- What other names is Dmso (dimethylsulfoxide) known by?
- What is Dmso (dimethylsulfoxide)?
- How does Dmso (dimethylsulfoxide) work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Dmso (dimethylsulfoxide).
Dimethylis Sulfoxidum, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Dimethyl Sulphoxide, Dimethylsulfoxide, Diméthylsulfoxyde, Dimetilsulfóxido, Methyl Sulphoxide, NSC-763, SQ-9453, Sulfoxyde de Diméthyl, Sulphinybismethane.
DMSO is a prescription medicine and dietary supplement. It can be taken by mouth, applied to the skin (used topically), or injected into the veins (used intravenously or by IV).
DMSO is taken by mouth, used topically, or given intravenously for the management of amyloidosis and related symptoms. Amyloidosis is a condition in which certain proteins are deposited abnormally in organs and tissues.
DMSO is used topically to decrease pain and speed the healing of wounds, burns, and muscle and skeletal injuries. DMSO is also used topically to treat painful conditions such as headache, inflammation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and severe facial pain called tic douloureux. It is used topically for eye conditions including cataracts, glaucoma, and problems with the retina; for foot conditions including bunions, calluses, and fungus on toenails; and for skin conditions including keloid scars and scleroderma. It is sometimes used topically to treat skin and tissue damage caused by chemotherapy when it leaks from the IV that is used to deliver it. DMSO is used either alone or in combination with a drug called idoxuridine to treat pain associated with shingles (herpes zoster infection).
Intravenously, DMSO is used to lower abnormally high blood pressure in the brain. It is also given intravenously to treat bladder infections (interstitial cystitis) and chronic inflammatory bladder disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved certain DMSO products for placement inside the bladder to treat symptoms of chronic inflammatory bladder disease. DMSO is sometimes placed inside bile ducts with other medications to treat bile duct stones.
In manufacturing, DMSO is used as an industrial solvent for herbicides, fungicides, antibiotics, and plant hormones.
- Bladder inflammation (interstitial cystitis). DMSO is an FDA-approved product for the treatment of a bladder condition called interstitial cystitis. Washing the bladder with DMSO improves symptoms such as pain associated with interstitial cystitis.
Possibly Effective for...
- Pain due to a condition called complex regional pain syndrome. Research suggests that applying DMSO 50% cream to the skin improves pain in people with complex regional pain syndrome.
- Skin and tissue damage caused by chemotherapy when it leaks from the IV. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause skin and tissue damage if they leak from the vein into the skin or surrounding tissue. Research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin might prevent further damage in the event that this happens.
- Shingles (herpes zoster). Research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin along with a drug called idoxuridine reduces lesions and swelling associated with shingles.
- Inflammatory bladder disease. Research suggests that washing the bladder with DMSO improves symptoms in people with long-standing inflammatory bladder disease.
- Pain caused by shingles. Research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin along with a drug called idoxuridine reduces pain caused by shingles. This condition is known as post-herpetic neuralgia.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- A skin condition called scleroderma. Most research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin does not help treat symptoms in people with a skin condition called scleroderma.
Likely Ineffective for...
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- A condition called amyloidosis. Some early research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin, taking DMSO by mouth, or washing the bladder with DMSO might help treat amyloidosis.
- Bile duct stones. Early research suggests that DMSO might help dissolve bile duct stones when infused into the bile duct with certain other solutions.
- Cancer-related pain. Early research suggests that injecting DMSO intravenously (by IV) along with sodium bicarbonate might improve quality of life in people with cancer-related pain.
- Foot ulcers associated with diabetes. Early research suggests that applying DMSO to the affected skin might improve the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes.
- High blood pressure in the brain. Some evidence suggests that DMSO might lower high blood pressure inside the brain when injected intravenously (by IV).
- Arthritis. Early research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin might help decrease symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Stomach ulcers. Early research suggests that taking DMSO might be more effective than the drug cimetidine for treating ulcers in people with ulcers caused by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori or those with ulcers that haven't healed with other medications.
- Pressure ulcers. Early research suggests that applying DMSO 5% cream to the skin along with massage does not help prevent pressure ulcers in people living in nursing homes.
- Helping skin heal after surgery. Early research suggests that applying DMSO to the skin might help the skin heal after surgery.
- Tendon injuries (tendinopathy). Early research suggests that applying DMSO 10% gel to the skin might improve pain and joint movement in people with tendon injuries.
- Eye problems.
- Gall stones.
- Muscle problems.
- Skin problems such as calluses.
- Other conditions.
DMSO helps medicines get through the skin and can affect proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and water in the body.
DMSO is LIKELY SAFE when used as a prescription medication. Don't use products that are not prescribed by your health professional. There is concern that some non-prescription DMSO products might be “industrial grade”, which is not intended for human use. These products are POSSIBLY UNSAFE, as they can contain impurities that can cause health effects. To make matters worse, DMSO readily penetrates the skin, so it carries these impurities rapidly into the body.
Some side effects of taking DMSO by mouth or applying it to the skin include skin reactions, dry skin, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, breathing problems, vision problems, blood problems, and allergic reactions. DMSO also causes a garlic-like taste, and breath and body odor.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking DMSO if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: There are reports that topical use of DMSO can change how insulin works in the body. If you use insulin to treat diabetes and also use DMSO, monitor your blood sugar closely. Insulin doses may need to be adjusted.
Certain blood disorders. Injecting DMSO intravenously (by IV) might cause red blood cells to break down. This might be a problem for people with certain blood disorders. DMSO might make these conditions worse.
Kidney problems: DMSO might harm the kidneys. Kidney function tests are recommended every 6 months if you use DMSO and have a kidney condition.
Medications applied to the skin, eyes, or ears (Topical drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
DMSO can sometimes increase how much medicine the body absorbs. Applying DMSO along with medications you put on the skin or in the eyes or ears can increase how much medicine your body absorbs. Increasing how much medicine your body absorbs might increase the effects and side effects of the medicine.
Medications given as a shot (Injectable drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) might help the body absorb some medicines. Using DMSO and getting a shot might increase how much medicine the body absorbs and increase the effects and side effects of medications given as a shot.
Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) might increase how much medicine your body absorbs. Taking DMSO along with medications taken by mouth might increase how much medicine your body absorbs. Increasing how much medicine your body absorbs can increase the effects and side effects of your medicines.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For prevention of some side effects of cancer treatment: 77-90% DMSO is typically applied under medical supervision every 3-8 hours for 10-14 days.
- For shingles (herpes zoster): 5-40% idoxuridine in DMSO is within 48 hours after the appearance of a rash and applied every 4 hours for 4 days.
- For nerve pain: 50% DMSO solution has been used 4 times daily for up to 3 weeks.
- For osteoarthritis: 25% DMSO gel has been used 3 times a day, and 45.5% DMSO topical solution has been used 4 times a day.
INSIDE THE BLADDER:
- For frequent urge to urinate (interstitial cystitis) and for chronic inflammatory bladder disease: Healthcare providers drip a DMSO solution into the bladder using a tube called a catheter. The catheter is removed and the patient is asked to hold the solution for a period of time before urinating.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abdelkefi, A., Lakhal, A., Moojat, N., Hamed, L. B., Fekih, J., Ladeb, S., Torjman, L., and Othman, T. B. Severe neurotoxicity associated with dimethyl sulphoxide following PBSCT. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;44(5):323-324. View abstract.
Akkok, C. A., Holte, M. R., Tangen, J. M., Ostenstad, B., and Bruserud, O. Hematopoietic engraftment of dimethyl sulfoxide-depleted autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells. Transfusion 2009;49(2):354-361. View abstract.
Aliaga, A., Armijo, M., Camacho, F., Castro, A., Cruces, M., Diaz, J. L., Fernandez, J. M., Iglesias, L., Ledo, A., Mascaro, J. M., and . [A topical solution of 40% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide compared to oral acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster. A double-blind multicenter clinical trial]. Med.Clin (Barc.) 2-22-1992;98(7):245-249. View abstract.
Amato, R., Ho, D., Schmidt, S., Krakoff, I. H., and Raber, M. Phase I trial of a 72-h continuous-infusion schedule of fazarabine. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol. 1992;30(4):321-324. View abstract.
Amorim, C. A., David, A., Van, Langendonckt A., Dolmans, M. M., and Donnez, J. Vitrification of human ovarian tissue: effect of different solutions and procedures. Fertil.Steril. 3-1-2011;95(3):1094-1097. View abstract.
Antherieu, S., Chesne, C., Li, R., Camus, S., Lahoz, A., Picazo, L., Turpeinen, M., Tolonen, A., Uusitalo, J., Guguen-Guillouzo, C., and Guillouzo, A. Stable expression, activity, and inducibility of cytochromes P450 in differentiated HepaRG cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38(3):516-525. View abstract.
Ashkenazi, A. and Marks, R. S. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of human phagocyte cell lines: comparison between DMSO differentiated PLB 985 and HL 60 cells. Luminescence. 2009;24(3):171-177. View abstract.
Atas, E., Kesik, V., Sari, E., Kismet, E., Yaris, N., and Koseoglu, V. Temporary vision loss because of dimethyl sulfoxide in autologous stem cell transplantation. Pediatr.Transplant. 2012;16(3):302-303. View abstract.
Becker, D. P., Young, H. F., Nulsen, F. E., and Jane, J. A. Physiological effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on peripheral nerves: possible role in pain relief. Exp Neurol. 1969;24(2):272-276. View abstract.
Bertelli, G., Dini, D., Forno, G., Gozza, A., Venturini, M., Ballella, G., and Rosso, R. Dimethylsulphoxide and cooling after extravasation of antitumour agents. Lancet 4-24-1993;341(8852):1098-1099. View abstract.
Bertelli, G., Gozza, A., Forno, G. B., Vidili, M. G., Silvestro, S., Venturini, M., Del Mastro, L., Garrone, O., Rosso, R., and Dini, D. Topical dimethylsulfoxide for the prevention of soft tissue injury after extravasation of vesicant cytotoxic drugs: a prospective clinical study. J.Clin Oncol. 1995;13(11):2851-2855. View abstract.
Binder, I. and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 1: Background and basic principles]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39(3):205-214. View abstract.
Binder, I., Rossbach, G., and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 2: Treatment]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39(4):289-297. View abstract.
Bojanic, I., Cepulic, B. G., Mazic, S., Batinic, D., Nemet, D., and Labar, B. Toxicity related to autologous peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitor cell infusion is associated with number of granulocytes in graft, gender and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Vox Sang. 2008;95(1):70-75. View abstract.
Bonnetblanc, J. M., Bordessoule, D., Fayol, J., and Amici, J. M. [Treatment of accidental extravasation of antitumor agents with dimethylsulfoxide and alpha-tocopherol]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1996;123(10):640-643. View abstract.
Brien, S., Prescott, P., Bashir, N., Lewith, H., and Lewith, G. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2008;16(11):1277-1288. View abstract.
Brobyn, R. D. The human toxicology of dimethyl sulfoxide. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1-27-1975;243:497-506. View abstract.
Bulum, T., Prkacin, I., Cavric, G., Sobocan, N., Skurla, B., Duvnjak, L., and Bulimbasic, S. [Secondary (AA) amyloidosis in Crohn's disease]. Acta Med Croatica 2011;65(3):271-278. View abstract.
Caselli, D., Tintori, V., Messeri, A., Frenos, S., Bambi, F., and Arico, M. Respiratory depression and somnolence in children receiving dimethylsulfoxide and morphine during hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Haematologica 2009;94(1):152-153. View abstract.
Chang, B. L., Chang, A., Strasser, J., Reinhardt, J. F., and Guarino, M. An unusual presentation of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the upper extremities in a patient with a history of severe electrical burns and chronic thermal and chemical exposure. Del.Med J 2011;83(5):137-141. View abstract.
Chen-Plotkin, A. S., Vossel, K. A., Samuels, M. A., and Chen, M. H. Encephalopathy, stroke, and myocardial infarction with DMSO use in stem cell transplantation. Neurology 3-13-2007;68(11):859-861. View abstract.
Chinnadurai, M., Chidambaram, S., Ganesan, V., Baraneedharan, U., Sundaram, L., Paul, S. F., and Venkatachalam, P. Bleomycin, neocarzinostatin and ionising radiation-induced bystander effects in normal diploid human lung fibroblasts, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, lung adenocarcinoma cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Int J Radiat.Biol. 2011;87(7):673-682. View abstract.
Dawson, T. E. and Jamison, J. Intravesical treatments for painful bladder syndrome/ interstitial cystitis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2007;(4):CD006113. View abstract.
Demir, E., Kilciler, M., Bedir, S., Erten, K., and Ozgok, Y. Comparing two local anesthesia techniques for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Urology 2007;69(4):625-628. View abstract.
Duimel-Peeters, I. G., Halfens, J. G., Ambergen, A. W., Houwing, R. H., Berger, P. F., and Snoeckx, L. H. The effectiveness of massage with and without dimethyl sulfoxide in preventing pressure ulcers: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial in patients prone to pressure ulcers. Int J Nurs Stud 2007;44(8):1285-1295. View abstract.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F., and Peeker, R. Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: can we make evidence-based decisions? Eur Urol. 2008;54(1):65-75. View abstract.
Fitzhugh, C. D., Unno, H., Hathaway, V., Coles, W. A., Link, M. E., Weitzel, R. P., Zhao, X., Wright, E. C., Stroncek, D. F., Kato, G. J., Hsieh, M. M., and Tisdale, J. F. Infusion of hemolyzed red blood cells within peripheral blood stem cell grafts in patients with and without sickle cell disease. Blood 6-14-2012;119(24):5671-5673. View abstract.
Flores-Carreras, O., Martinez-Espinoza, C. J., and Gonzalez-Ruiz, M. I. [Experience in the treatment of interstitial cystitis: review of 17 cases]. Ginecol.Obstet Mex. 2011;79(3):125-130. View abstract.
Fricks, I. P., Carter, R. L., Lazarowski, E. R., and Harden, T. K. Gi-dependent cell signaling responses of the human P2Y14 receptor in model cell systems. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009;330(1):162-168. View abstract.
Geertzen, J. H., de Bruijn, H., Bruijn-Kofman, A. T., and Arendzen, J. H. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: early treatment and psychological aspects. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1994;75(4):442-446. View abstract.
Gonzalez-Lopez, T. J., Sanchez-Guijo, F. M., Ortin, A., Crusoe, E., Cordoba, I., Corral, M., Vazquez, L., and Caballero, M. D. Ischemic stroke associated with the infusion of DMSO-cryopreserved auto-PBSCs. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46(7):1035-1036. View abstract.
Goris, R. J., Dongen, L. M., and Winters, H. A. Are toxic oxygen radicals involved in the pathogenesis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy? Free Radic.Res Commun. 1987;3(1-5):13-18. View abstract.
Grum-Tokars, V., Ratia, K., Begaye, A., Baker, S. C., and Mesecar, A. D. Evaluating the 3C-like protease activity of SARS-Coronavirus: recommendations for standardized assays for drug discovery. Virus Res 2008;133(1):63-73. View abstract.
Hay, D. C., Zhao, D., Fletcher, J., Hewitt, Z. A., McLean, D., Urruticoechea-Uriguen, A., Black, J. R., Elcombe, C., Ross, J. A., Wolf, R., and Cui, W. Efficient differentiation of hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells exhibiting markers recapitulating liver development in vivo. Stem Cells 2008;26(4):894-902. View abstract.
Ho, J. W., Ngan Hon, P. L., and Chim, W. O. Effects of oxymatrine from Ku Shen on cancer cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2009;9(8):823-826. View abstract.
Hoang, B. X., Levine, S. A., Shaw, D. G., Tran, D. M., Tran, H. Q., Nguyen, P. M., Tran, H. D., Hoang, C., and Pham, P. T. Dimethyl sulfoxide as an excitatory modulator and its possible role in cancer pain management. Inflamm.Allergy Drug Targets. 2010;9(4):306-312. View abstract.
Hoang, B. X., Tran, D. M., Tran, H. Q., Nguyen, P. T., Pham, T. D., Dang, H. V., Ha, T. V., Tran, H. D., Hoang, C., Luong, K. N., and Shaw, D. G. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain. J Pain Palliat.Care Pharmacother. 2011;25(1):19-24. View abstract.
Iyer, G., Morris, M. J., Rathkopf, D., Slovin, S. F., Steers, M., Larson, S. M., Schwartz, L. H., Curley, T., DeLaCruz, A., Ye, Q., Heller, G., Egorin, M. J., Ivy, S. P., Rosen, N., Scher, H. I., and Solit, D. B. A phase I trial of docetaxel and pulse-dose 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in adult patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2012;69(4):1089-1097. View abstract.
Jacobs, SW and Wood, DC. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - A status report. Clin Med 1971;78(21)
Juel-Jensen, B. E., MacCallum, F. O., Mackenzie, A. M., and Pike, M. C. Treatment of zoster with idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide. Results of two double-blind controlled trials. Br Med J 12-26-1970;4(5738):776-780. View abstract.
Junior, A. M., Arrais, C. A., Saboya, R., Velasques, R. D., Junqueira, P. L., and Dulley, F. L. Neurotoxicity associated with dimethylsulfoxide-preserved hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008;41(1):95-96. View abstract.
Kaidbey, K. H. Therapy of resistant psoriasis with topical corticosteroids and dimethylsulfoxide. Dermatologica 1976;152(5):316-320. View abstract.
Kneer, W., Kuhnau, S., Bias, P., and Haag, R. F. [Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) gel in treatment of acute tendopathies. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized study]. Fortschr.Med. 4-10-1994;112(10):142-146. View abstract.
Koenen NJ, Haag RF Bia P Rose P. Perkutane therapie bei aktivierter Gonarthrose. Munch Med Wochenschr 1996;138:534e8.
Kumar, S., Kumar, S., Ganesamoni, R., Mandal, A. K., Prasad, S., and Singh, S. K. Dimethyl sulfoxide with lignocaine versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics: prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of cutaneous anesthesia in shock wave lithotripsy. Urol.Res 2011;39(3):181-183. View abstract.
Lawrence, H. J. and Goodnight, S. H., Jr. Dimethyl sulfoxide and extravasation of anthracycline agents. Ann.Intern.Med. 1983;98(6):1025. View abstract.
Lawrence, H. J., Walsh, D., Zapotowski, K. A., Denham, A., Goodnight, S. H., and Gandara, D. R. Topical dimethylsulfoxide may prevent tissue damage from anthracycline extravasation. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 1989;23(5):316-318. View abstract.
Layman, D. L. and Jacob, S. W. The absorption, metabolism and excretion of dimethyl sulfoxide by rhesus monkeys. Life Sci 12-23-1985;37(25):2431-2437. View abstract.
Lishner, M., Lang, R., Kedar, I., and Ravid, M. Treatment of diabetic perforating ulcers (mal perforant) with local dimethylsulfoxide. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1985;33(1):41-43. View abstract.
Lopez-Otero, A., Ruiz-Delgado, G. J., and Ruiz-Arguelles, G. J. A simplified method for stem cell autografting in multiple myeloma: a single institution experience. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;44(11):715-719. View abstract.
Lundy, B., Miller, J. C., Jackson, K., Senchina, D. S., Burke, L. M., Stear, S. J., and Castell, L. M. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance - part 25. Br J Sports Med 2011;45(13):1077-1078. View abstract.
Lv, X., Li, Y., Jiang, C., and Wu, Z. The incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula with onyx. Interv.Neuroradiol. 2010;16(1):59-63. View abstract.
MacCallum, F. O. and Juel-Jensen, B. E. Herpes simplex virus skin infection in man treated with idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide. Results of double-blind controlled trial. Br Med J 10-1-1966;2(5517):805-807. View abstract.
Marcacci, G., Corazzelli, G., Becchimanzi, C., Arcamone, M., Capobianco, G., Russo, F., Frigeri, F., and Pinto, A. DMSO-associated encephalopathy during autologous peripheral stem cell infusion: a predisposing role of preconditioning exposure to CNS-penetrating agents? Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;44(2):133-135. View abstract.
Matsugasumi, T., Kamoi, K., Harikai, S., Inagaki, T., Kimura, Y., Hirahara, N., Sou, J., Nakagawa, S., Kawauchi, A., and Miki, T. [Localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo 2011;57(8):439-443. View abstract.
Matsumoto, J. Clinical trials of dimethyl sulfoxide in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 3-15-1967;141(1):560-568. View abstract.
McCammon, K. A., Lentzner, A. N., Moriarty, R. P., and Schellhammer, P. F. Intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide for primary amyloidosis of the bladder. Urology 1998;52(6):1136-1138. View abstract.
Murugesan, C., Saravanan, S., Rajkumar, J., Prasad, J., Banakal, S., and Muralidhar, K. Severe pulmonary oedema following therapeutic embolization with Onyx for cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neuroradiology 2008;50(5):439-442. View abstract.
Nielsen, E. H. and Johansen, T. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), nocodazole, and taxol on mast cell histamine secretion. Acta Pharmacol.Toxicol.(Copenh) 1986;59(3):214-219. View abstract.
Nonoguchi, H., Kohda, Y., Fukutomi, R., Nakayama, Y., Naruse, M., Kitamura, K., Inoue, T., Nakanishi, T., and Tomita, K. A case with acute renal failure and subsequent nephrotic syndrome. Ren Fail. 2009;31(2):162-166. View abstract.
O'Donnell, J. R., Burnett, A. K., Sheehan, T., Tansey, P., and McDonald, G. A. Safety of dimethylsulphoxide. Lancet 2-28-1981;1(8218):498. View abstract.
Olver, I. N. and Schwarz, M. A. Use of dimethyl sulfoxide in limiting tissue damage caused by extravasation of doxorubicin. Cancer Treat.Rep. 1983;67(4):407-408. View abstract.
Olver, I. N., Aisner, J., Hament, A., Buchanan, L., Bishop, J. F., and Kaplan, R. S. A prospective study of topical dimethyl sulfoxide for treating anthracycline extravasation. J.Clin Oncol. 1988;6(11):1732-1735. View abstract.
Otrock, Z. K., Beydoun, A., Barada, W. M., Masroujeh, R., Hourani, R., and Bazarbachi, A. Transient global amnesia associated with the infusion of DMSO-cryopreserved autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Haematologica 2008;93(3):e36-e37. View abstract.
Ozkaya-Bayazit, E., Kavak, A., Gungor, H., and Ozarmagan, G. Intermittent use of topical dimethyl sulfoxide in macular and papular amyloidosis. Int.J.Dermatol. 1998;37(12):949-954. View abstract.
Patel, S., Trivedi, A., Dholaria, P., Dholakia, M., Devra, A., Gupta, B., and Shah, S. A. Recurrent multifocal primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder. Saudi.J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008;19(2):247-249. View abstract.
Peeker, R., Haghsheno, M. A., Holmang, S., and Fall, M. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin and dimethyl sulfoxide for treatment of classic and nonulcer interstitial cystitis: a prospective, randomized double-blind study. J.Urol. 2000;164(6):1912-1915. View abstract.
Perez, R. S., Zollinger, P. E., Dijkstra, P. U., Thomassen-Hilgersom, I. L., Zuurmond, W. W., Rosenbrand, K. C., and Geertzen, J. H. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1. BMC.Neurol. 2010;10:20. View abstract.
Perez, R. S., Zuurmond, W. W., Bezemer, P. D., Kuik, D. J., van loenen, A. C., de Lange, J. J., and Zuidhof, A. J. The treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I with free radical scavengers: a randomized controlled study. Pain 2003;102(3):297-307. View abstract.
Perez-Marrero, R., Emerson, L. E., and Feltis, J. T. A controlled study of dimethyl sulfoxide in interstitial cystitis. J.Urol. 1988;140(1):36-39. View abstract.
Perez-Marrero, R., Emerson, L. E., Maharajh, D. O., and Juma, S. Prolongation of response to DMSO by heparin maintenance. Urology 1993;41(1 Suppl):64-66. View abstract.
Potter, P., Eisenberg, S., Cain, K. C., and Berry, D. L. Orange interventions for symptoms associated with dimethyl sulfoxide during stem cell reinfusions: a feasibility study. Cancer Nurs. 2011;34(5):361-368. View abstract.
Puri, A. S., Thiex, R., Zarzour, H., Rahbar, R., and Orbach, D. B. Trigeminocardiac reflex in a child during pre-Onyx DMSO injection for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma embolization. A case report. Interv.Neuroradiol. 2011;17(1):13-16. View abstract.
Rademaker-Lakhai, J. M., van den, Bongard D., Pluim, D., Beijnen, J. H., and Schellens, J. H. A Phase I and pharmacological study with imidazolium-trans-DMSO-imidazole-tetrachlororuthenate, a novel ruthenium anticancer agent. Clin Cancer Res. 6-1-2004;10(11):3717-3727. View abstract.
Ravid, M., Shapira, J., Lang, R., and Kedar, I. Prolonged dimethylsulphoxide treatment in 13 patients with systemic amyloidosis. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1982;41(6):587-592. View abstract.
Reynolds, JEF. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). 1991;
Rigaud, J., Delavierre, D., Sibert, L., and Labat, J. J. [Specific treatments for painful bladder syndrome]. Prog.Urol. 2010;20(12):1044-1053. View abstract.
Rossberger, J., Fall, M., and Peeker, R. Critical appraisal of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment for interstitial cystitis: discomfort, side-effects and treatment outcome. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2005;39(1):73-77. View abstract.
Roth, S. H. and Fuller, P. Diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide compared with placebo for the treatment of osteoarthritis: pooled safety results. Postgrad.Med 2011;123(6):180-188. View abstract.
Rubin, L. F. Toxicologic update of dimethyl sulfoxide. Ann N Y.Acad.Sci 1983;411:6-10. View abstract.
Ruiz-Delgado, G. J., Mancias-Guerra, C., Tamez-Gomez, E. L., Rodriguez-Romo, L. N., Lopez-Otero, A., Hernandez-Arizpe, A., Gomez-Almaguer, D., and Ruiz-Arguelles, G. J. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced toxicity in cord blood stem cell transplantation: report of three cases and review of the literature. Acta Haematol. 2009;122(1):1-5. View abstract.
Sairanen, J., Leppilahti, M., Tammela, T. L., Paananen, I., Aaltomaa, S., Taari, K., and Ruutu, M. Evaluation of health-related quality of life in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis and the impact of four treatments on it. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2009;43(3):212-219. View abstract.
Salim, A. S. A new approach to the treatment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced gastric bleeding by free radical scavengers. Surg.Gynecol.Obstet. 1993;176(5):484-490. View abstract.
Sams, W. M., Jr. The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on nerve conduction. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 3-15-1967;141(1):242-247. View abstract.
Schlegel, P. G., Wolfl, M., Schick, J., Winkler, B., and Eyrich, M. Transient loss of consciousness in pediatric recipients of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells independent of morphine co-medication. Haematologica 2009;94(10):1473-1475. View abstract.
Schroeder, T., Fenk, R., Saure, C., Czibere, A., Bruns, I., Zohren, F., Haas, R., and Kobbe, G. The Mexican way: a feasible approach to avoid DMSO toxicity. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46(3):469-471. View abstract.
Sea, J. and Teichman, J. M. Paediatric painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: diagnosis and treatment. Drugs 2009;69(3):279-296. View abstract.
Shainhouse, J. Z., Grierson, L. M., and Naseer, Z. A long-term, open-label study to confirm the safety of topical diclofenac solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of the osteoarthritic knee. Am J Ther 2010;17(6):566-576. View abstract.
Shirley, H. H., Lundergan, M. K., Williams, H. J., and Spruance, S. L. Lack of ocular changes with dimethyl sulfoxide therapy of scleroderma. Pharmacotherapy 1989;9(3):165-168. View abstract.
Sibert, L., Khalaf, A., Bugel, H., Sfaxi, M., and Grise, P. Intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide instillations can be useful in the symptomatic treatment of profuse hematuria due to eosinophilic cystitis. J.Urol. 2000;164(2):446. View abstract.
Simpson, J. R. Idoxuridine in the treatment of herpes zoster. Practitioner 1975;215(1286):226-229. View abstract.
Sokolov, M. V., Panyutin, I. G., and Neumann, R. D. Whole-genome gene expression profiling reveals the major role of nitric oxide in mediating the cellular transcriptional response to ionizing radiation in normal human fibroblasts. Genomics 2012;100(5):277-281. View abstract.
Souza, C. S., Felicio, L. B., Ferreira, J., Kurachi, C., Bentley, M. V., Tedesco, A. C., and Bagnato, V. S. Long-term follow-up of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy diode laser single session for non-melanoma skin cancer. Photodiagnosis.Photodyn.Ther 2009;6(3-4):207-213. View abstract.
Stewart, B. H. and Shirley, S. W. Further experience with intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. J.Urol. 1976;116(1):36-38. View abstract.
Sunley, K. and Butler, M. Strategies for the enhancement of recombinant protein production from mammalian cells by growth arrest. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28(3):385-394. View abstract.
Taylor, R. S., Fotopoulos, G., and Maibach, H. Safety profile of topical diclofenac: a meta-analysis of blinded, randomized, controlled trials in musculoskeletal conditions. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27(3):605-622. View abstract.
Thiers, B. H. Unusual treatments for herpesvirus infections. II. Herpes zoster. J Am Acad.Dermatol 1983;8(3):433-436. View abstract.
Tokunaka, S., Osanai, H., Morikawa, M., and Yachiku, S. Experience with dimethyl sulfoxide treatment for primary localized amyloidosis of the bladder. J.Urol. 1986;135(3):580-582. View abstract.
Tran de, Q. H., Duong, S., Bertini, P., and Finlayson, R. J. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a review of the evidence. Can J Anaesth. 2010;57(2):149-166. View abstract.
Trice, J. M. and Pinals, R. S. Dimethyl sulfoxide: a review of its use in the rheumatic disorders. Semin.Arthritis Rheum. 1985;15(1):45-60. View abstract.
Turanek, J., Wang, X. F., Knotigova, P., Koudelka, S., Dong, L. F., Vrublova, E., Mahdavian, E., Prochazka, L., Sangsura, S., Vacek, A., Salvatore, B. A., and Neuzil, J. Liposomal formulation of alpha-tocopheryl maleamide: in vitro and in vivo toxicological profile and anticancer effect against spontaneous breast carcinomas in mice. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 6-15-2009;237(3):249-257. View abstract.
van Dieten, H. E., Perez, R. S., van Tulder, M. W., de Lange, J. J., Zuurmond, W. W., Ader, H. J., Vondeling, H., and Boers, M. Cost effectiveness and cost utility of acetylcysteine versus dimethyl sulfoxide for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2003;21(2):139-148. View abstract.
Vuopala, U., Vesterinen, E., and Kaipainen, W. J. The analgetic action of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ointment in arthrosis. A double blind study. Acta Rheumatol.Scand. 1971;17(1):57-60. View abstract.
Wang, W. J., Lin, C. S., and Wong, C. K. Response of systemic amyloidosis to dimethyl sulfoxide. J.Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1986;15(2 Pt 2):402-405. View abstract.
Wang, Y., Chen, G., Song, T., Mao, G., and Bai, H. Enhancement of cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells. Sci China Life Sci 2010;53(5):581-589. View abstract.
Wengstrom, Y. and Margulies, A. European Oncology Nursing Society extravasation guidelines. Eur J Oncol.Nurs. 2008;12(4):357-361. View abstract.
Yoshimitsu, K., Koga, N., Kitamura, Y., Fukuda, K., Kittaka, E., Horino, N., Sakura, N., Tanaka, T., Nishi, Y., Sakano, T., and . Favorable effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on secondary amyloidosis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatr.Pharmacol.(New York.) 1984;4(3):177-181. View abstract.
Zuurmond, W. W., Langendijk, P. N., Bezemer, P. D., Brink, H. E., de Lange, J. J., and van loenen, A. C. Treatment of acute reflex sympathetic dystrophy with DMSO 50% in a fatty cream. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 1996;40(3):364-367. View abstract.
Barker SB, Matthews PN, Philip PF, Williams G. Prospective study of intravesical dimethyl sulphoxide in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bladder disease. Br J Urol 1987;59:142-4. View abstract.
Bertelli G. Prevention and management of extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. Drug Saf 1995;12:245-55. View abstract.
Birder LA, Kanai AJ, de Groat WC. DMSO: effect on bladder afferent neurons and nitric oxide release. J Urol 1997;158:1989-95. View abstract.
Bookman AA, Williams KS, Shainhouse JZ. Effective of a topical diclofenac solution for relieving symptoms of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2004;171:333-8. View abstract.
Brayton CF. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): a review. Cornell Vet 1986;76:61-90. View abstract.
Brien S, Prescott P, Lewith G. Meta-analysis of the related nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide and methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009 May 27. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
Burton WJ, Gould PW, Hursthouse MW, et al. A multicentre trial of Zostrum (5 percent idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide) in herpes zoster. N Z Med J 1981;94:384-6. View abstract.
de la Torre JC. Role of dimethyl sulfoxide in prostaglandin-thromboxane and platelet systems after cerebral ischemia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1983;411:293-308. View abstract.
Dorr RT. Antidotes to vesicant chemotherapy extravasations. Blood Rev 1990;4:41-60. View abstract.
Eberhardt R, Zwingers T, Hoffman R. [DMSO in patients with active gonarthrosis. A double-blind placebo controlled phase III study]. Fortschr Med 1995;446:50. View abstract.
Evans MS, Reid KH, Sharp JB Jr. Dimethylsuloxide (DMSO) blocks conduction in peripheral nerve C fibers: a possible mechanism of analgesia. Neurosci Lett 1993;150:145-8. View abstract.
Fowler JE Jr. Prospective study of intravesical dimthyl sulfoxide in treatment of suspected early interstitial cystitis. Urology 1981;18:21-6. View abstract.
Hucker HB, Ahmad PM, Miller EA, et al. Metabolism of dimethyl sulphoxide to dimethyl sulphone in the rat and man. Nature 1966;209:619-20.
Jacob SW, Herschler R. Pharmacology of DMSO. Cryobiology 1986;23:14-27. View abstract.
Juel Jensen BE, MacCallum FO, Mackenzie AM, Pike MC. Treatment of zoster with idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide. Results of two double-blind controlled trials. Br Med J 1970;4:776-80.
Karaca M, Bilgin UY, Akar M, de la Torre JC. Dimethyl sulphoxide lowers ICP after head trauma. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40:113-4. View abstract.
Kingery WS. A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes. Pain 1997;73:123-39. View abstract.
Ludwig CU, Stoll HR, Obrist R, Obrecht JP. Prevention of cytotoxic drug induced skin ulcers with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and alpha-tocopherol. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1987;23:327-9. View abstract.
MacCallum FO, Juel-Jensen BE. Herpes simplex virus skin infection in man treated with idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide. Results of double-blind controlled trial. Br Med J 1966;2:805-7.
Marshall LF, Camp PE, Bowers SA. Dimethyl sulfoxide for the treatment of intracranial hypertension: a preliminary trial. Neurosurg 1984;14:659-63. View abstract.
Merlini G. Treatment of primary amyloidosis. Semin Hematol 1995;32:60-79.
Neulieb RL, Neulieb MK. The diverse actions of dimtheyl sulphoxide: an indicator of membrane transport activity. Cytobios 1990;63:139-65. View abstract.
Prior D, Mitchell A, Nebauer M, Smith M. Oncology nurses' experience of dimethyl sulfoxide odor. Cancer Nurs 2000;23:134-40. View abstract.
Rand-Luby L, Pommier RF, Williams ST, et al. Improved outcome of surgical flaps treated with topical dimethylsulfoxide. Ann Surg 1996;224:583-9. View abstract.
Rosenstein ED. Topical agents in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1999;25:899-918. View abstract.
Rowley SD. Hematopoietic stem cell processing and cryopreservation. J Clin Apheresis 1992;7:132-4. View abstract.
Rubin LF. Toxicologic update of dimethyl sulfoxide. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1983;411:6-10.
Salim AS. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori and oxygen-derived free radicals in the mechanism of duodenal ulceration. Intern Med 1993;32:359-64. View abstract.
Sant GR, LaRock DR. Standard intravesical therapies for interstial cystitis. Urol Clin North Am 1994;21:73-83. View abstract.
Sant GR. Intravesical 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (Rimso-50) in treatment of interstitial cystitis. Urology 1987;29:17-21.
Shirley SW, Stewart BH, Mirelman S. Dimethyl sulfoxide in treatment of inflammatory genitourinary disorders. Urology 1978;11:215-20. View abstract.
Simon LS, Grierson LM, Naseer Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis. Pain 2009;143:238-45. View abstract.
Spremulli EN, Dexter DL. Polar solvents: a novel class of antineoplastic agents. J Clin Oncol 1984;2:227-41. View abstract.
Takacs T, Montet JC. In vitro dissolution of cholesterol biliary stones. Gut 1995;37:157-8.
Thiers BH. Unusual treatments for herpesvirus infections II, herpes zoster. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983;8:433-6.
Toren A, Rechavi G. What really cures in autologous bone marrow transplantation? A possible role for dimethylsulfoxide. Med Hypotheses 1993;41:495-8. View abstract.
Torres MA, Furst DE. Treatment of generalized systemic sclerosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990;16:217-41. View abstract.
Trice JM, Pinals RS. Dimethyl sulfoxide: a review of its use in the rheumatic disorders. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1985;15:45-60.
Wildenhoff KE, Esmann V, Ipsen J, Harving H, et al. Treatment of trigeminal and thoracic zoster with idoxuridine. Scand J Infect Dis 1981;13:257-62. View abstract.
Williams HJ, Furst DE, Dahl SL, et al. Double-blind, multicenter controlled trial comparing topical dimethyl sulfoxide and normal saline for treatment of hand ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1985;28:308-14. View abstract.
Wolf P, Simon M. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) induced serum hyperosmolality. Clin Biochem 1983;16:261-2. View abstract.
Zambelli A, Poggi G, Da Prada G, et al. Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved circulation progenitor cells infusion. Anticancer Res 1998;18:4705-8. View abstract.