Dementia, Alzheimer's, and Aging Brains

Auguste Deter (known as August D.), was the first person diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer.
Side view illustration portraying the various parts of the brain.
Chart describing the different types of dementia.
An elderly woman suffering from Alzheimer's disease is comforted by her husband.
These illustrations compare healthy (left) and diseased neurons (right).
Illustrations showing a healthy brain vs. a brain with severe Alzheimer's disease (left) and the progression of AD from preclinical to moderate to severe (right).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of vascular or multi-infarct dementia.
Axial FLAIR or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image (a, b & c) and T2 weighted (d) brain MRI from patients with CADASIL.
Micrograph of brain cells containing Lewy body dementia.
Patient with progressive frontotemporal dementia shows positron emission tomography (PET) scan indicating hypometabolism of glucose in the left hemisphere.
A 40-year-old woman diagnosed with HIV presented with confusion and decline in memory. The MRI shows atrophy and white matter hyperintensity on T2 not involving U-fibers.
Coronal brain section from a patient with Huntington's Disease showing atrophy of the heads of the caudate nuclei, enlargement of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, and generalized cortical atrophy.
Boxers throwing punches during a boxing match, one of the causes of dementia pugilistica.
Diffuse asymmetric (L > R) bilateral frontoparietal atrophy (arrows) in a 54-year-old woman with progressive nonfluent aphasia and mild parkinsonism due to pathology-proven corticobasal degeneration.
Several cows quarantined due to the possibility of “mad cow” disease.
A young boy laying down in a lost state due to dementia.
An assortment of medications (top left), MRI of subacute subdural hematoma (right) and illustration of the thyroid (bottom left).
An elderly woman with dementia tries to remember her youth.
This illustration shows healthy brain neurons (left) and damaged brain neurons (right) caused by AD: plaques, tangles, and the loss of connection between neurons.
Chart describing the risk factors for dementia.
A doctor studies MRI scans of a dementia patient.
A caregiver helping an elderly dementia patient with her medications.
The FDA has approved four cholinesterase inhibitors approved for use in the U.S. to treat AD: tacrine (Cognex - top left), donepezil (Aricept – top right), rivastigmine (Exelon – bottom left), and galantamine (Reminyl – bottom right).
A doctor prescribing medication to a dementia patient.
A doctor prescribing medication to a dementia patient.
A grandmother interacts with her grandson (top left), a senior couple play chess (top right), a senior man attempts a crossword puzzle (bottom left) and a senior woman plays the piano (bottom right).
A caregiver feeding a senior woman with dementia.
A senior man with dementia exercising with the supervision of his caregiver.
A senior woman preparing to drive her car.
A female researcher looking into a microscope and writing notes.

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Reviewed by William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR on Friday, July 22, 2016

Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Aging Brains

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