An enlarged prostate can cause sexual problems in men, such as:
- Erectile dysfunction (the inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse at least 25% of the time)
- Reduced sex drive
- Decreased sexual satisfaction
Sudden onset of erectile dysfunction (ED) may be a sign of prostate cancer and needs medical evaluation. Erectile dysfunctions may also occur after the therapy for prostate cancer including surgery, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy.
Sexual problems, such as erectile dysfunction or ejaculation problems, may occur in men with noncancerous enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Sexual dysfunction in BPH usually results from the treatment rather than the disease. Medications for BPH, such as the antitestosterone drug and finasteride (Proscar), have been associated with erectile dysfunction in 3.7% of men who use it. Finasteride is also linked with diminished libido in 3.3% men. Other medications for BPH, such as terazosin (Hytrin), tamsulosin (Flomax), and doxazosin (Cardura), can improve BPH symptoms with a lower risk of sexual side effects.
Surgical procedures for BPH, such as the transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), are often used when medications fail. Erectile dysfunction can occur because of TURP in a small percentage of men.
What causes prostate enlargement?
The prostate gland or prostate is an important part of the male reproductive system. It produces fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. The prostate gland is situated just below the bladder and in front of the rectum (the last part of the large bowel). It surrounds the urethra (the tube through which urine passes out of the body). It is roughly the size of a walnut.
The causes of prostate enlargement are not well understood. Research suggests that aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may play some role in the enlargement of the prostate. This is supported by the fact that males, who got their testicles removed at a young age because of reasons like testicular cancer, do not get BPH). Furthermore, in males with BPH, removal of the testicles causes the prostate to shrink in size. Removal of testicles, however, is not done to treat BPH since there are several other safe and effective treatment options. The chances of having an enlarged prostate increase with age. In several men over 40 years of age, a small amount of prostate enlargement is present. The condition, however, affects over 90% of the men over 80 years of age.
What are the symptoms of an enlarged prostate?
The symptoms of an enlarged prostate include:
- Frequent urination
- Strong and sudden urge to urinate
- Dribbling at the end of urinating
- Inability to urinate (urinary retention)
- Inability to empty the bladder
- Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control)
- Nocturia (needing to urinate two or more times per night)
- Pain during urination or bloody urine (these may indicate infection or other serious problem)
- Slowed or delayed the start of the urinary stream
- Straining to urinate
- Thin or weak urine stream
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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy.
Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available. Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
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Difficulty with urination – frequency, weak stream, trouble getting started, etc. – is usually the first sign of prostate cancer. But these and other early symptoms of prostatic cancer can also come from benign prostate conditions, so diagnostic testing is important, including PSA tests and digital rectal exam.
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Prostate ProblemsThe prostate is a gland that is part of the male reproductive system and is located between the bladder and penis. Signs and symptoms of prostate problems include painful ejaculation, burning or pain while urinating, blood in the urine or semen, dribbling urine, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, and pain in the lower back, hips, upper thighs, or the pelvic or rectal area. Common causes of prostate problems in men are prostatitis, enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Causes of prostate problems can assist in diagnosing prostate cancer. Treatments for prostate problems include medications, surgery, and hormone or radiation therapy.
Prostatitis vs. BPH (Enlarged Prostate) Differences and Similarities
Prostatitis and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate gland) are both conditions of the prostate gland.
There are four types of prostatitis that can be caused by infections (usually bacterial) or other health conditions or problems, acute bacterial prostatitis (type I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (type II), chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (type III), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (type IV).
BPH is inflammation of the prostate gland, and most men have the condition by age 50. Doctor's don't know what causes this inflammation, but they theorize that it may be related to hormones. Both of these conditions can cause similar symptoms like low back pain, pain during urination, or difficulty or the inability to urinate. However, prostatitis has many more symptoms and signs than BPH, and they based on the type of prostatitis. Examples include low back pain and/or abdominal pain, painful urination, fever, chills, feeling tired, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), painful urination intermittently, intermittent obstruction urinary tract symptoms (frequent, painful, or incomplete urination), pelvic pain and/or discomfort, pain with ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction (ED).
If you think you have either of these conditions contact your doctor or other health care professional. Bacterial prostatitis can be cured with antibiotics; however, there is no cure for BPH.
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Where Is the Prostate?The prostate gland, commonly known as the prostate, is one of the male reproductive organs located just below the bladder, above the penis, and in front of the rectum. It is connected to the penis by a tube (urethra) that empties urine from the bladder. The size and shape of the prostate are similar to a walnut.