In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option. Read more: Diabetes and Kidney Disease Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk for this condition. There are other diseases that can cause a person's blood sugar levels to go too low, for example, pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, and pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs that your blood sugar levels are too low include palpitations, trembling, intense hunger, sweating, nervousness, and weakness. If your blood sugars become too low, use these nearby as a quick treatment table sugar, soda, juice, and glucose tablets.
Peripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain (especially at night), and loss of reflexes. Possible causes may include carpel tunnel syndrome, shingles, vitamin or nutritional deficiencies, and illnesses like diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, and kidney failure. Peripheral neuropathy is diagnosed with exams and tests. Treatment for the condition depends on the cause. Usually, the prognosis for peripheral neuropathy is good if the cause can be successfully treated or prevented.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more noticeable at rest. This characteristic nighttime worsening can frequently lead to insomnia. Treatment of the symptoms of restless leg syndrome is generally with medication as well as treating any underlying condition causing restless leg syndrome.
Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus)
Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Diabetic Neuropathy (Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment)
Diabetic neuropathy a condition in which nerve damage has occurred as a complication of diabetes. The pain from the nerve damage can be severe with tingling or numbness in the part of the body affected. Diabetic neuropathy can occur anywhere in the body. Diabetic neuropathy can cause symptoms like intense pain, numbness, burning, or tingling in the part of the body affected by the condition. There are four types of neuropathy include peripheral, autonomic, proximal and focal. Natural therapies and medications may help relieve the pain and other symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may also help stabilize blood glucose levels. Keeping track of when you take your diabetic medicine, keeping track of food choices, eating the proper amount of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates, and fats will also help maintain proper blood glucose levels. Foods that raise blood sugar levels are "high glycemic index foods;" examples include: Pumpkin Melons Popcorn Short-grain white rice Foods that help maintain good blood sugar levels are foods that are low on the glycemic index, for example: Rolled or steel-cut oats Many fruits Non-starchy vegetables Beans Legumes Lentils
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia)
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
Kidney Pain Symptoms, Treatment, and Cure
Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Why Are Calcium Levels Low in Renal Failure?
Renal failure usually causes calcium imbalance. During renal failure, the kidneys may no longer filter out extra phosphorus and remove it from the body or from urine. Over time, phosphorus may increase in the blood. Calcium and phosphorous usually keep each other in check.
What Is the Difference Between Hemodialysis and Dialysis?
Dialysis is a procedure that helps your blood get filtered by a machine that works like an artificial kidney. Hemodialysis is a procedure where your entire blood is circulated outside your body in a machine placed outside the body known as a dialyzer. Peritoneal dialysis helps filter the blood in the body itself.
Local ResourcesFind a local Endocrinologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Homocysteine (Normal and Elevated Levels Blood Test)
- Creatinine Blood Test
- Diabetes Urine Tests
- Hemoglobin A1c Test (HbA1c, A1c, Hb1c)
- What Is a Guillotine Ankle Amputation?
- Does My Toe Need Amputation?
- What Is Transmetatarsal Amputation?
- When Are Wrist and Forearm Amputations Performed?
Medications & Supplements
- losartan (Cozaar)
- glipizide (Glipizide XL, Glucotrol)
- benazepril (Lotensin HTC)
- fosinopril sodium, Monopril
- lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil, Qbrelis) ACE Inhibitor
- Amaryl (glimepiride)
- repaglinide (Prandin)
- irbesartan (Avapro)
- Actos (pioglitazone)
- chlorpropamide, Diabinese
- ACE Inhibitors (Side Effects, List of Names, Uses, and Dosage)
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
- Precose (acarbose)
- miglitol, Glyset
- Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- Corticosteroids (Systemic, Oral, Injections, Types)
- mannitol (Osmitrol)
- tolazamide (Tolinase brand has been discontinued.)
- mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
- glipizide and metformin
- Avandamet (rosiglitazone/metformin)
- insulin glargine (Lantus)
- Glucovance (glyburide/metformin)
- High Blood Pressure Drugs (Hypertension)
- metformin and sitagliptin (Janumet)
- Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations)
- Adlyxin (lixisenatide)
- Trulicity (dulaglutide)
- SGLT2 Inhibitors (Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2)
- Jardiance (empagliflozin)
- Vasodilators (Drug Class Side Effects, List of Names)
- Metformin vs. Januvia
- Metformin vs. Insulin
- Metoprolol vs. losartan
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. bumetanide
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Demadex (torsemide)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. hydrochlorothiazide
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)
- Xiaflex (collagenase clostridium histolyticum)
- Jardiance Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Victoza (liraglutide) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Lasix Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Veltassa (patiromer)
- Baqsimi (glucagon)
- Side Effects of Tradjenta (linagliptin)
- Side Effects of Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)
- How Long Does Insulin Last After Injection?
- NephrAmine (essential amino acid)
- Venofer (iron sucrose)
- Feraheme (ferumoxytol injection)
- Monoferric (ferric derisomaltose)
- Injectafer (ferric carboxymaltose)
- Gadavist (gadobutrol)
- Phoslyra (calcium acetate)
- Jynarque (tolvaptan)
Prevention & Wellness
- AHA News: The Connection Between Diabetes, Kidney Disease and High Blood Pressure
- Wildfire Pollution Puts Kidney Patients at Risk
- Common Diabetes Meds Linked to Serious Complication Risk
- What Happens to Your Kidneys as You Age?
- AHA News: Are You Drinking Enough During Winter Months?
- Kidney Injury on the Rise in Women Hospitalized During Pregnancy
- New Tool Predicts Odds of Kidney Disease
- Supplements Don't Prevent Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetics
- Thousands of Kidneys Thrown Away by U.S. Transplant Centers
- Common Diabetes Drug May Also Shield Kidneys, Heart
- Itchy Skin Common Alongside Kidney Disease
- What Illness Lands the Most Seniors in the ER?
- Kidney Disease Risk Tied to Sugar-Sweetened Drinks
- Kidney Disease More Deadly for Men
- Kidney Disease Claiming More Lives
- Can Intermittent Fasting Help Reverse Type 2 Diabetes?
- Study Sees No Link Between Gout Drug, Kidney Disease
- Severe Infections Rising Among Americans With Diabetes
- One Reason Why Kidney Transplants Fail
- Health Tip: Dispelling Myths About Diabetes
- Too Many Kidney Disease Patients in the Dark About Diet
- Fewer Dialysis Patients Facing Leg Amputations
- 850 Million People Worldwide Have Kidney Disease
- Money Underpins Drop in Kidney Donations Among Men and the Poor
- Primary Care Doctors Loosen Type 2 Diabetes Goals
- Defibrillators May Not Help Kidney Patients With Bad Hearts
- Health Tip: Avoid Kidney Disease
- Kidney Disease Can Lead to Diabetes, Not Just the Other Way Around
- Coffee May Be Kind to Your Kidneys
- Elevated Protein Level Increases Blacks' Risk of Kidney Disease
- Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication
- Smoking May Hinder Kidney Disease Drugs
- Diabetes Plus Kidney Problems May Raise Heart Risks
- Study Links Climate Change to Kidney Disease
- Transplant From Incompatible Living Donor Boosts Kidney Patients' Survival
- Poor Sleep Might Harm Kidneys, Study Suggests
- Early Warning Sign for Kidney Disease Identified in Study
- Kidney Patients Without Online Access Face Additional Burden
- Kidney Disease Treatment May Be Improving, Study Suggests
- Sleep Apnea Linked to Kidney Disease Progression in Diabetics
- Popular Southern Fare May Harm Your Kidneys
- Walking Could Be Key Step Against Kidney Disease
- Diabetics Fare Well After Kidney Transplants, Study Finds
- Depressed Diabetics May Face Higher Risk of Kidney Disease
- Health Tip: Protect Your Kidneys
- Kidney Injury During Surgery Tied to Risk of Heart Problems
- Study Finds Two Drugs Aren't Better Than One for Kidney Disease
- Diet Choices May Help Diabetics Stave Off Kidney Disease
- Could Dietary Tweaks Ease Type 1 Diabetes?
- Black Medicaid Recipients Less Likely to Get Living-Donor Kidney: Study
- Belly Fat May Be Tied to Kidney Damage
- Overweight While Younger Ups Kidney Risk Later
- Preventing Kidney Disease May Cut Diabetes Deaths, Study Says
- Bariatric Surgery May Help Diabetic Kidney Disease
- High Uric Acid Linked to Both Gout and Diabetes
- New Type 1 Diabetes Genes Found