wang, D. Z., Shi, L. Y., and Wang, Z. Q. Treating amenorrhea in vital energy-deficient patients with angelica sinensis-astragalus membranaceus menstruation-regulating decoction. J Tradit.Chin Med 1986;6(3):187-190. View abstract.
Hsu, H. Y. and Lin, C. C. A preliminary study on the radioprotection of mouse hematopoiesis by dang-gui-shao-yao-san. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;55(1):43-48. View abstract.
Hudson TS, Standish L, Breed C, and et al. Clinical and endocrinological effects of a menopausal botanical formula. J Naturopathic Med 1998;7(1):73-77.
Huntley, A. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. J Br Menopause.Soc 2004;10(4):162-165. View abstract.
Huntley, A. L. and Ernst, E. A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopause. 2003;10(5):465-476. View abstract.
Jingzi LI, Lei YU, Ningjun LI, and et al. Astragulus mongholicus and Angelica sinensis compound alleviates nephrotic hyperlipidemia in rats. Chinese Medical Journal 2000;113(4):310-314.
Kan, W. L., Cho, C. H., Rudd, J. A., and Lin, G. Study of the anti-proliferative effects and synergy of phthalides from Angelica sinensis on colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-30-2008;120(1):36-43. View abstract.
Kang, H. J., Ansbacher, R., and Hammoud, M. M. Use of alternative and complementary medicine in menopause. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2002;79(3):195-207. View abstract.
Kelley, K. W. and Carroll, D. G. Evaluating the evidence for over-the-counter alternatives for relief of hot flashes in menopausal women. J.Am.Pharm.Assoc.(2003.) 2010;50(5):e106-e115. View abstract.
Kotani, N., Oyama, T., Sakai, I., Hashimoto, H., Muraoka, M., Ogawa, Y., and Matsuki, A. Analgesic effect of a herbal medicine for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea--a double-blind study. Am.J Chin Med 1997;25(2):205-212. View abstract.
Kumazawa, Y., Mizunoe, K., and Otsuka, Y. Immunostimulating polysaccharide separated from hot water extract of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato tohki). Immunology 1982;47(1):75-83. View abstract.
Kumazawa, Y., Nakatsuru, Y., Fujisawa, H., Nishimura, C., Mizunoe, K., Otsuka, Y., and Nomoto, K. Lymphocyte activation by a polysaccharide fraction separated from hot water extracts of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1985;8(6):417-424. View abstract.
Kupfersztain, C., Rotem, C., Fagot, R., and Kaplan, B. The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report. Clin Exp Obstet.Gynecol 2003;30(4):203-206. View abstract.
Lee, S. K., Cho, H. K., Cho, S. H., Kim, S. S., Nahm, D. H., and Park, H. S. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by multiple herbal agents in a pharmacist. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;86(4):469-474. View abstract.
Li, Y. H. [Local injection of angelica sinensis solution for the treatment of sclerosis and atrophic lichen of the vulva]. Zhonghua Hu Li Za Zhi 4-5-1983;18(2):98-99. View abstract.
Liao, J. Z., Chen, J. J., Wu, Z. M., Guo, W. Q., Zhao, L. Y., Qin, L. M., Wang, S. R., and Zhao, Y. R. Clinical and experimental studies of coronary heart disease treated with yi-qi huo-xue injection. J Tradit.Chin Med 1989;9(3):193-198. View abstract.
Low, Dog T. Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements. Am J Med 12-19-2005;118 Suppl 12B:98-108. View abstract.
Mazaro-Costa, R., Andersen, M. L., Hachul, H., and Tufik, S. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women? J.Sex Med. 2010;7(11):3695-3714. View abstract.
Mei, Q. B., Tao, J. Y., and Cui, B. Advances in the pharmacological studies of radix Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels (Chinese Danggui). Chin Med J (Engl.) 1991;104(9):776-781. View abstract.
Nambiar, S., Schwartz, R. H., and Constantino, A. Hypertension in mother and baby linked to ingestion of Chinese herbal medicine. West J Med 1999;171(3):152. View abstract.
Napoli M. Soy & dong quai for hot flashes: latest studies. HealthFacts 1998;23(2):5.
Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 10-16-2005;52(2):134-146. View abstract.
Noé J. Re: dong quai monograph. American Botanical council 1998;1.
Okuyama, T., Takata, M., Nishino, H., Nishino, A., Takayasu, J., and Iwashima, A. Studies on the antitumor-promoting activity of naturally occurring substances. II. Inhibition of tumor-promoter-enhanced phospholipid metabolism by umbelliferous materials. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(4):1084-1086. View abstract.
Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J. P. Inhibitory effects of tetramethylpyrazine and ferulic acid on spontaneous movement of rat uterus in situ. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1990;38(6):1620-1623. View abstract.
Piersen, C. E. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer. Integr.Cancer Ther 2003;2(2):120-138. View abstract.
Qi-bing M, Jing-yi T, and Bo C. Advances in the pharmacological studies of radix Angelica sinensis (Oliv) diels (Chinese danggui). Chinese Med J 1991;104:776-781.
Raman, A., Lin, Z. X., Sviderskaya, E., and Kowalska, D. Investigation of the effect of Angelica sinensis root extract on the proliferation of melanocytes in culture. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;54(2-3):165-170. View abstract.
Roberts H. Natural therapy in menopause. New Ethics Journal 1999;15-18.
Rock, E. and DeMichele, A. Nutritional approaches to late toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors. J Nutr 2003;133(11 Suppl 1):3785S-3793S. View abstract.
Russell, L., Hicks, G. S., Low, A. K., Shepherd, J. M., and Brown, C. A. Phytoestrogens: a viable option? Am J Med Sci 2002;324(4):185-188. View abstract.
Scott, G. N. and Elmer, G. W. Update on natural product--drug interactions. Am J Health Syst.Pharm 2-15-2002;59(4):339-347. View abstract.
Shaw, C. R. The perimenopausal hot flash: epidemiology, physiology, and treatment. Nurse Pract. 1997;22(3):55-56. View abstract.
Shi, Y. M. and Wu, Q. Z. [Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children treated with replenishing qi and tonifying kidney and the changes in thrombocyte aggregative function]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1991;11(1):14-6, 3. View abstract.
Sun, R. Y., Yan, Y. Z., Zhang, H., and Li, C. C. Role of beta-receptor in the radix Angelicae sinensis attenuated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1989;102(1):1-6. View abstract.
Sung, C. P., Baker, A. P., Holden, D. A., Smith, W. J., and Chakrin, L. W. Effect of extracts of Angelica polymorpha on reaginic antibody production. J Nat Prod 1982;45(4):398-406. View abstract.
Tanaka, S., Ikeshiro, Y., Tabata, M., and Konoshima, M. Anti-nociceptive substances from the roots of Angelica acutiloba. Arzneimittelforschung. 1977;27(11):2039-2045. View abstract.
Thacker, H. L. and Booher, D. L. Management of perimenopause: focus on alternative therapies. Cleve.Clin J Med 1999;66(4):213-218. View abstract.
Tsai, N. M., Lin, S. Z., Lee, C. C., Chen, S. P., Su, H. C., Chang, W. L., and Harn, H. J. The antitumor effects of Angelica sinensis on malignant brain tumors in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 5-1-2005;11(9):3475-3484. View abstract.
Tu, J. J. Effects of radix Angelicae sinensis on hemorrheology in patients with acute ischemic stroke. J Tradit.Chin Med 1984;4(3):225-228. View abstract.
Wang, B. H. and Ou-Yang, J. P. Pharmacological actions of sodium ferulate in cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc.Drug Rev 2005;23(2):161-172. View abstract.
Wang, H., Li, W., Goldstein, R., Tracey, K. J., and Sama, A. E. HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target. Novartis.Found.Symp 2007;280:73-85. View abstract.
Wang, Y. and Zhu, B. [The effect of angelica polysaccharide on proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cell]. Zhonghua Yi Xue.Za Zhi 1996;76(5):363-366.
Weng, X. C., Zhang, P., Gong, S. S., and Xiai, S. W. Effect of immuno-modulating agents on murine IL-2 production. Immunol.Invest 1987;16(2):79-86. View abstract.
Willhite, L. A. and O'Connell, M. B. Urogenital atrophy: prevention and treatment. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(4):464-480. View abstract.
Wong, V. C., Lim, C. E., Luo, X., and Wong, W. S. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2009;25(3):166-174. View abstract.
Xiaohong, Y., Jing-Ping, O. Y., and Shuzheng, T. Angelica protects the human vascular endothelial cell from the effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in vitro. Clin.Hemorheol.Microcirc. 2000;22(4):317-323. View abstract.
Xu, J. and Li, G. [Observation on short-term effects of Angelica injection on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2000;20(3):187-189. View abstract.
Xu, J. Y., Li, B. X., and Cheng, S. Y. [Short-term effects of Angelica sinensis and nifedipine on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1992;12(12):716-8, 707. View abstract.
Xu, R. S., Zong, X. H., and Li, X. G. [Controlled clinical trials of therapeutic effects of Chinese herbs promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy with type of stagnation of vital energy and blood stasis]. Zhongguo Gu.Shang 2009;22(12):920-922. View abstract.
Xue JX, Jiang Y, and Yan YQ. Effect and mechanism of antiplatelet aggregation of Cyperus rotundus, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Paeonia lactiflora in combination with Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University 1994;25:39-43.
Yamada, H., Komiyama, K., Kiyohara, H., Cyong, J. C., Hirakawa, Y., and Otsuka, Y. Structural characterization and antitumor activity of a pectic polysaccharide from the roots of Angelica acutiloba. Planta Med 1990;56(2):182-186. View abstract.
Yan, S., Qiao, G., Liu, Z., Liu, K., and Wang, J. Effect of the Oil of Angelica sinensis on the Contractile Function of Isolated Uterine Smooth Muscle of Mice. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 2000;31(8):604-606.
Yang, Z., Pei, J., Liu, R., Cheng, J., Wan, D., and Hu, R. Effects of Piper nigrum on Relative Bioavailability of Ferulic Acid in Angelica sinensis. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal 2006;41(8):577-580.
Ye, Y. N., Liu, E. S., Li, Y., So, H. L., Cho, C. C., Sheng, H. P., Lee, S. S., and Cho, C. H. Protective effect of polysaccharides-enriched fraction from Angelica sinensis on hepatic injury. Life Sci 6-29-2001;69(6):637-646. View abstract.
Ye, Y. N., Liu, E. S., Shin, V. Y., Koo, M. W., Li, Y., Wei, E. Q., Matsui, H., and Cho, C. H. A mechanistic study of proliferation induced by Angelica sinensis in a normal gastric epithelial cell line. Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-1-2001;61(11):1439-1448. View abstract.
Zhao, L., Zhang, Y., and Xu, Z. X. [Clinical effect and experimental study of xijian tongshuan pill]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14(2):71-3, 67. View abstract.
Zheng, L. [Short-term effect and the mechanism of radix Angelicae on pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 1992;15(2):95-97, 127. View abstract.
Zhuang, S. R., Chiu, H. F., Chen, S. L., Tsai, J. H., Lee, M. Y., Lee, H. S., Shen, Y. C., Yan, Y. Y., Shane, G. T., and Wang, C. K. Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients. Br.J.Nutr. 2012;107(5):712-718. View abstract.
Zhuang, X. X. [Protective effect of Angelica injection on arrhythmia during myocardial ischemia reperfusion in rat.]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1991;11(6):360-1, 326. View abstract.
Zuo, A. H., Wang, L., and Xiao, H. B. [Research progress studies on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of ligustilide]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37(22):3350-3353. View abstract.
Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50. View abstract.
Burke BE, Olson RD, Cusack BJ. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56:283-8. View abstract.
Chang CJ, Chiu JH, Tseng LM, et al. Modulation of HER2 expression by ferulic acid on human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Eur J Clin Invest 2006;36:588-96. View abstract.
Cheong JL, Bucknall R. Retinal vein thrombosis associated with a herbal phytoestrogen preparation in a susceptible patient. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:266-7.. View abstract.
Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61. View abstract.
Choy YM, Leung KN, Cho CS, et al. Immunopharmacological studies of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis. Am J Chin Med 1994;22:137-45.. View abstract.
Chuang CH, Doyle P, Wang JD, et al. Herbal medicines used during the first trimester and major congenital malformations: an analysis of data from a pregnancy cohort study. Drug Saf 2006;29:537-48. View abstract.
Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
Ellis GR, Stephens MR. Untitled (photograph and a brief case report). BMJ 1999;319:650.
Harada M, Suzuki M, Ozaki Y. Effect of Japanese Angelica root and peony root on uterine contraction in the rabbit in situ. J Pharmacobiodyn 1984;7:304-11. View abstract.
Hardy ML. Herbs of special interest to women. J Am Pharm Assoc 200;40:234-42. View abstract.
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7. View abstract.
Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, et al. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 1997;68:981-6. View abstract.
Hoult JR, Paya M. Pharmacological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: natural products with therapeutic potential. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:713-22.. View abstract.
Jalili J, Askeroglu U, Alleyne B, and Guyuron B. Herbal products that may contribute to hypertension. Plast.Reconstr.Surg 2013;131:168-173. View abstract.
Kronenberg F, Fugh-Berman A. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:805-13.. View abstract.
Lau CBS, Ho TCY, Chan TWL, Kim SCF. Use of dong quai (Angelica sinensis) to treat peri- and postmenopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer: is it appropriate? Menopause 2005;12:734-40. View abstract.
Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, et al. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2472-9.. View abstract.
Lu GH, Chan K, Leung K, et al. Assay of free ferulic acid and total ferulic acid for quality assessment of Angelica sinensis. J Chromatogr A 2005;1068:209-19. View abstract.
Monograph. Angelica sinensis (Dong quai). Altern Med Rev 2004;9:429-33. View abstract.
Page RL II, Lawrence JD. Potentiation of warfarin by dong quai. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19:870-6. View abstract.
Rotem C, Kaplan B. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol Endocrinol 2007;23:117-22. View abstract.
Shi M, Chang L, He G. [Stimulating action of Carthamus tinctorius L., Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Leonurus sibiricus L. on the uterus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1995;20:173-5, 192. View abstract.
Wang H, Li W, Li J, et al. The aqueous extract of a popular herbal nutrient supplement, Angelica sinensis, protects mice against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. J Nutr 2006;136:360-5. View abstract.
Wang SQ, Du XR, Lu HW, et al. Experimental and clinical studies of Shen Yan Ling in treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis. J Tradit Chin Med 1989;9:132-4. View abstract.
Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, et al. Myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented 'Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood', a compound formulation, ex vivo. Phytother Res 2000;14:195-9. View abstract.
Zhao KJ, Dong TT, Tu PF, et al. Molecular genetic and chemical assessment of radix Angelica (Danggui) in China. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2576-83. View abstract.
Zhu DP. Dong Quai. Am J Chin Med 1987;15:117-25.. View abstract.