- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: dolutegravir
Brand Names: Tivicay, Tivicay PD
Drug Class: HIV, Integrase Inhibitors
What is dolutegravir, and what is it used for?
Dolutegravir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and children.
Dolutegravir is used as a component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, which combines several antiretroviral drugs that work in different ways to prevent viral replication at different stages in the viral life cycle. HIV infection has no cure, but ART can effectively control viral growth and keep the infection under control.
HIV infects the immune system and eventually weakens it to the extent that the body is unable to defend itself effectively against even common infections. Without treatment, HIV infection in its later stages can progress to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), with severe impairment of immune function.
HIV-1 is a retrovirus, whose genetic material is composed of only a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The virus infects T-cell, a type of immune cell and secretes an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, converting into a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The viral DNA then releases another enzyme known as integrase, which enables it to integrate with the T-cell’s DNA, and proceeds to use the host DNA to replicate itself and infect other T-cells.
Dolutegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), the latest class of drugs to be added to antiretroviral therapy. Dolutegravir works by preventing the integrase enzyme from transferring the viral DNA strand into the T-cell DNA strand. Without integrating with the T-cell DNA, HIV-1 cannot replicate itself and gets degraded. Dolutegravir is a second generation Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and has a high barrier to resistance, particularly when used as a first line therapy.
- Do not use in patients with previous hypersensitivity reactions to dolutegravir or any of its components
- Do not use concurrently with dofetilide, a drug used to treat irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmia). Dolutegravir can increase dofetilide effects which can cause life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia.
- Dolutegravir can cause injury to the liver including elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis and liver failure; patients with underlying hepatitis B or C are at higher risk for worsening of liver condition and reactivation of hepatitis B, particularly if anti-hepatitis therapy has been withdrawn; test patients before initiating dolutegravir therapy and monitor liver enzyme levels during therapy
- Dolutegravir can cause hypersensitivity reactions including skin reactions, fever, facial edema, difficulty breathing and organ dysfunction. Discontinue dolutegravir immediately if hypersensitivity reactions occur; delay may result in life-threatening reaction.
- Combination ART including dolutegravir can cause immune reconstitution syndrome; the immune system’s response to the drugs can reactivate indolent or residual opportunistic infections or trigger autoimmune disorders such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Redistribution and accumulation of fat in the neck and abdominal regions, breast enlargement, facial wasting and peripheral wasting have been observed with ART; long-term consequences are not clear
- Dolutegravir use at conception and early pregnancy may increase the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, stillbirth and low birth weight:
- Perform pregnancy testing in women of child-bearing potential before initiating therapy
- Advise patients to use effective contraception during therapy
- If pregnancy occurs during therapy, inform the patient about the potential risk to the fetus
- Assess benefits and risks of continuing dolutegravir during pregnancy or switching to alternate HIV medicines
- Discontinuing ART can increase viral load and risk of transmission to the child
- Dolutegravir therapy may be considered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy if the benefit outweighs the potential risk to the mother and the fetus
- Adult and pediatric formulations are not bioequivalent and not interchangeable on milligram-to-milligram basis. Dosage must be adjusted as per dosing recommendations when a pediatric patient is switched from one formulation to the other.
What are the side effects of dolutegravir?
Common side effects of dolutegravir include:
- Increase in levels of serum lipase, the enzyme that breaks down lipids
- Increase in levels of triglycerides and cholesterol
- Increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia)
- Elevation in liver enzymes ALT and AST
- Excessive bilirubin in blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
- Liver inflammation (hepatitis)
- Inflammation in muscles (myositis)
- Increase in serum creatinine phosphokinase
- Gastrointestinal symptoms including:
- Suicidal ideation and tendencies
- Itching (pruritus)
- Kidney impairment
- Low blood count of neutrophil immune cells (neutropenia)
Less common side effects of dolutegravir include:
- Skin rash
- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Abnormal dreams
- Weight gain
- Toxicity to liver (hepatotoxicity)
- Liver failure
- Muscle pain (myalgia)
- Joint pain (arthralgia)
- Immune reconstitution syndrome
This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug.
Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
- Attachment Theory: What It Is, Stages & the Different Attachment Styles
- Gentle Parenting: What It Is, Techniques & Discipline
- U.S. Nursing Homes Fail to Report Many Serious Falls, Bedsores: Study
- The Younger You Get Diabetes, the Higher Your Risk for Dementia Later
- FDA Grants Full Approval to Paxlovid to Treat COVID-19
- More Health News »
What are the dosages of dolutegravir?
Tablet for oral suspension (Tivicay PD)
- Indicated in combination with other ARTs
- INSTI indicated in patients who weigh 30 kg or more
- Treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced INSTI-naïve: 50 mg orally once a day
- INSTI-experienced with certain INSTI-associated resistance substitutions or clinically suspected INSTI resistance: 50 mg orally twice a day
Indicated in combination with rilpivirine
- To replace the current ART regimen in virologically suppressed patients (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) on a stable ART regimen for 6 months or longer with no history of treatment failure or known substitutions associated with resistance to dolutegravir or rilpivirine
- 50 mg orally once a day
Coadministration with potent UGT1A or CYP3A inducers
- Treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced INSTI-naïve
- Potent UGT1A/CYP3A inducers (e.g., efavirenz, fosamprenavir/ritonavir, tipranavir/ritonavir, rifampin)
- Increase dose to 50 mg orally twice a day
- Mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A or B): No dosage adjustment required
- Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C): Not recommended
- Plasma concentrations were decreased in subjects with severe renal impairment
- No dosage adjustment required for treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced and INSTI-naïve patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment or for INSTI-experienced patients (with certain INSTI-associated resistance substitutions or clinically suspected INSTI resistance) with mild or moderate renal impairment
- Severe renal impairment or for INSTI-experienced patients with resistance: Not recommended; decrease in dolutegravir concentrations may result in loss of therapeutic effect and development of resistance
- Dosage forms (i.e., Tivicay, Tivicay PD) are not bioequivalent or interchangeable
- Poor virologic response was observed in subjects treated with TIVICAY 50 mg twice daily with an INSTI-resistance Q148 substitution plus 2 or more additional INSTI-resistance substitutions, including L74I/M, E138A/D/K/T, G140A/S, Y143H/R, E157Q, G163E/K/Q/R/S, or G193E/R
- In patients with underlying hepatitis B or C, measure hepatic enzymes before initiating therapy and periodically thereafter
- Perform pregnancy testing before initiation in females of childbearing potential
Indicated in combination with other ARTs for treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced, but INSTI-naïve children aged 4 weeks or older who weigh 3 kg or more
Weight 3 to 14 kg
Tablets for oral suspension
- 3 to 6 kg: 5 mg orally once a day
- 6 to 10 kg: 15 mg orally once a day
- 10 to 14 kg: 20 mg orally once a day
Weight 14 kg or more
Tablets for oral suspension
- 14 to 20 kg: 25 mg orally once a day
- 20 kg or more: 30 mg orally once a day
- 14 to 20 kg: 40 mg orally once a day
- 20 kg or more: 50 mg orally once a day
- Coadministration with potent UGT1A or CYP3A inducers (e.g., efavirenz, fosamprenavir/ritonavir, tipranavir/ritonavir, rifampin): Increase weight-based dose to twice daily
- Dosage forms (i.e., Tivicay, Tivicay PD) are not bioequivalent or interchangeable
- Perform pregnancy testing before initiation of dolutegravir in females of childbearing potential
- There is no known specific treatment for dolutegravir overdose. Limited experience with single high doses of up to 250 mg in healthy individuals reveal no symptoms other than the listed side effects.
- Dolutegravir overdose is treated with symptomatic and supportive care.
- In case of overdose seek medical help immediately or contact Poison Control.
What drugs interact with dolutegravir?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Severe interactions of dolutegravir include:
- Serious interactions of dolutegravir include:
- aluminum hydroxide/magnesium carbonate
- magnesium citrate
- magnesium oxide
- Moderate interactions of dolutegravir include:
- aluminum hydroxide
- calcium acetate
- calcium carbonate
- calcium citrate
- eslicarbazepine acetate
- ferric maltol
- ferrous fumarate
- ferrous gluconate
- ferrous sulfate
- magnesium hydroxide
- magnesium supplement
- sodium sulfate/magnesium sulfate/potassium chloride
- sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate
- Dolutegravir has no known mild interactions with other drugs.
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information. Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of dolutegravir use in pregnant women; should be used only if clearly needed.
- Limited studies reveal an increase in neural tube defects in babies of women who became pregnant while taking dolutegravir, but not in women who started dolutegravir during pregnancy.
- Risk for neural tube defects is greatest in early stage of pregnancy; risk of neural tube defects may decrease with folic acid supplementation before conception and during pregnancy.
- Women on dolutegravir therapy should practice effective contraception.
- Pregnant women should not discontinue dolutegravir without consulting a healthcare professional; stopping treatment can cause the HIV infection to worsen and increase the risk of transmission to the fetus.
- Antiretroviral therapy is recommended for all pregnant women with HIV infection to improve health, keep the viral load low, and reduce the risk of transmission to the fetus. Therapy should be individualized after discussion with the patient, on the potential risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy.
- It is not known whether dolutegravir is present in breast milk, affects milk production or has effects on the breastfed infant; animal studies show its presence in milk. Mothers with HIV infection should not breastfeed their infants to avoid the risk of transmission of HIV infection to the baby and the potential for adverse reactions in the infant from maternal dolutegravir therapy.
- A pregnancy exposure registry monitors pregnancy outcomes in women during pregnancy; healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
What else should I know about dolutegravir?
- Take dolutegravir exactly as prescribed
- Discontinue dolutegravir and seek medical help immediately if you develop:
- In some patients, initiation of dolutegravir therapy may reactivate symptoms of inflammation from previous infections because of the improved immune response, or trigger autoimmune disorders; notify your healthcare provider if you develop any infection or symptoms of autoimmune conditions
- Dolutegravir cannot cure HIV infection; continuous antiretroviral therapy is required to control HIV, decrease HIV-related illnesses and reduce the risk of progression to AIDS
Resources for Staying Well
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Dolutegravir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and children, as a component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Patients with underlying hepatitis B or C are at higher risk for worsening of liver condition and reactivation of hepatitis B. Common side effects of dolutegravir include increase in levels of serum lipase, increase in levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), elevation in liver enzymes ALT and AST, excessive bilirubin in blood (hyperbilirubinemia), liver inflammation (hepatitis), inflammation in muscles (myositis), increase in serum creatinine phosphokinase, gastrointestinal symptoms, insomnia, and others.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
12 Preventable STDs: Pictures, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
Sexually transmitted infections like chlamydia and genital herpes are common STDs. Think you might have an STD? You’re not alone....
What Are HIV & AIDS? Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Learn about HIV symptoms, HIV test, HIV...
HIV AIDS: Myths and Facts
What is HIV versus AIDS? What are the symptoms of HIV? Is there an HIV cure? Discover myths and facts about living with HIV/AIDS....
A Timeline of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic
Get a historical overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic from human contraction to the present through this slideshow of pictures.
Picture of HIV Lipodystrophy
HIV lipodystrophy describes a constellation of changes in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in patients on...
HIV & AIDS Quiz: HIV Testing & Symptoms
Now, more than ever, you should know about HIV/AIDS, especially its causes, symptoms treatments, and complications. Take the...
STD Quiz: Symptoms, Testing & List
There are more sexually transmitted diseases than just the ones you've heard of. Find out what you've been missing with the STD...
Picture of HIV/AIDS
Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). See a picture of HIV/AIDS...
Picture of HIV-associated Dementia (HAD)
A 40-year-old woman diagnosed with HIV presented with confusion and decline in memory. See a picture of HIV-associated Dementia...
Related Disease Conditions
STDs in Men
Symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men include painful urination, bumps or sores on the penis, and penile discharge and itching. Learn about the most common STDs in men.
HIV Early Signs and Stages
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) weakens your immune system. Some people with HIV don’t have any symptoms, but those that do may experience mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms. There are 3 stages of HIV.
Do Cold Sores Mean You Have an STD?
Having a cold sore does not necessarily mean you have an STD. Most cold sores are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which typically is not transmitted by sexual contact.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women include gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, and HPV infection (genital warts). Learn about types, symptoms, and treatment.
How Do You Know if a Guy Has HIV?
Most of the signs and symptoms of an HIV infection are the same for both men and women. However, a few symptoms are specific to men, such as low sex drive, sores on the penis and pain during urination.
HIV and AIDS
Second Source article from WebMD
Yeast infections vs. STDs in Men and Women
STDs, also termed sexually transmitted diseases, are infections that are mainly transmitted to others during direct sexual contact. A yeast infection is the invasion and multiplication of a fungus (yeast) in or on the body.
Can You Have a Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Without Having an STD?
In about 10% of cases, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) may occur without having an STD. The majority of PID is sexually transmitted. The most common causative microorganisms of PID are sexually transmitted and include gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas and mycoplasma.
How Long Can You Live with HIV?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If someone has HIV it means that they have been diagnosed with the HIV infection. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); however, is the most advanced or final stage of the HIV infection. In the case of an untreated HIV infection, the overall mortality rate is more than 90%. The average time from infection to death is eight to ten years.
Is Ureaplasma an STD?
Ureaplasma urealyticum can be transmitted through sexual contact, but it is not always considered an STD. Learn about the symptoms, complications, and treatment of Ureaplasma infections. Check out the center below for more medical references on bacterial infections, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Is a Detectable HIV Viral Load? Normal Viral Load
Detectable viral load is defined as having more than 200 copies of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) per milliliter of blood.
Can I Get Any STDs Through Clothing?
Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) cannot be transmitted through clothing. Some such as pubic lice, scabies and molluscum contagiosum can be transmitted by sharing clothes with an infected person.
Is Balanitis an STD and Will it Go Away on its Own?
Balanitis is a painful inflammation of the head of the penis. Balanitis is a symptom, not a condition and it can be caused by a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection left untreated causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus, which can infect humans when it comes in contact with tissues that line the vagina, anal area, mouth, or eyes, or through a break in the skin. HIV infection is generally a slowly progressive disease in which the virus is present throughout the body at all stages of the disease. Three stages of HIV infection have been described. The initial stage of infection (primary infection), which occurs within weeks of acquiring the virus, often is characterized by the flu- or mono-like illness that generally resolves within weeks. The stage of chronic asymptomatic infection (meaning a long duration of infection without symptoms) lasts an average of eight to 10 years without treatment. The stage of symptomatic infection, in which the body's immune (or defense) system has been suppressed and complications have developed, is called the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms are caused by the complications of AIDS, which include one or more unusual infections or cancers, severe loss of weight, and intellectual deterioration (called dementia). When HIV grows (that is, by reproducing itself), it acquires the ability to change (mutate) its own structure. These mutations enable the virus to become resistant to previously effective drug therapy. The goals of drug therapy are to prevent damage to the immune system by the HIV virus and to halt or delay the progress of the infection to symptomatic disease. Therapy for HIV includes combinations of drugs that decrease the growth of the virus to such an extent that the treatment prevents or markedly delays the development of viral resistance to the drugs. The best combination of drugs for HIV are those that effectively suppress viral replication in the blood and also are well tolerated and simple to take so that people can take the medications consistently without missing doses.
What Is the Difference Between HIV-1 and HIV-2?
There are two main types of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the most common type of HIV and accounts for 95% of all infections, whereas HIV-2 is relatively uncommon and less infectious. HIV-2 is mainly concentrated in West Africa, is less deadly and progresses more slowly.
What Foods Should HIV Patients Avoid?
People living with HIV face several health challenges because their bodies must work harder to fight infections. HIV patients should avoid foods high in sodium, sugar, and trans and saturated fats.
Can the HIV Virus Go Away?
There is no cure or vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, early treatment can help increase the life expectancy of infected people.
How Do You Stop Your Scalp From Itching With Braids?
Here are 8 ways to stop your scalp from itching with braids, which include loosening the braids, applying an apple cider vinegar rinse, and scalp serums.
What Are the Top 10 STDs?
According to the American Social Health Organization, each year one out of four teens in the United States develops a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Half of all sexually active young adults get an STD by the age of 25 years.
How Long Does It Take to See Signs of HIV?
The signs and symptoms of HIV may first appear within two to four weeks of infection. The stage in which the symptoms appear is called the stage of acute HIV infection. The symptoms appear due to the resistance or fight of the immune system against HIV. Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV gets the best results.
What Are the Four Stages of HIV?
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into four stages. Stage 1 (HIV infection): The CD4+ cell count is at least 500 cells per microliter. Stage 2 (HIV infection): The CD4+ cell count is 350 to 499. Stage 3 (advanced HIV disease or AHD): The CD4+ cell count is 200 to 349. Stage 4 (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]): The CD4+ cell count is less than 200.
Can I Get HIV From Surfaces?
Studies proved that HIV cannot be transmitted through surfaces such as toilet seats, chairs, doorknobs, drinking glasses and bedsheets. The virus cannot survive outside a human host; hence, transmission through air, water (swimming pools), insect bite or casual contacts such as handshake, hug or touch is not possible.
STDs: Common Symptoms
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are transmitted during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Symptoms may include genital sores, unusual discharge, pain during sex or urination, and itching or discomfort.
Can I Get STDs Through Casual Contact Like Hugging or Touching?
Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) do not spread through casual contact such as hugging, touching or kissing, although there are exceptions.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection. Symptoms and signs of AIDS include pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jiroveci, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, seizures, weakness, meningitis, yeast infection of the esophagus, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is used in the treatment of AIDS.
How Long Does It Take to Notice Signs of HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks and damages the cells of the immune system in the body. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) disease. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection which occurs when the body’s immune system is severely damaged because of the virus and unusual infections result. Untreated, HIV infection has a mortality of 90%.
Is It Possible for HIV to Go Away on Its Own?
When a person contracts the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they are infected for life; however, early treatment can help them live normal lives.
HIV vs. AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that results after HIV has extensively damaged a person's immune system. Risk factors for HIV and AIDS include use of contaminated needles or syringes, unprotected sex, STDs, receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 in the United States, having many sex partners, and transmission from a mother to her child.
Can HIV be Cured Naturally?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If someone has HIV it means that they have been diagnosed with the HIV infection. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); however, is the most advanced or final stage of the HIV infection. It is important to get tested for HIV in the early stages of infection to minimize the damage to the immune system. Successful treatment aims to reduce HIV load to a level that is harmless to the body.
Can You Get Cervicitis Without an STD?
While sexually transmitted infections (STI) are the leading cause of cervicitis, the condition can also be caused by allergies, injuries and other noninfectious causes.
How Do You Feel When You Have HIV?
About four weeks after contracting HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), you may experience flu-like symptoms including fever, rash, sore throat, nausea, swollen glands and achy joints. You may remain symptomless for some time, however. That doesn't mean you don't need treatment; HIV can quickly progress into AIDS, in which the immune system collapses and you die of a secondary cancer or infection.
Is a Bartholin’s Cyst an STD?
In rare cases, a Bartholin’s cyst may be caused by STIs such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. However, the cyst itself is not an STD.
Can I Get HIV From Casual Contact Like Hugging or Touching?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cannot spread through casual contact such as hugging or touching. HIV does not spread through urine, saliva, tears, sweat, kissing (closed mouth or social kissing), shaking hands, sharing utensils, sharing food or drinks, sharing clothes, or from toilet seats. HIV is spread through bodily fluids from a person with HIV.
What Is Usually the First Sign of HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the cells of the immune system, leading to AIDS and death if left untreated. The first signs of the human immunodeficiency virus infection are flu-like symptoms, which mainly start around two to four weeks after getting HIV. This stage is known as acute HIV infection.
HIV Medications List and Drug Charts
The ultimate goal of HIV treatment is getting the viral load down below detectable levels. As long as those viral load and antibody levels are below a proscribed range, people with HIV can stave off AIDS and other serious symptoms. Antiviral treatment options usually include combinations of two NRTIs, often referred to as "nucs," and a third drug, typically being a boosted protease inhibitor, a NNRTI, often called "non-nucs," and integrase strand transfer inhibitors.
What STDs Are Not Curable?
Nearly 26 million Americans reported having STDs in 2018. There are four sexually transmitted diseases that have no cure.
What Are the Symptoms of STD In Females?
Many women may not show any symptoms of STDs and may be unaware of the need for treatment.
When Should I Test for HIV?
The CDC recommends everyone between 13 and 64 should get tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at least once in their lifetime. If you've had unprotected sex with a new or multiple partners, pregnant women, intravenous drug users, are being treated for a STD, have tuberculosis, or hepatitis, are also reasons to get screened and tested.
Does HIV Have a Permanent Cure?
As of now, there is no permanent HIV cure, but antiretroviral treatment can effectively control HIV.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy (STDs)
When you are pregnant, many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be especially harmful to you and your baby. These STDs include herpes, HIV/AIDS, genital warts (HPV), hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Symptoms include bumps, sores, warts, swelling, itching, or redness in the genital region. Treatment of STDs while pregnant depends on how far along you are in the pregnancy and the progression of the infection.
HIV/AIDS Infection Transmission and Prevention
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread through contact with genital fluids or blood of an infected person. The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle.
HIV/AIDS Testing: Diagnosis and Monitoring
HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring have come a long way from the days when a diagnosis was a death sentence. Crucial parts of the effective treatment regimens developed in the last 40 years are consistent monitoring of the viral load (the amount of virus in the blood), and the immune cell count, which function as biological markers of the disease’s progression. Doctors also must test for drug resistance.
When Do STD Symptoms Start?
When the symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease start largely depends on which STD you may have. Here is a chart of when symptoms begin after the initial infection of various STDs.
HIV/AIDS Facts: What Is HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the precursor infection to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV is transmitted through blood and genital secretions; most people get it through sexual contact or sharing needles for illegal IV drug use. HIV can be controlled by a strict drug regimen, but left unchecked, it leads to AIDS. In AIDS, the immune system collapses and the body falls prey to secondary, opportunistic infections and cancers that typically kill the person.
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatments
If you are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), you must take and observe the following precautions.
What Are the Side Effects of HIV Medications?
It’s important to know the potential side effects of all the drugs you take to control your HIV infection, as well as potential drug interactions. All of the NNRTIs (nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), for example, are associated with important drug-drug interactions so they must be used with caution in patients on other medications. Learn more about the side effects of the drugs in standard treatment regimens.
How Will I Know If I Have STD?
Each STD has its own set of signs and symptoms; however, here are 12 common symptoms of STDs that may help you determine if you have one.
Does HIV Have Different Strains?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) constantly replicates itself, resulting in multiple strains, which are mainly divided into two types (HIV-1 and HIV-2).
HIV Life Expectancy and Long-term Outlook
With early diagnosis and proper treatment, people with HIV can live a healthy and long life. There is no generalized definitive period for which a person with HIV can live.
What Does HIV Do to a Person?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks and weakens the immune system, impairing the body's ability to fight diseases and infections.
When should you start HIV medication?
Nearly everyone who is infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) should start antiviral medication therapy as soon as they are diagnosed. Older guidelines recommended delaying treatment to help reduce the potential for drug side effects and viral resistance to treatment. Current thinking theorizes that early treatment may preserve more of the body's immune function.
Is HIV PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) Recommended for Me?
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) refers to a short course of antiretroviral medications taken soon after a possible exposure to HIV to prevent the virus from infecting your body.
What Comes First HIV or AIDS?
HIV is an infectious that suppresses the immune system. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the most severe stage of the infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
What Are the First Signs of HIV?
Initial signs and symptoms of HIV generally appear within two to four weeks of infection. Fever, body aches, muscle aches, chills, sore throat, headache, rash, night sweats, fatigue, mouth ulcers, and swollen lymph nodes (glands) are possible first signs and symptoms.
What Are STDs?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases that a person can get by having sex with someone who has an STD.
What Is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS?
HIV is a virus that causes immunosuppression. The difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is the first stage of the viral illness while AIDS represents the progression of the illness.
Should I Take PrEP for HIV?
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a course of prescribed medications that people who are at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may take to prevent infection. This medication is administered to individuals who have tested negative for HIV but are at a high risk of HIV infection.
STD Symptoms for Women
Many women may not show any symptoms of STDs and may be unaware of the need for treatment. Women experiencing problems must seek gynecological advice.
How Is HIV Currently Being Treated?
Treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is ongoing and consists of various antiviral medication combinations (antiretroviral therapy).
What Is the Most Common STD 2020?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- STD FAQs
- HIV-AIDS FAQs
- HIV Treatment, Medications, and Prevention
- Circumcise Or Not? - The Matter of AIDS
- HIV: Two Patients Face The Diagnosis
- Antiretroviral Therapy - Guidelines
- HIV Treatment - To Interrupt or Not
- Unprotected Sex Between HIV-Infected Partners: What's the Harm?
- HIV Transmission and Progression to AIDS Continues
- Physical and Biochemical Changes in HIV Disease
- Babies On The Breast Of HIV Moms
- Generic AIDS Drug Effective - And Now?
- HIV Urine Test Approved
- Retrovirus & Opportunistic Infections Part II
- Can You Treat Hepatitis B With Aids Drug Lamivudine?
- Does Circumcision Prevent HIV and AIDS?
- Can HIV Cause Kaposi's Sarcoma?
- Do You Need Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV with No Symptoms?
- Does HIV Cause Colorectal Cancer?
- Does Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV Cause Diabetes?
- How Long Should You Wait to Get an HIV Test?
- What Liver Problems Does HIV Cause?
- HIV Infection Facts, History, Causes, and Risk Factors
- HIV Tests, Symptoms, Signs, and Stages of Infection
- Baby "Cured" of HIV Infection
Medications & Supplements
- How Do Protease Inhibitors Work in Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- What Are NNRTIs In Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- How Do Integrase Strand-Transfer Inhibitors Work in Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- What Are NRTIs in Antiretroviral Therapy For HIV Infection?
- Dovato (dolutegravir and lamivudine)
- Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine)
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.