- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: diazepam
Brand Names: Valium, Diastat Acudial, Diastat, Diazepam Intensol
Discontinued Brand Names: Dizac, Qpam, Valrelease
Drug Class: Anxiolytics, Benzodiazepines, Anticonvulsants, Benzodiazepines
What is diazepam, and what is it used for?
Diazepam is a prescription oral medication that is used to treat anxiety. Diazepam also is used for the treatment of agitation, tremors, delirium, seizures, and hallucinations resulting from alcohol withdrawal. It is used for the treatment of seizures, relief of muscle spasms in some neurological diseases, and for sedation during surgery.It belongs to the benzodiazepine family of drugs, the same family that includes:
- alprazolam (Xanax)
- clonazepam (Klonopin)
- lorazepam (Ativan)
- flurazepam (Dalmane)
Diazepam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter (a chemical that nerve cells use to communicate with each other) that inhibits activity in the brain. It is believed that excessive activity in the brain may lead to anxiety or other psychiatric disorders.
The FDA approved diazepam in November 1963.
Is diazepam addictive?
Diazepam can lead to addiction (dependency), especially when higher dosages are used over prolonged periods of time. In patients addicted to diazepam or after prolonged use, abrupt discontinuation may cause symptoms of withdrawal such as:
Seizures can occur in more severe cases of withdrawal. Therefore, after extended use, diazepam should be slowly tapered under a doctor's supervision rather than abruptly stopped.
What are the side effects of diazepam?
The most common side effects of diazepam are:
Other important side effects include:
- Paradoxical reactions with excitability
- Muscle spasm
- Lack of sleep
- Speech problems
- Double vision
Possible serious side effects:
- Respiratory depression
What is the dosage for diazepam?
- Diazepam may be taken with or without food.
- Diazepam is disposed of by the liver and excreted mainly by the kidney. Dosages of diazepam may need to be lowered in patients with abnormal kidney function.
- The usual oral diazepam dose for anxiety or seizures is 2-10 mg given 2-4 times daily.
- The usual rectal dose is 0.2-0.5 mg/kg and depends on the age of the patient.
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Which drugs interact with diazepam?
Alcohol or medications that cause sedation may add to the sedative effects of diazepam. Patients taking benzodiazepines should avoid such combinations.
The following drugs may prolong the effects of diazepam by inhibiting liver enzymes that eliminate diazepam:
- cimetidine (Tagamet)
- ketoconazole (Nizoral)
- itraconazole (Sporanox)
- omeprazole (Prilosec, Rapinex)
- clarithromycin (Biaxin)
- darunavir (Prezista)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- fluoxetine (Prozac)
Dosages may need to be decreased when these drugs are used with diazepam.
Carbamazepine (Tegretol), rifampin (Rifadin), and St. John's Wort decrease levels of diazepam by increasing the elimination of diazepam by liver enzymes.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- Benzodiazepines, including diazepam, can cause fetal abnormalities and should not be used during pregnancy.
- Diazepam is excreted in breast milk and can affect nursing infants. Therefore, diazepam should not be used by women who are nursing.
What else should I know about diazepam?
What preparations of Valium (diazepam) are available?
- Tablets: 2, 5 and 10 mg.
- Oral Solution: 1 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml.
- Injection Solution: 5 mg/ml.
- Intramuscular Device: 10 mg/2 ml.
- Rectal Gel: 2.5, 10 and 20 mg.
How should I keep Valium (diazepam) stored?
- Diazepam should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
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Diazepam is a drug prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders; and agitation, tremors, delirium, seizures, and hallucinations that result from alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam can lead to addiction (dependency), especially when higher dosages are used over prolonged periods of time. The most common side effects of diazepam are drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea, rash, euphoria, and ataxia (loss of balance). Do not use diazepam if pregnant or breastfeeding.
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Muscle spasms are involuntary muscle contractions that come on suddenly and are usually quite painful. Dehydration, doing strenuous exercise in a hot environment, prolonged muscle use, and certain diseases of the nervous system may cause muscle spasms. Symptoms and signs of a muscle spasm include an acute onset of pain and a possible bulge seen or felt beneath the skin where the muscle is located. Gently stretching the muscle usually resolves a muscle spasm.
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Inner Ear Infection
An inner ear infection or otitis interna is caused by viruses or bacteria and can occur in both adults and children. An inner ear infection can cause symptoms and signs, for example, a severe ear, dizziness, vertigo, nausea and vomiting, and vertigo. An inner ear infection also may cause inflammation of the inner ear or labyrinthitis. Inner ear infections are not contagious; however, the bacteria and viruses that cause the infection can be transmitted to other people. Good hygiene practices will help decrease the chances of the infection spreading to others. Inner ear infection symptoms and signs like ear pain and nausea may be relieved with home remedies or over-the-counter (OTC) medication. Some inner ear infections will need to be treated and cured with antibiotics or prescription pain or antinausea medication.
What Can Trigger Vertigo?
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Stress Management Techniques
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What Are the Causes of Anxiety?
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Migraines and Seizures
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Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of difficulty falling asleep; waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep; waking up too early in the morning; or unrefreshing sleep. Secondary insomnia is the most common type of insomnia. Treatment for insomnia include lifestyle changes, cognitive behavioral therapy, and medication.
How Fast Does BuSpar Work for Anxiety?
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Is Valerian Root Similar to Xanax and Valium?
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is an abnormality of motor function and postural tone acquired at an early age (even before birth). Cerebral palsy is generally caused by brain trauma. Types of cerebral palsy include: spastic, dyskinetic (dystonic or choreoathetoid), hypotonic, and mixed types. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and treatment is generally managing the symptoms of the condition.
Seizures: Symptoms and Types
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How Do I Stop Catastrophizing Anxiety?
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Mental health is an optimal way of thinking, relating to others, and feeling. All of the diagnosable mental disorders fall under the umbrella of mental illness. Depression, anxiety, and substance-abuse disorders are common types of mental illness. Symptoms and signs of mental illness include irritability, moodiness, insomnia, headaches, and sadness. Treatment may involve psychotherapy and medication.
Does DMT Help With Depression and Anxiety?
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What Happens During an Anxiety Attack?
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Can Anxiety Cause Phantom Smells?
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Brief Psychotic Disorder
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Stress and Heart Disease
Stress itself may be a risk factor for heart disease, or high levels of stress may make risk factors for heart disease worse. The warning signs of stress can be physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral. Check out the center below for more medical references on stress and heart disease, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
Can a Parent Cause Anxiety in a Child?
Parents who are stressed, anxious, harsh, fight, sarcastic, hostile or aversive may transmit or cause anxiety in their children.
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include how well the parent and child reunite, the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues. For example, children of anxious parents tend to be anxious children.
Is Picking at Your Skin a Symptom of Anxiety?
Skin picking may be triggered by anxiety as a way to relieve stress. When it becomes frequent and intense, it can become a mental health disorder.
What Causes Myoclonic Seizures in Babies?
Epileptic syndromes that cause myoclonic seizures usually begin in early childhood, and last throughout life, though milder forms may improve with adulthood. Doose syndrome (myoclonic-atonic epilepsy), Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy [SMEI]) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are all childhood epilepsy syndromes that may cause seizures in babies and toddlers.
Phobias are unrelenting fears of activities (social phobias), situations (agoraphobia), and specific items (arachnophobia). There is thought to be a hereditary component to phobias, though there may be a cultural influence or they may be triggered by life events. Symptoms and signs of phobias include having a panic attack, shaking, breathing troubles, rapid heartbeat, and a strong desire to escape the situation. Treatment of phobias typically involves desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and beta-blockers.
Can Stress and Anxiety Cause Schizophrenia?
Stress is your body's way of responding to mental, physical, or emotional pressure and anxiety is your body's way of reacting to stressful situations. While stress is not a direct cause of schizophrenia, it can trigger an episode of schizophrenia in an already vulnerable person.
Can the Vagus Nerve Cause Seizures?
The vagus nerve is an important pathway to the brain in addition to helping to control seizures. Stimulation of the vagus nerve leads to the discharge of electrical energy into a wide area of the brain, disturbing the abnormal brain activity that causes seizures. The vagus nerve is used to treat seizures that do not respond to medications.
What Parenting Styles Cause Anxiety?
There are times when your child will feel anxious about different things — this is perfectly normal. Authoritarian parenting, which uses stern, harsh behavior with children, can lead to moderately-high levels of anxiety, depression, and withdrawal.
Febrile seizures, or convulsions caused by fever, can be frightening in small children or infants. However, in general, febrile seizures are harmless. Febrile seizure is not epilepsy. It is estimated that one in every 25 children will have at least one febrile seizure. It is important to know what to do to help your child if he/she has a febrile seizure. Some of the features of a febrile seizure include losing consciousness, shaking, moving limbs on both sides of the body, and lasts 1-2 minutes. Less commonly, a febrile seizure may only affect one side of the body.
Which Color Light Helps Anxiety?
Chromotherapy is an alternative medicine technique that claims to cure various physical or mental disorders by using colors. Most practitioners of modern medicine believe that this technique lacks scientific evidence.
Agoraphobia is a fear of being outside or of being in a situation from which escape would be impossible. Symptoms include anxiety, fear, disorientation, rapid heartbeat, diarrhea, or dizziness. Treatment may incorporate psychotherapy, self-exposure to the anxiety-causing situation, and medications such as SSRIs, benzodiazepines, and beta-blockers.
Seizure vs. Seizure Disorders: What's the Difference?
Seizures and seizure disorders are not the same medical problems. A seizure happens when the electrical activity in the brain is uncontrolled. There are about 40 different types of seizure disorders, in which epilepsy is one. Symptoms depend on the type of disorder, but can include loss of consciousness, uncontrolled twitching or shaking of one side, or the entire body.
Does Delirium Go Away?
Delirium involves a sudden change in the way an individual thinks or acts. It may start suddenly over a few hours or days. Delirium typically goes away in a few hours to a few days or several weeks or months. During its entire course, it may disappear and come back again.
What Is a Cluster Seizure?
Cluster seizures are episodes of increased seizure activity in which two or more seizures occur in 24 hours. Multiple seizures occur one after the other typically with a recovery period between each seizure and are different from a person’s usual seizure pattern.
How Do You Stop Anxiety Attacks?
You may not always be able to avoid an anxiety attack, but here are 13 ways to manage or stop anxiety attacks when they happen.
What Are the Root Causes of Anxiety and Depression?
What causes anxiety and depression? Learn about symptoms and potential root causes that may increase your risk of developing mood disorders.
What Is the Difference Between a Panic Attack and an Anxiety Attack?
What is the difference between a panic attack and an anxiety attack? Learn about the differences between these common occurrences.
Can a Person With Anxiety Live a Normal Life?
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What Are the Six Types of Anxiety Disorders?
Anxiety disorders cause worry, fear and panic as an irrational response to mundane situations. The six main types are generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety, separation anxiety, trauma-related disorders and phobias.
Is Anxiousness the Same as Anxiety?
Anxiousness is not the same as anxiety. Feeling anxious from time to time is normal, whereas severe, ongoing anxiety may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder.
Can You Self-diagnose Anxiety?
While the internet is full of self-assessment tests to self-diagnose anxiety, only a thorough clinical examination by a doctor can accurately diagnose the condition.
How Does a Person With Anxiety Feel?
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Is Valerian Root Good for Anxiety?
Valerian is an herb that has been used for many centuries to help relieve anxiety and as a sleep aid in traditional medicine. The studies for proving the effectiveness of valerian root for sleep and anxiety have not been conclusive. More studies are required to prove its effectiveness and find the optimal dose.
How Does Anxiety Affect You Physically?
Physical signs of anxiety include rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, headache, and more. Find out how to recognize and ease your symptoms.
What Does an Anxiety Attack Feel Like?
Anxiety attacks typically last 30 minutes or less and include feelings of extremely intense terror, fear, or anxiety. Check out the center below for more medical references on anxiety, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
Holiday Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
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What Does Anxiety Do to Your Body?
It increases a person’s chances of suffering from other medical conditions, such as heart diseases, raised blood pressure, high cholesterol obesity, depression and diabetes. In short term, anxiety may cause sleep disturbances and poor work performance.
What Is the 3-3-3 Rule for Anxiety?
Parenting a young child can be tough. The 3-3-3 rule is a mindfulness technique that's simple enough for young children and it asks them to name three things they can see, identify three sounds they can hear, and move three different parts of their bodies.
Is Trichotillomania an Anxiety Disorder?
Trichotillomania, also known as hair-pulling, is an impulse control disorder. It could be caused by anxiety and stress. It can coexist with an anxiety disorder. However, psychiatrists consider it as a separate illness and not an anxiety disorder.
Epilepsy and Seizures: How to Treat?
A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where brain activities are abnormal, causing more than one or recurrent episodes of seizures. Most cases of seizures can be managed conservatively with medication and supportive treatments.
Job Stress and Your Health
Early warning signs of job stress include headache, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, short temper, upset stomach, job dissatisfaction, and low morale. Stress on the job can be damaging to your health in that job stress is the outcome when job demands cannot be met.
How Do Seizures Differ From Epilepsy and Convulsion?
You can have a seizure without epilepsy, but you can’t have epilepsy without seizures. Convulsions are a type of seizure that causes involuntary shaking.
Can Stress and Anxiety Hurt My Baby?
Research indicates that stress and anxiety in pregnant women may influence the health of the baby and result in several birth problems.
What Do Seizures Feel Like?
If you have a seizure, you may feel strange, notice unusual smells, experience tingling, see flashing lights, or start hallucinating.
What Are the Different Types of Seizures?
A seizure is a sudden change in the brain's normal electrical activity. During a seizure, brain cells fire uncontrollably than their normal rate, temporarily affecting the way a person behaves, moves, thinks, or feels. Recurrent seizures are called epilepsy. Seizures are usually categorized into three types depending on their onset.
What Are 6 Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders?
Anxiety disorders have an impact on one's behavior, thoughts, emotions, and physical health. The six major symptoms of anxiety disorders include worrying incessantly and excessively for no apparent reason; fear of any social or performance-related situations in which one may be subjected to scrutiny from others; irrational fear of an object or location; flashbacks, nightmares, and subsequent anxiety due to exposure to a highly traumatic event in the past; cleaning and rearranging things and objects around excessively and repetitively; and repeated panic attacks.
What Triggers Tonic Seizures?
Tonic seizures may result from a variety of health conditions, such as brain tumors and head injuries. Learn all the potential triggers for epilepsy now.
What Triggers Social Anxiety?
Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is a mental health condition that is characterized by extreme anxiety and fear of social settings. People with social anxiety disorder have a constant, intense, persistent fear of being watched, judged, negatively evaluated, or rejected in a social situation.
Do Seizures Come in Clusters?
Yes, seizures can come in clusters. The term seizure clusters is used when three or more seizures that occur within 24 hours (or within six hours as defined in some studies).
How Do You Stop Multiple Seizures?
Seizures are a medical emergency. Whether the seizure is a first-time onset or a recurring episode, it is advisable to dial 911 and call for help. A group of drugs called benzodiazepines is usually administered to stop multiple seizures.
What Is the Best Test for Anxiety?
Screening for anxiety can help detect mental health problems early and ensure that you receive timely treatment. Learn about the best tests for assessing anxiety levels and how anxiety relates to anxiety disorders. Check out the center below for more medical references on anxiety, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Are the 5 Symptoms of Anxiety?
Learn the 5 most common types of anxiety disorders and their symptoms below.
Is Psoriasis Linked to Anxiety?
Like other chronic conditions, psoriasis can take a toll on your emotional health. Anxiety can trigger or worsen psoriasis, and psoriasis can cause anxiety.
What Is the Main Cause of Anxiety?
Anxiety is usually caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that may include stress, trauma, family history, and underlying health conditions.
What Is Anxiety Mostly About?
Anxiety is a natural response to stress or danger that alerts us of potential threats. Check out the center below for more medical references on anxiety, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
Can Anxiety Give You a Stomachache?
Anxiety triggers the release of cortisol, which can cause your stomach to produce more acid and give you a stomachache. Learn about how to cope with anxiety symptoms.
How Can I Help My Young Child With Anxiety?
Anxiety is a normal part of daily life, even for children. Help your young child with anxiety by giving the feeling a label, validating their feelings, tracking causes of anxiety, and using other methods.
What Does Social Anxiety Feel Like?
People affected by social anxiety or social phobia often feel intense fear or anxiety of being judged or criticized while being in a social situation.
What Is the Best Treatment for Anxiety?
The best treatment for anxiety is typically a combination of psychotherapy and medication. However, lifestyle modifications can also help manage symptoms.
What Is the Main Cause of a Seizure?
Although the main cause of a seizure is usually epilepsy, seizures can occur due to anything that interrupts the normal communication between brain cells. Learn about common causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Check out the center below for more medical references on epilepsy, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Causes a Seizure?
A seizure is caused by disruptions in the normal connections between nerve cells in the brain. Check out the center below for more medical references on seizures, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Symptoms Are Caused by Anxiety?
It's normal to feel stressed or worried about things that happen in our everyday lives. However, people who experience anxiety disorders often feel heightened fear or worry about common situations.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Shaking Hands (Hand Tremors)
- Alcohol Withdrawal
- Cerebral Palsy
- Muscle Cramps
- Seizure (Epilepsy)
- Inner Ear Infection (Otitis Interna)
- Stiff-Person Syndrome
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Illness Anxiety Disorder (Hypochondria)
- Benign Positional Vertigo
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- Dislocated Shoulder
- Anxiety Treatment with Virtual Reality Exposure
- Anxiety: Facing Fear and Anxiety -- Jonathan Davidson, MD
- Epilepsy: Silencing the Seizures
- Anxiety, Panic, and Phobias: Seeking Help
- Epilepsy and Seizures FAQs
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder FAQs
- Stress FAQs
- Restless Leg Syndrome RLS FAQs
- Prescription Drug Abuse
- Trouble Sleeping? Insomnia May Be Why
- 10 Tips to Avoid Insomnia and Get a Good Night's Sleep
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Seizures: When the Computer Goes Haywire
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Propofol (Diprivan) Safety
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Seizure Symptoms: How to Assist the Victim
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Hot Flashes: Anxiety Worsens Hot Flashes
- Grapefruit Juice and Drug Interactions
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- diazepam - rectal, Diastat
- diazepam - oral, Valium
- diazepam - injection, Valium
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Anxiolytics (for Anxiety) Drug Class Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- What Are the Side Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs?
- Side Effects of Valium (diazepam)
- temazepam (Restoril)
- triazolam (Halcion)
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
- teriflunomide (Aubagio)
Prevention & Wellness
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.