Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

3b-Hydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, 3BetaHydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, Androstenolone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Déhydroépiandrostérone, DHEA-S, GL701, Prasterone, Prasterone.


DHEA is a hormone that is naturally made by the human body. It can also be made in the laboratory from chemicals found in wild yam and soy. However, the human body cannot make DHEA from these chemicals, so simply eating wild yam or soy will not increase DHEA levels. Don't be misled by wild yam and soy products labeled as "natural DHEA." DHEA serves as a precursor to male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens). DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30. This decrease occurs more quickly in women than men.

DHEA is taken by mouth for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer's disease.

Athletes and other people take DHEA by mouth to improve physical performance. But DHEA use is banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and Olympic Committee.

DHEA is also taken by mouth for sexual dysfunction, and to improve well-being and sexuality in men and women. It is also used for preventing clogged arteries, breast cancer, infertility, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Some people take DHEA by mouth to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an immune condition characterized by dry mouth and dry eyes (Sjögren's syndrome), weak bones (osteoporosis), a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic dystrophy, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis (MS), low levels of steroid hormones (Addison's disease), depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), muscle damage from exercise, inflammatory bowel disease, to slow the progression of Parkinson's disease, for withdrawal symptoms, and for a condition called atrichia pubis.

DHEA is taken by mouth for weight loss, decreasing the symptoms of menopause, rheumatoid arthritis, and aging skin.

People with HIV sometimes take DHEA by mouth to ease depression and fatigue.

Women sometimes use DHEA inside the vagina for strengthening the walls of the vagina, for increasing bone mineral density, sexual dysfunction, and for a precancerous condition called cervical dysplasia.

Some people use DHEA intravenously (by IV) to induce labor and for a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic dystrophy.

Some people inject DHEA as a shot for psoriasis.

DHEA is applied to the skin for aging skin and to strengthen the walls of the vagina.

Like many dietary supplements, DHEA has some quality control problems. Some products labeled to contain DHEA have been found to contain no DHEA at all, while others contained more than the labeled amount.

How does it work?

DHEA is a "parent hormone" produced by the adrenal glands near the kidneys and in the liver. In men, DHEA is also secreted by the testes. It is changed in the body to a hormone called androstenedione. Androstenedione is then changed into the major male and female hormones.

DHEA levels seem to go down as people get older. DHEA levels also seem to be lower in people with certain conditions like depression. Some researchers think that replacing DHEA with supplements might prevent some diseases and conditions.


What's Schizophrenia? Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Vaginal thinning. The walls of the vagina can become thinner after menopause. This can cause pain during sex. Using vaginal inserts containing DHEA can reduce pain during sex by up to 15% in women after menopause. A specific DHEA product (Intrarosa, Endoceutics Inc.) is a prescription medicine used for this condition.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Aging skin. Some research shows that taking DHEA by mouth increases the thickness and hydration of the top layer of the skin in elderly people. Also, early research shows that applying DHEA to the skin for 4 months improves the appearance of skin in postmenopausal women.
  • Depression. Most research shows that taking 30-500 mg of DHEA by mouth daily improves symptoms of depression. However, using lower doses of 5-20 mg daily over three weeks does not appear to improve depression.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Aging. Taking DHEA daily for up to 2 years does not seem to improve body shape, bone strength, muscle strength, insulin sensitivity, or quality of life in people older than 60 who have low DHEA levels.
  • Physical performance. Some research suggests that older adults who take DHEA have increased muscle strength. However, most research shows that DHEA does not improve muscle strength in younger or older adults.
  • Psoriasis. Early research suggests that injecting 300 mg of DHEA as a shot weekly does not improve symptoms of psoriasis in most people.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that taking 200 mg of DHEA by mouth for 16 weeks does not reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in older people.
  • Withdrawal symptoms. Early research shows that taking 100 mg of DHEA daily together with standard therapy for 12 months does not improve symptoms of drug withdrawal in people addicted to heroin. Also, taking 100 mg of DHEA daily for 12 weeks does not appear to improve symptoms of cocaine withdrawal.

Likely Ineffective for...

  • Mental function. Most research shows that taking DHEA by mouth does not seem to improve mental function or decrease mental decline in healthy older people, patients with HIV, or in healthy young adults. However, some early research suggests that taking 50 mg of DHEA daily for 4 weeks might improve vision and memory in middle-aged and older women.
  • Dry mouth (Sjögren's syndrome). Research suggests that taking 50-200 mg of DHEA daily for 4-12 months does not improve a condition called Sjögren's syndrome that causes symptoms including dry mouth.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Addison's disease. Research about the effects of DHEA on Addison's disease is conflicting. There is some early research that taking 50 mg of DHEA by mouth daily for 12 months might improve symptoms of Addison's disease, including weight loss and bone density loss, but it does not appear to improve mental function. Other research shows that taking 50 mg of DHEA daily for 12 weeks does not improve mental function, sexual function, body weight, or bone mineral density in patients with Addison's disease. However, it might improve mood and feelings of tiredness.
  • Adrenal insufficiency. There is conflicting research about the effects of DHEA on feelings of well-being, sexuality, depression, anxiety, and other symptoms in people with this hormone deficiency. Some research suggests that DHEA might improve these symptoms, while other research suggests that DHEA provides no benefit.
  • Improving growth and maturation in girls with hormone deficiency (atrichia pubis). Some early reports suggest that DHEA might help growth and maturation in girls with atrichia pubis.
  • Abnormal cell growth on the cervix (cervical dysplasia). Early research shows that administering 150 mg of DHEA through the vagina for up to 6 months reverses abnormal cell growth on the cervix.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Early research suggests that taking 25-100 mg of DHEA daily for 6 months reduces symptoms of CFS.
  • Lung disease (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Early research suggests that taking 200 mg of DHEA daily for 3 months improves lung function and walking distance in people with COPD.
  • Clogged arteries. Population research shows that having low blood levels of DHEA is linked to an increased risk for clogged arteries in men. However, it's not clear if taking DHEA might help lower the risk of clogged arteries.
  • Muscle damage from exercise. Early research shows that taking DHEA twice daily for 5 days improves muscle soreness in men competing in an exercise program.
  • Fibromyalgia. Early research shows that taking 50 mg of DHEA daily for 3 months does not reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia.
  • HIV/AIDS. Research shows that people with HIV tend to have lower levels of DHEA. Also, lower levels of DHEA appear to be linked with HIV disease severity. As a result, there is interest in using DHEA in people with HIV/AIDS. Early studies suggest that taking DHEA might improve HIV patients' mental health and quality of life. However, DHEA does not seem to actually impact the HIV disease process itself.
  • Infertility. Research on the effectiveness of DHEA for infertility is conflicting. Some population research suggests that taking DHEA by mouth daily for at least 2 months reduces the risk for miscarriage. Other research suggests that taking 75 mg of DHEA daily before in vitro fertilization (IVF) increases the chance of getting pregnant in women who are infertile, including those with reduced ovarian function. However, other research suggests that this dose of DHEA does not increase pregnancy rates.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease. Early research shows that taking 200 mg of DHEA by mouth daily for 8 weeks reduces symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Evidence about the effects of DHEA on menopausal symptoms is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking 10-25 mg of DHEA by mouth daily for 12 months reduces symptoms, including hot flashes. Also, inserting a DHEA product (Vaginorm, Recipharm, Karlskoga, Sweden) into the vagina for 12 weeks seems to increase strength in the vaginal wall and improve sexual activity in postmenopausal women. But other evidence suggests that taking DHEA daily does improve psychological symptoms of menopause.
  • Metabolic syndrome (a cluster of conditions that put people at high risk for heart disease). There is early evidence that DHEA might lower some of the health risks that make overweight men and women more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. The risk factors that DHEA seems to lower are obesity, fat around the waist, and high insulin levels.
  • Inherited condition with many symptoms including muscle wasting (myotonic dystrophy). Taking 100 to 400 mg of DHEA daily for 12 weeks might not affect muscle strength in people with myotonic dystrophy. However, administering DHEA through injections seems to improve daily function, heart function, and muscle strength.
  • Osteoporosis. Research on the effects of DHEA for osteoporosis is conflicting. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. However, analysis of clinical research suggests that DHEA does not improve bone strength in postmenopausal women.
  • Hormone deficiency in men (partial androgen deficiency). Early research suggests that taking 25 mg of DHEA daily for one year improves mood, fatigue, and joint pain in older men with hormone deficiency.
  • Childbirth. Research suggests that giving DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) intravenously (by IV) beginning at 37 or 38 weeks gestation shortens the time until labor onset.
  • Schizophrenia. Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for schizophrenia is unclear. Some research shows that taking DHEA by mouth improves schizophrenia symptoms. DHEA may be more effective in women than men. Other research shows it provides no benefit.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Research about the effects of DHEA for sexual dysfunction is conflicting. Taking DHEA by mouth for 24 weeks seems to improve symptoms including erectile dysfunction and overall sexual satisfaction in men with some types of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, it does not seem to be helpful if erectile dysfunction is caused by diabetes or nerve disorders. Also, DHEA does not seem to improve sexual dysfunction in men with low levels of the hormone androgen or those with low sexual desire. Some research shows that taking DHEA by mouth might improve sexual function in women with decreased libido or those who are postmenopausal. Also, some research suggests that inserting DHEA into the vagina (Vaginorm, Recipharm, Karlskoga, Sweden) daily for 12 weeks might improve sexual function in postmenopausal women. But other research shows the taking DHEA does not improve sexual function in postmenopausal or premenopausal women. In male or female patients with certain types of depression, taking DHEA by mouth might improve sexual function.
  • Improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for SLE is inconsistent. Some research suggests it provides no benefits. Other research suggests that taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment might help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA might also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers.
  • Weight loss. Research about the effects of DHEA on weight loss is conflicting. Early research suggests that DHEA helps overweight older people who are likely to get metabolic syndrome to lose weight. It is not known if DHEA helps younger people to lose weight. Other early research suggests that taking DHEA by mouth or under the tongue does not affect body weight or shape in obese adults.
  • Breast cancer.
  • Diabetes.
  • Heart disease.
  • Parkinson's disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate DHEA for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

DHEA is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, applied to the skin, and used inside the vagina appropriately, short-term. DHEA has been taken by mouth for 12-24 months safely. DHEA has been safely applied to the skin for up to 12 months. DHEA has been safely used inside the vagina for up to 12 weeks. It can cause some side effects including acne, hair loss, stomach upset, and high blood pressure. Some women can have changes in menstrual cycle, facial hair growth, and a deeper voice after taking DHEA.

DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses or long-term. Do not use DHEA in doses higher than 50-100 mg a day or for a long period of time. Using higher doses or using for a long time period can increase the chance of side effects.


Schizophrenia is the most disabling mental illness. See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy or breast-feeding. It can cause higher than normal levels of a male hormone called androgen. This might be harmful to the baby. Don't use DHEA if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Diabetes: DHEA can affect how insulin works in the body. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar carefully if you are taking DHEA.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: DHEA is a hormone that can affect how estrogen works in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use DHEA.

High cholesterol: DHEA might lower "good cholesterol" (high lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL). If your HDL level is already too low, discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it.

Liver problems: DHEA might make liver problems worse. Don't use DHEA if you have liver problems.

Depression and mood disorders: There is some concern that patients with a history of depression and bipolar disorder might have some mental side effects if they use DHEA. DHEA can cause mania (excitability and impulsiveness), irritability, and sexual inappropriateness in people with mood disorders. If you have a mood disorder, be sure to discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it. Also, pay attention to any changes in how you feel.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Taking DHEA might make this condition worse. Don't use DHEA if you have PCOS.


Anastrozole (Arimidex)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Anastrozole (Arimidex) is used to help lower estrogen levels in the body. Taking DHEA along with anastrozole (Arimidex) might decrease the effectiveness of anastrozole (Arimidex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking anastrozole (Arimidex).

Exemestane (Aromasin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Exemestane (Aromasin) is used to help decrease estrogen in the body. Taking DHEA along with exemestane (Aromasin) might decrease the effectiveness of exemestane (Aromasin). Do not take DHEA if you are taking exemestane (Aromasin).

Fulvestrant (Faslodex)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Fulvestrant (Faslodex) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of fulvestrant (Faslodex) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking fulvestrant (Faslodex).

InsulinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Insulin is used to lower blood sugar. Insulin can also lower the amount of DHEA in the body. By lowering DHEA in the body, insulin might lower the effectiveness of DHEA supplements.

Letrozole (Femara)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Letrozole (Femara) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of letrozole (Femara) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking letrozole (Femara).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. DHEA might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking DHEA along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking DHEA, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for depression (Antidepressant drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

DHEA increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Some medications for depression also increase the brain chemical serotonin. Taking DHEA along with these medications for depression might increase serotonin too much and cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take DHEA if you are taking medications for depression.

Some of these medications for depression include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), amitriptyline (Elavil), clomipramine (Anafranil), imipramine (Tofranil), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

DHEA might slow blood clotting. Taking DHEA along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is used to help treat and prevent these types of cancer. DHEA increases estrogen levels in the body. By increasing estrogen in the body, DHEA might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

Triazolam (Halcion)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

The body breaks down triazolam (Halcion) to get rid of it. DHEA might decrease how quickly the body breaks down triazolam (Halcion). Taking DHEA along with triazolam (Halcion) might increase the effects and side effects of triazolam (Halcion).

Tuberculosis VaccineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking DHEA might reduce the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine. People receiving a vaccination for tuberculosis should use DHEA cautiously.

EstrogensInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

DHEA seems to increase estrogen levels in the body. Taking DHEA along with estrogen pills might cause too much estrogen in the body.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

The body naturally makes DHEA. Some medications for inflammation might decrease how much DHEA the body makes. Taking some medications for inflammation might decrease the effects of taking DHEA pills.

Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.

TestosteroneInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking DHEA with a testosterone pill might cause there to be too much testosterone in the body. This might increase the chance of testosterone side effects.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For aging skin: 50 mg of DHEA taken daily for 12 months has been used.
  • For depression: 30-450 mg of DHEA taken daily for 6 weeks has been used, either alone or together with antidepressant drugs. DHEA has also been used in increasing doses up to 500 mg daily for 8 weeks.
  • For aging skin: a 1% DHEA cream has been applied to the face and hands twice daily for up to 4 months.
  • Vaginal thinning: Vaginal inserts containing 0.25% to 1% DHEA have been used once daily for 12 weeks. A specific vaginal insert containing 0.5% DHEA (Intrarosa, Endoceutics Inc.) is a prescription medicine used for this condition.

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Cho, S. H., Choi, M. H., Sim, W. Y., Lee, W. Y., and Chung, B. C. Metabolic alterations of DHEA and cholesterol sulphates in the hair of patients with acne measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exp.Dermatol. 7-1-2010;19(7):694-696. View abstract.

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Danenberg, H. D., Ben-Yehuda, A., Zakay-Rones, Z., Gross, D. J., and Friedman, G. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment is not beneficial to the immune response to influenza in elderly subjects. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1997;82(9):2911-2914. View abstract.

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Divasta, A. D., Feldman, H. A., Giancaterino, C., Rosen, C. J., Leboff, M. S., and Gordon, C. M. The effect of gonadal and adrenal steroid therapy on skeletal health in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa. Metabolism 2012;61(7):1010-1020. View abstract.

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Dyner T, Lang W, Geaga JV, and et al. Phase I study of dehydroepiandrosterone (EL-10) therapy in symptomatic HIV disease [abstract]. 6th Intl Conf on AIDS 1990;3:208 .

El-Alfy, M., Deloche, C., Azzi, L., Bernard, B. A., Bernerd, F., Coutet, J., Chaussade, V., Martel, C., Leclaire, J., and Labrie, F. Skin responses to topical dehydroepiandrosterone: implications in antiageing treatment? Br.J Dermatol. 2010;163(5):968-976. View abstract.

Elekima, O. T., Mills, C. O., Ahmad, A., Skinner, G. R., Ramsden, D. B., Bown, J., Young, T. W., and Elias, E. Reduced hepatic content of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase in chronic liver diseases. Liver 2000;20(1):45-50. View abstract.

Enomoto, M., Adachi, H., Fukami, A., Furuki, K., Satoh, A., Otsuka, M., Kumagae, S., Nanjo, Y., Shigetoh, Y., and Imaizumi, T. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels predict longevity in men: 27-year follow-up study in a community-based cohort (Tanushimaru study). J Am Geriatr.Soc 2008;56(6):994-998. View abstract.

Fitzpatrick, J. L., Ripp, S. L., Smith, N. B., Pierce, W. M., Jr., and Prough, R. A. Metabolism of DHEA by cytochromes P450 in rat and human liver microsomal fractions. Arch.Biochem Biophys. 5-15-2001;389(2):278-287. View abstract.

Foldes, J., Feher, T., Feher, K. G., Kollin, E., and Bodrogi, L. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DS), dehydroepiandrosterone (D) and "free" dehydroepiandrosterone (FD) in the plasma of patients with thyroid diseases. Horm Metab Res 1983;15(12):623-624. View abstract.

Foldes, J., Lakatos, P., Zsadanyi, J., and Horvath, C. Decreased serum IGF-I and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate may be risk factors for the development of reduced bone mass in postmenopausal women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997;136(3):277-281. View abstract.

Fukui, M., Kitagawa, Y., Nakamura, N., Kadono, M., Yoshida, M., Hirata, C., Wada, K., Hasegawa, G., and Yoshikawa, T. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration and carotid atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 2005;181(2):339-344. View abstract.

Giltay, E. J., van Schaardenburg, D., Gooren, L. J., and Dijkmans, B. A. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci. 6-22-1999;876:152-154. View abstract.

Gleicher, N., Weghofer, A., and Barad, D. H. Improvement in diminished ovarian reserve after dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation. Reprod.Biomed.Online. 2010;21(3):360-365. View abstract.

Gomez-Santos, C., Larque, E., Granero, E., Hernandez-Morante, J. J., and Garaulet, M. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate replacement improves the human plasma fatty acid profile in plasma of obese women. Steroids 12-11-2011;76(13):1425-1432. View abstract.

Gonzalez, F., Nair, K. S., Daniels, J. K., Basal, E., and Schimke, J. M. Hyperandrogenism sensitizes mononuclear cells to promote glucose-induced inflammation in lean reproductive-age women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2-1-2012;302(3):E297-E306. View abstract.

Gordon, C. M., Grace, E., Emans, S. J., Goodman, E., Crawford, M. H., and Leboff, M. S. Changes in bone turnover markers and menstrual function after short- term oral DHEA in young women with anorexia nervosa. J Bone Miner.Res. 1999;14(1):136-145. View abstract.

Goyal, R. O., Sagar, R., Ammini, A. C., Khurana, M. L., and Alias, A. G. Negative correlation between negative symptoms of schizophrenia and testosterone levels. Ann.N Y.Acad.Sci 2004;1032:291-294. View abstract.

Grasfeder, L. L., Gaillard, S., Hammes, S. R., Ilkayeva, O., Newgard, C. B., Hochberg, R. B., Dwyer, M. A., Chang, C. Y., and McDonnell, D. P. Fasting-induced hepatic production of DHEA is regulated by PGC-1alpha, ERRalpha, and HNF4alpha. Mol.Endocrinol. 2009;23(8):1171-1182. View abstract.

Hammer, F., Subtil, S., Lux, P., Maser-Gluth, C., Stewart, P. M., Allolio, B., and Arlt, W. No evidence for hepatic conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate to DHEA: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2005;90(6):3600-3605. View abstract.

Hampl, R., Sulcova, J., Bilek, R., and Hill, M. How short-term transdermal treatment of men with 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone influence thyroid function. Physiol Res 2006;55(1):49-54. View abstract.

Hata, T., Hashimoto, M., Senoh, D., Hata, K., Kitao, M., and Masumura, S. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on ophthalmic artery flow velocity waveforms in full-term pregnant women. Am J Perinatol. 1995;12(2):135-137. View abstract.

Herrera, J. D., Davidson, J. A., and Mestman, J. H. Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature. Endocr.Pract. 2009;15(2):149-152. View abstract.

Hirao, T., Urata, Y., Kageyama, K., Ikezaki, M., Kawakatsu, M., Matsuse, M., Matsuo, T., Akishita, M., Nagata, I., and Kondo, T. Dehydroepiandrosterone augments sensitivity to gamma-ray irradiation in human H4 neuroglioma cells through down-regulation of Akt signaling. Free Radic.Res 2008;42(11-12):957-965. View abstract.

Howard, J. S., III. Severe psychosis and the adrenal androgens. Integr Physiol Behav.Sci 1992;27(3):209-215. View abstract.

Hsiao, C. C. Difference in pre- and post-treatment plasma DHEA levels were significantly and positively correlated with difference in pre- and post-treatment Hamilton depression scores following successful therapy for major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006;31(7):839-846. View abstract.

Huppert, F. A. and Van Niekerk, J. K. WITHDRAWN: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD000304. View abstract.

Johnson, R. Abnormal Testosterone:Epitestosterone ratios after dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation. Clin Chem 1999;45(2):163-164. View abstract.

Josipovic, B. and Josipovic, A. Basal levels of DHEAS as a marker for disease activity in premenopausal women with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(8):1803-1805. View abstract.

Kaiman DS, Colker CM, Swain MA, Torina GC, and Shi Q. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. Current Therapeutic Research 2000;61(7):435-442.

Karp, G., Bentov, Y., Masalha, R., and Ifergane, G. Onset of late posttraumatic seizure after dehydroepiandrosterone treatment. Fertil.Steril. 2009;91(3):931-932. View abstract.

Kasperska-Zajac, A. E., Brzoza, Z. K., Koczy-Baron, E., and Jagodzinska, J. Dehydroepiandrosterone in therapy of allergic diseases. Recent Pat Inflamm.Allergy Drug Discov. 2009;3(3):211-213. View abstract.

Kasperska-Zajac, A., Brzoza, Z., and Rogala, B. Lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a secondary transient phenomenon? Br.J Dermatol. 2008;159(3):743-744. View abstract.

Khorram, O., Vu, L., and Yen, S. S. Activation of immune function by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in age- advanced men. J Gerontol.A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997;52(1):M1-M7. View abstract.

Kocis, P. Prasterone. Am J Health Syst.Pharm. 11-15-2006;63(22):2201-2210. View abstract.

Kodama, M., Oyama, A., and Takagi, H. Control of interstitial pneumonia by drip infusion of megadose vitamin C, dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol. A short review of our experience. In Vivo 2008;22(2):263-267. View abstract.

Koetz, K. R., Ventz, M., Diederich, S., and Quinkler, M. Bone mineral density is not significantly reduced in adult patients on low-dose glucocorticoid replacement therapy. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2012;97(1):85-92. View abstract.

Kumpfel, T., Then, Bergh F., Friess, E., Uhr, M., Yassouridis, A., Trenkwalder, C., and Holsboer, F. Dehydroepiandrosterone response to the adrenocorticotropin test and the combined dexamethasone and corticotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neuroendocrinology 1999;70(6):431-438. View abstract.

Labrie, C., Flamand, M., Belanger, A., and Labrie, F. High bioavailability of dehydroepiandrosterone administered percutaneously in the rat. J Endocrinol 1996;150 Suppl:S107-S118. View abstract.

Labrie, F., Archer, D., Bouchard, C., Fortier, M., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Girard, G., Baron, M., Ayotte, N., Moreau, M., Dube, R., Cote, I., Labrie, C., Lavoie, L., Berger, L., Gilbert, L., Martel, C., and Balser, J. Effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (Prasterone) on libido and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009;16(5):923-931. View abstract.

Lahita, R. G. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for serious disease, a possibility? Lupus 1999;8(3):169-170. View abstract.

Leal, A. M., Magalhaes, P. K., Souza, C. S., and Foss, N. T. Adrenocortical hormones and interleukin patterns in leprosy. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25(8-9):457-461. View abstract.

Lee, K. S., Oh, K. Y., and Kim, B. C. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on collagen and collagenase gene expression by skin fibroblasts in culture. J Dermatol.Sci 2000;23(2):103-110. View abstract.

Li, Y., Xia, Z., and Wang, M. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits CD40/CD40L expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by interferon gamma. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2009;9(2):168-172. View abstract.

Liu, D. and Dillon, J. S. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates endothelial cell nitric-oxide synthase by a specific plasma membrane receptor coupled to Galpha(i2,3). J Biol.Chem 6-14-2002;277(24):21379-21388. View abstract.

Loria, R. M., Inge, T. H., Cook, S. S., Szakal, A. K., and Regelson, W. Protection against acute lethal viral infections with the native steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). J Med Virol. 1988;26(3):301-314. View abstract.

Luboshitzky, R., Qupti, G., Ishay, A., Shen-Orr, Z., and Herer, P. Increased urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in women with non- classical steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2001;22(5):332-336. View abstract.

Maggio, M., Lauretani, F., Ceda, G. P., Bandinelli, S., Ling, S. M., Metter, E. J., Artoni, A., Carassale, L., Cazzato, A., Ceresini, G., Guralnik, J. M., Basaria, S., Valenti, G., and Ferrucci, L. Relationship between low levels of anabolic hormones and 6-year mortality in older men: the aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) study. Arch.Intern.Med 11-12-2007;167(20):2249-2254. View abstract.

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Mattson, L. A., Cullberg, G., Tangkeo, P., Zador, G., and Samsioe, G. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone enanthate to oophorectomized women--effects on sex hormones and lipid metabolism. Maturitas 1980;2(4):301-309. View abstract.

May, M., Holmes, E., Rogers, W., and Poth, M. Protection from glucocorticoid induced thymic involution by dehydroepiandrosterone. Life Sci 1990;46(22):1627-1631. View abstract.

Mayer, D., Forstner, K., and Kopplow, K. Induction and modulation of hepatic preneoplasia and neoplasia in the rat by dehydroepiandrosterone. Toxicol.Pathol. 2003;31(1):103-112. View abstract.

McEntee, W. J. Wernicke's encephalopathy: an excitotoxicity hypothesis. Metab Brain Dis 1997;12(3):183-192. View abstract.

McIntosh MK and Berdanier CD. Influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the thyroid hormone status of BHE/cdb rats. J Nutr Biochem 1992;3:194-199.

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Miklos, S. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Acta Biomed.Ateneo.Parmense. 1995;66(3-4):139-146. View abstract.

Miller, K. K., Cai, J., Ripp, S. L., Pierce, W. M., Jr., Rushmore, T. H., and Prough, R. A. Stereo- and regioselectivity account for the diversity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites produced by liver microsomal cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004;32(3):305-313. View abstract.

Mochizuki, M. and Maruo, T. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on uterine cervical ripening in late pregnancy. Acta Physiol Hung. 1985;65(3):267-274. View abstract.

Munarriz RM, Talakoub L, Flaherty E, and et al. Hormone, sexual function and personal sexual distress outcomes following dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) treatment for multi-dimensional female sexual dysfunction and androgen deficiency syndrome [abstract]. American Urological Association Annual Meeting, June 2-7 2001.

Munarriz, R., Talakoub, L., Flaherty, E., Gioia, M., Hoag, L., Kim, N. N., Traish, A., Goldstein, I., Guay, A., and Spark, R. Androgen replacement therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone for androgen insufficiency and female sexual dysfunction: androgen and questionnaire results. J Sex Marital Ther 2002;28 Suppl 1:165-173. View abstract.

Nestler, J. E. and Kahwash, Z. Sex-specific action of insulin to acutely increase the metabolic clearance rate of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans. J Clin.Invest 1994;94(4):1484-1489. View abstract.

Nestler, J. E., Barlascini, C. O., Clore, J. N., and Blackard, W. G. Dehydroepiandrosterone reduces serum low density lipoprotein levels and body fat but does not alter insulin sensitivity in normal men. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1988;66(1):57-61. View abstract.

Nogueira, J. M., Pinto, P. L., Loureiro, V., Prates, S., Gaspar, A., Almeida, M. M., and Pinto, J. E. Soluble CD30, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone in atopic and non atopic children. Allerg.Immunol (Paris) 1998;30(1):3-8. View abstract.

Nordin, B. E., Robertson, A., Seamark, R. F., Bridges, A., Philcox, J. C., Need, A. G., Horowitz, M., Morris, H. A., and Deam, S. The relation between calcium absorption, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, and vertebral mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;60(4):651-657. View abstract.

Oberbeck, R., Dahlweid, M., Koch, R., van Griensven, M., Emmendorfer, A., Tscherne, H., and Pape, H. C. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases mortality rate and improves cellular immune function during polymicrobial sepsis. Crit Care Med 2001;29(2):380-384. View abstract.

Orner, G. A., Mathews, C., Hendricks, J. D., Carpenter, H. M., Bailey, G. S., and Williams, D. E. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a complete hepatocarcinogen and potent tumor promoter in the absence of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(12):2893-2898. View abstract.

Osmanagaoglu, M. A., Okumus, B., Osmanagaoglu, T., and Bozkaya, H. The relationship between serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration and bone mineral density, lipids, and hormone replacement therapy in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt.) 2004;13(9):993-999. View abstract.

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Papierska, L., Rabijewski, M., Kasperlik-Zaluska, A., and Zgliczynski, W. Effect of DHEA supplementation on serum IGF-1, osteocalcin, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal, glucocorticoid-treated women. Adv.Med Sci 6-1-2012;57(1):51-57. View abstract.

Parker, C. R., Jr., Simpson, E. R., Bilheimer, D. W., Leveno, K., Carr, B. R., and MacDonald, P. C. Inverse relation between low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate in human fetal plasma. Science 5-2-1980;208(4443):512-514. View abstract.

Patte-Mensah, C., Meyer, L., Kibaly, C., and Mensah-Nyagan, A. G. Regulatory effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on spinal cord nociceptive function. Front Biosci (Elite.Ed) 2010;2:1528-1537. View abstract.

Petri M, Lahita RG, McGuire J, and et al. Results of the GL701 (DHEA) multicenter steroid-sparing SLE study. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40(suppl):S327.

Phillips, A. C., Carroll, D., Gale, C. R., Lord, J. M., Arlt, W., and Batty, G. D. Cortisol, DHEA sulphate, their ratio, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Vietnam Experience Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163(2):285-292. View abstract.

Pluchino, N., Ninni, F., Stomati, M., Freschi, L., Casarosa, E., Valentino, V., Luisi, S., Genazzani, A. D., Poti, E., and Genazzani, A. R. One-year therapy with 10mg/day DHEA alone or in combination with HRT in postmenopausal women: effects on hormonal milieu. Maturitas 4-20-2008;59(4):293-303. View abstract.

Rasmussen, K. R., Arrowood, M. J., and Healey, M. C. Effectiveness of dehydroepiandrosterone in reduction of cryptosporidial activity in immunosuppressed rats. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother 1992;36(1):220-222. View abstract.

Regelson, W., Loria, R., and Kalimi, M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--the "mother steroid". I. Immunologic action. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci. 5-31-1994;719:553-563. View abstract.

Rice, S. P., Agarwal, N., Bolusani, H., Newcombe, R., Scanlon, M. F., Ludgate, M., and Rees, D. A. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement on vascular function in primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2009;94(6):1966-1972. View abstract.

Rice, S. P., Zhang, L., Grennan-Jones, F., Agarwal, N., Lewis, M. D., Rees, D. A., and Ludgate, M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in vitro inhibits adipogenesis in human omental but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. Mol.Cell Endocrinol. 5-14-2010;320(1-2):51-57. View abstract.

Risdon, G., Kumar, V., and Bennett, M. Differential effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on murine lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis. Exp.Hematol. 1991;19(2):128-131. View abstract.

Ritsner, M. S. and Strous, R. D. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with alterations in blood levels of neurosteroids: a multiple regression analysis of findings from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with DHEA. J Psychiatr.Res 2010;44(2):75-80. View abstract.

Ritsner, M. S., Gibel, A., Ratner, Y., Tsinovoy, G., and Strous, R. D. Improvement of sustained attention and visual and movement skills, but not clinical symptoms, after dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26(5):495-499. View abstract.

Romanutti, C., Bruttomesso, A. C., Castilla, V., Bisceglia, J. A., Galagovsky, L. R., and Wachsman, M. B. In vitro antiviral activity of dehydroepiandrosterone and its synthetic derivatives against vesicular stomatitis virus. Vet.J 2009;182(2):327-335. View abstract.

Romanutti, C., Bruttomesso, A. C., Castilla, V., Galagovsky, L. R., and Wachsman, M. B. Anti-adenovirus activity of epiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives. Chemotherapy 2010;56(2):158-165. View abstract.

Rommler, A. [Adrenopause and dehydroepiandrosterone: pharmacological therapy versus replacement therapy]. Gynakol.Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 2003;43(2):79-90. View abstract.

Roth, M. Y., Page, S. T., Lin, K., Anawalt, B. D., Matsumoto, A. M., Marck, B., Bremner, W. J., and Amory, J. K. The effect of gonadotropin withdrawal and stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin on intratesticular androstenedione and DHEA in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2011;96(4):1175-1181. View abstract.

Ruckert, C., Stuepp, Cdos S., Gottardi, B., Rosa, J., Cisilotto, J., Borges, F. P., Rosemberg, D. B., Bogo, M. R., Tasca, T., De Carli, G. A., and Bonan, C. D. Trichomonas vaginalis: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17beta-estradiol alter NTPDase activity and gene expression. Exp.Parasitol. 2010;125(3):187-195. View abstract.

Sahelian, R. and Borken, S. Dehydroepiandrosterone and cardiac arrhythmia. Ann Intern.Med 10-1-1998;129(7):588. View abstract.

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