Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. Read more: Dehydration in Adults & Children Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): Symptoms, Signs, Causes
What is low blood pressure (hypotension)? Explore low blood pressure causes, symptoms, and signs. Discover what is considered low...
Kidney Stones: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
What causes kidney stones? Where is kidney stone pain located on your body? Learn the symptoms and signs of kidney stone pain....
Dehydration: Causes, Symptoms & Signs
Do you know the signs of dehydration? Dehydration can be mild or life-threatening. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and...
The Stages of Dementia: Alzheimer's Disease and Aging Brains
What are the symptoms of dementia? What causes dementia? Dementia includes many disorders, such as Lewy Body dementia,...
Better Ways to Feed Your Baby
What tips and tricks help you introduce healthy foods to your baby's diet. Learn techniques for feeding that work for infants and...
Heat Rash: How Do You Get Rid of It?
Do you know what heat rash looks like? Prickly heat is an itchy skin problem. It can cause pus-filled papules (blisters), red...
Water Safety: What's Inside Your Drinking Water?
What are the benefits of drinking water? How do you keep your drinking water safe and healthy? Learn about the water you drink...
7 Ways Water Benefits the Body
Drinking water benefits digestion, metabolism, toxin elimination, and other functions. Water promotes weight loss and helps...
Caffeine Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
If you can't function without your morning cup of java or your afternoon caffeine jolt, this quiz is for you. Learn about your...
Picture of Kidney Stone Crystal
Kidney stones are made of salts and minerals in the urine that stick together, creating small "pebbles" formed within the kidney...
Picture of Kidney Stone Diagnosis
The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or...
Picture of Kidney Stone
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). See a picture of Kidney Stone and learn more about the health topic.
Healthy Living: Why Am I Always Thirsty?
Do you always feel thirsty? Find out if there's a medical reason behind your need for a long drink.
Salmonella Symptoms: Food Poisoning, Other Causes, and Treatment
What is Salmonella? What are the best treatments for Salmonella, and what are its symptoms? From food poisoning to typhoid fever,...
Related Disease Conditions
Heat Rash: Symptoms and Treatment
Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating. It can occur at any age and it appears as a rash that itches or feels prickly, and looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters. Heat rash remedies include OTC creams and sprays. Usually heat rash resolves when the skin is cooled sufficiently. Medical treatment may be necessary if the sweat glands become infected.
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis. Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Symptoms of the inflammation of the colon lining include diarrhea, pain, and blood in the stool. There are several causes of colitis, including infection, ischemia of the colon, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis like C. difficile, or microscopic colitis). Treatment depends on the cause of the colitis.
Muscle spasms are involuntary muscle contractions that come on suddenly and are usually quite painful. Dehydration, doing strenuous exercise in a hot environment, prolonged muscle use, and certain diseases of the nervous system may cause muscle spasms. Symptoms and signs of a muscle spasm include an acute onset of pain and a possible bulge seen or felt beneath the skin where the muscle is located. Gently stretching the muscle usually resolves a muscle spasm.
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting if not enough blood is getting to the brain. Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
Natural Home Remedies for Sunburn
There are many natural and home remedies that are thought to relieve the symptoms and signs of a sunburn. Check out our top 30 tips to cool that sunburn, for example, drink lots of water, juice, or sports drinks; apply a cool compress containing Burow's solution; coconut oil can be used as a moisturizer after sunburn pain has stopped; apply topical over-the-counter (OTC) 1% hydrocortisone cream; and take OTC pain relievers like NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve).
What is shock? A life-threatening condition with symptoms like low blood pressure, weakness, shallow breathing, clammy skin, fainting, anxiety, confusion, and chest pain. Learn about causes, types, and treatment.
Sore Throat Home Remedies
Natural and home remedies for sore throat symptoms and pain relief include essential oils, licorice gargles, slippery elm leaves, raw garlic, Throat Coat tea, sage, and acupuncture. Typical symptoms of a sore throat include throat pain, coughing, sneezing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Sore throats are caused by viral (common cold, flu, mumps), bacterial (tonsillitis, some STDs), toxins, allergens, trauma or injury, or "mechanical causes" (breathing through the mouth).
High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
Muscle cramps are involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscles that do not relax. Extremely common, any muscles that have voluntary control, including some organs, are subject to cramp. Since there is such variety in the types of muscle cramps that can occur, many causes and preventative medications are known. Stretching is the most common way to stop or prevent most muscle cramps.
Staph (Staphylococcus) Infection
Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Healthy Living and Disease Prevention
The importance of a healthy lifestyle in disease prevention is widely understood and most people know that lifestyle changes and choices can be critical to good health. Learn about healthy behaviors that constitute healthy living.
Diarrhea is a change in the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis)
Stomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remedies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
Heat Exhaustion (First Aid Tips)
Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement fluids. Warning signs of heat exhaustion include heavy sweating, paleness, muscle cramps, tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting, and fainting. A person suffering from heat exhaustion should stop the activity are doing, move to a cooler environment, and rehydrate with liquids, for example, water or sports drinks. Complications of heat exhaustion are dehydration, muscle weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke (a medical emergency) if not treated.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are considered primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by disease. Headache symptoms vary with the headache type. Over-the-counter pain relievers provide short-term relief for most headaches.
Flakka (also known as "bath salts" or several other slang names) is a dangerous synthetic or "designer" drug. Users take it to experience euphoria, but it can often lead to dangerous delusions, paranoia, and bizarre behaviors. Dehydration, hyperthermia, and a dangerous condition that affects the kidneys called rhabdomyolysis can occur as a result of using Flakka.
Dizziness is a symptom that often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of dizziness include low blood pressure, heart problems, anemia, dehydration, and other medical conditions. Treatment of dizziness depends on the cause.
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)
Potassium is an essential electrolyte necessary for cell function. Low potassium (hypokalemia) may be caused by diarrhea, vomiting, ileostomy, colon polyps, laxative use, diuretics, elevated corticosteroid levels, renal artery stenosis, and renal tubular acidosis, or other medications. Symptoms of low potassium include weakness, aches, and cramps of the muscles. Treatment is dependent upon the cause of the low potassium (hypokalemia).
Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)
Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms and signs of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Heat Stroke (A Very Serious Condition)
Heat stroke (heatstroke or sun stroke) is a form of hyperthermia. Heat stroke is a true medical emergency that can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated. Symptoms of heat stroke include high body temperature, absence of sweating, hot red or flushed dry skin, rapid pulse, difficulty breathing, strange behavior, hallucinations, confusion, agitation, disorientation, seizure, and coma. A victim of heat stroke must receive immediate treatment to avoid permanent organ damage.
Ulcerative Colitis Diet Plan
An ulcerative colitis diet plan can help a person with the disease avoid foods and drinks that trigger flares. There also are foods that can soothe ulcerative colitis symptoms during a flare. Types of ulcerative colitis plans include a high-calorie diet, a lactose-free diet, a low-fat diet, a low-fiber diet (low-residue diet), or a low-salt diet. Self-management of ulcerative colitis using healthy lifestyle habits and a nutrient rich diet can be effective in management of the disease. Learn what foods to avoid that aggravate, and what foods help symptoms of the disease and increase bowel inflammation.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating; fever; chills; body aches; blood in the urine; pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back; and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or E. coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
How Long Does It Take to Rehydrate After Dehydration?
Learn about the symptoms of dehydration, how to rehydrate, and how long it takes to rehydrate.
Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have signs or symptoms prior to the fainting episode. Diagnosis and treatment depends upon the cause of the fainting or syncope episode.
Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)
Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and non-prescription drugs and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of dry mouth include a sticky, dry feeling in the mouth, frequent thirst, sores in the mouth; sores or split skin at the corners of the mouth, cracked lips, a dry feeling in the throat, a burning or tingling sensation in the mouth, and a dry, red, raw tongue.
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Hamstring injuries may range from minor strains to major ruptures. A hamstring injury causes spasm, tightness, and tenderness. More severe injuries may cause swelling and bruising. While most hamstring injuries heal without surgery, a complete rupture would require surgery.
Dementia is defined as a significant loss of intellectual abilities such as memory capacity, severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning. There are several different types of dementia, including cortical, subcortical, progressive, primary, and secondary dementias. Other conditions and medication reactions can also cause dementia. Dementia is diagnosed based on a certain set of criteria. Treatment for dementia is generally focused on the symptoms of the disease.
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused by E. coli and other bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract infection), poor hygiene, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, catheter, cystoscope exam, surgery, kidney stones, or prostate enlargement. Symptoms of kidney infection include back pain, frequent urination, pain during urination, fever, and or pus or blood in the urine. Kidney infection can be cured with antibiotic treatment. Cranberry juice may prevent UTIs, but that hasn’t been proven in all research studies.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of many conditions including motion sickness, pregnancy, emotional stress, gallbladder disease, and other illnesses. Learn about causes, treatment, and when to be concerned.
Croup is a contagious viral infection that affects children's respiratory systems. Symptoms include a barking cough, stridor, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment may incorporate the use of a humidifier, saline nasal spray, and pain relievers such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.
Arrhythmias (Heart Rhythm Disorders)
Heart rhythm disorders vary from minor palpitations, premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), sinus tachycardia, and sinus bradycardia, to abnormal heart rhythms such as tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular flutter, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, brachycardia, or heart blocks. Treatment is dependent upon the type of heart rhythm disorder.
Is the Stomach Flu Contagious?
The stomach flu or gastroenteritis is caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. Learn about how it is spread and how you can prevent infection.
Sunburn (Sun Poisoning)
Sunburn is caused by overexposure to UV radiation from the sun. UV rays can also damage the eyes. Repeated overexposure to UV rays also increases the risk for scarring, freckles, wrinkles, and dry skin. Symptoms of sunburn include painful, red, tender, and hot skin.The skin may blister, swell, and peel. Sun poisoning (severe sunburn) include nausea, fever, chills, rapid pulse, dizziness and more. Home remedies can help relieve sunburn pain, blisters, and peeling. Severe sunburns may need medical treatment. Sun protection and sunscreen for an person's skin type is recommended to decrease the chance of a severe sunburn and sun poisoning.
ICU psychosis is a disorder (also a form of delirium or acute brain failure) in which patients in an intensive care unit or a similar setting experience a cluster of serious psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms include: anxiety, reastlessness, hearing voices, hallucinations, nightmares, paranoia and more. Causes of ICU psychosis are generally from a combination of environmental and medical conditions.
Ricin is a biological toxin that can be made from processing castor beans. The length of time it takes for the poison to begin working depends on if you inhaled or ingested it, or if your skin and eyes were exposed. However, generally symptoms begin a few hours after poisoning; typically less than 10. You can die from ricin poisoning between 36 and 72 hours after exposure. Symptoms of ricin poisoning include: Fever Cough Nausea Low blood pressure Diarrhea Seizures Blood in the urine As there is no antidote, treatment focuses on minimizing the effects of poisoning.
Jet lag (desynchonosis) is a temporary disorder that results from travel across time zones. Symptoms include anxiety, constipation, headache, nausea, dehydration, diarrhea, confusion, sweating, irritability, and even memory loss.
Herpangina is a contagious illness often seen in children. It is caused by a Coxsackievirus or an enterovirus. Symptoms and signs include mouth sores, fever, and sore throat. Treatment focuses on alleviating fever and pain with acetaminophen and ibuprofen. It is important for children to stay well hydrated, as children may be resistant to eating or drinking.
Headache Home Remedies
Headaches are a common complaint for many people. There are many types of headaches such as migraine, tension, cluster, and the general run of the mill headache. These 17 natural home remedies -- for example, exercise, meditation, hydration, yoga, caffeine, essential oils such as lavender and butterbur, herbs, and supplements like magnesium -- can soothe and relieve some headaches.
Sickle Cell Disease (Anemia)
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease which shortens life expectancy, is caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia may include bacterial infections, painful swelling of the hands and feet, fever, leg ulcers, fatigue, anemia, eye damage, and lung and heart injury. Treatment for sickle cell anemia aims to manage and prevent the worst manifestations of the disease and focuses on therapies that block red blood cells from stacking together, which can lead to tissue and organ damage and pain.
What Are the 14 Signs of Dehydration?
Dehydration is a common problem. While many people think they’re drinking enough, approximately 75% of Americans aren’t. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of dehydration is important for reversing it and ensuring your body gets the water it needs.
Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli (loud noises), and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Palpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are benign, while others are more serious. Palpitations are diagnosed by taking the patient history and by performing an EKG or heart monitoring along with blood tests. An electrophysiology study may also be performed. Treatment of palpitations may include lifestyle changes, medication, ablation, or implantation of a pacemaker. The prognosis if palpitations depends on the underlying cause.
Neck Pain and Dizziness
Neck pain is any degree of discomfort in the front or back of the neck between the head and the shoulders. Dizziness is characterized as either vertigo with disequilibrium or lightheadedness associated with feeling faint or the potential to lose consciousness. Causes of neck pain and dizziness vary, and treatment depends on the cause. With any unexplained or persisting neck pain or dizziness, consult with a health care professional, who can determine whether the symptoms are harmless and temporary or serious and threatening.
Burns (First Aid)
Burn types are based on their severity: first-degree burns, second-degree burns, and third-degree burns. First-degree burns are similar to a painful sunburn. The damage is more severe with second-degree burns, leading to blistering and more intense pain. The skin turns white and loses sensation with third-degree burns. Burn treatment depends upon the burn location, total burn area, and intensity of the burn.
Arsenic comes in two forms, inorganic and organic. Organic arsenic poisoning is usually not poisonous to humans; however, inorganic arsenic in large enough amounts can lead to shock and death. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning include nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, dark urine, vertigo, delirium, shock, and death. Treatment for arsenic poisoning includes Hemodialysis and a variety of drugs.
Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Salmonellosis typically resolves on its own in four to seven days. It's important to increase one's fluid intake to compensate for the fluid lost by vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a condition in which affected individuals have severe nausea and vomiting that come in cycles. Researchers believe that cyclic vomiting syndrome and migraine headaches are related. Triggers of cyclic vomiting syndrome are emotional stress and infections. People with cyclic vomiting syndrome are at an increased risk of dehydration. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is difficult to diagnose. Treatment varies from person to person, but is generally directed toward relief of the symptoms of the condition.
Heat cramps usually affect people who sweat a lot during strenuous activity or work in a hot, humid environment. Symptoms of heat cramps are muscle pains or spasms, usually in the abdomen, arms or legs that occur in association with strenuous activity. Heat cramps are part of a group of heat-related illnesses. Heat cramps can sometimes lead to heat exhaustion or, in severe instances, heat stroke, which is a true medical emergency.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of type 1 diabetes that is life threatening. If a person thinks they may have diabetic ketoacidosis they should seek medical care immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when a person's insulin levels in the blood become dangerously low. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include dehydration, abdominal pain, confusion, and nausea and vomiting. Diabetic ketoacidosis needs medical treatment. It cannot be treated at home.
Pseudogout, a form of arthritis, results when deposits of crystals collect in and around the joints. Symptoms of pseudogout include pain, stiffness, warmth, and joint swelling of the knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and/or wrists. Treatment for pseudogout aims to decrease inflammation through the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ice, and rest.
Peritonitis is a bacterial infection inside of the abdomen. Some doctors choose to group the causes of peritonitis into five categories; 1) primary peritonitis, 2) secondary peritonitis, 3) tertiary peritonitis, 4) chemical (sterile) peritonitis, and 5) peritoneal abscess. Others do not categorize peritonitis, they use a term to describe the disease in front or behind the word peritonitis. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is generally with antibiotics.
Orthostatic hypotension symptoms include: LightheadednessWeaknessBlurred vision Syncope or passing out Causes of orthostatic hypotension include: Dehydration, Anemia, Medication Blood loss Low blood pressure Heat related illnesses Parkinson's disease Diabetes Treatment of orthostatic hypotension depends on the underlying cause.
Is C. diff (Clostridium difficile) Contagious?
C. diff, or Clostridium difficile, is a bacteria that infects the colon. C. diff bacteria can be found on furniture, bathroom floors, telephones, fingernails, jewelry, toilet seats, and other places. Symptoms of C. diff infection are fever, abdominal pain, and cramps; however, not all people infected with C. diff have symptoms. Treatments for C. diff are antibiotics and surgery in some cases.
Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium)
Hyponatremia is a condition in which the levels of sodium in the blood is too low. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include headaches, muscle cramps or spasm, seizures, weakness, restlessness, and confusion. Hyponatremia can occur from excess fluid in the body, or a loss of sodium in body fluid. Causes of low levels of sodium in the blood include chronic diseases like kidney or congestive heart failure, adrenal gland problems, hypothyroidism, and liver cirrhosis, and some medications. Diet and other lifestyle changes in addition to treatment with electrolyte replacement with an IV. Other treatments for hyponatremia depend upon the cause.
Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice)
Jaundice in newborns and babies (neonatal jaundice) usually occurs because of a normal increase in red blood cell breakdown and the fact that their immature livers are not efficient at removing bilirubin from the bloodstream. Symptoms of jaundice are fever, poor feeding, and looking ill. Newborn jaundice is very common and is caused because the newborn's liver isn’t mature enough to remove bilirubin from the blood. Treatment of jaundice in newborns includes phototherapy, tanning booths, and other treatments.
Huntington's disease is the result of degeneration of neurons in areas of the brain. Huntington's disease is an inherited disorder. Early symptoms include mood swings, apathy, depression, and anger uncharacteristic of the individual. Judgement, memory, and other cognitive functions may become impaired. Presymptomatic testing is available for individuals who have a family history of Huntington's disease. Treatment includes medication and therapy for symptoms.
What Is the Quickest Way to Rehydrate Your Body?
Water is the best way to hydrate your body, but it's not the only option. There are other ways you can rehydrate.
Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the cause of up to 70% of all cases of travelers' diarrhea. There are five unique classes of E. coli that causes gastroenteritis. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacter, jejuni, shigella, and salmonella. Viruses such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus (norovirus) and giardia lamblia a parasite may cause travelers' diarrhea. Prevention is careful eating and drinking of water.
Norovirus infection causes stomach flu, or gastroenteritis. It's a very contagious illness with symptoms that include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fever, headache, chills, and muscle aches. Norovirus infection cannot be treated with antibiotics, so treatment focuses on maintaining proper hydration.
Tension Headache (Symptoms, Relief, Causes, Treatment)
A tension headache s one of the most common types of headaches, and the exact cause is not known. Factors that may contribute to tension or stress headaches are lack of sleep, increased stress (referred to as a stress headache), skipping meals, dehydration, medical diseases or conditions, anxiety, or changes at home, work, or school. Treatment of tension headaches include prescription and OTC medications, stress management, and treating any underlying illness or condition.
There are two categories of cold weather-related injuries. 1) no freezing of body tissue (trench foot and chilblains), and 2) freezing of body tissues (frostbite). Chilblains in general, will not need medical attention (unless there is infection). Trench foot and frostbite, however, require medical attention. Symptoms of frostbite include pain, burning, numbness, and eventually a complete loss of sensation in the affected body part. The young, elderly, and patients with certain medical conditions (diabetes, hypothyroidism, circulatory problems, and psychiatric illnesses), are more susceptible to cold weather-related injuries. People who abuse alcohol and illicit drug user are also at risk for cold weather-related injuries.
Cholera is an infectious disease characterized by intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea and that rapidly lease to dehydration and often death. Cholera is caused by infection with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which may be transmitted via infected fecal matter, food, or water.
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (C. diff, C. difficle Colitis)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile spores are found frequently in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, and nurseries for newborn infants.
Does Tea Hydrate Better Than Water?
In the water-versus-tea battle, water still wins. Because water doesn't contain caffeine, sugar, or other additives, it's the purest form of hydration.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. There are an estimated 300,000 plus deaths annually from whooping cough (pertussis). Whooping cough commonly affects infants and young children but can be prevented with immunization with the vaccine. First stage whooping cough symptoms are a runny nose, sneezing, low-grade fever, a mild cough with the cough gradually becoming more severe. After one to two weeks, the second stage of whooping cough begins.
Children's health is focused on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. There are many aspects of children's health, including growth and development, illnesses, injuries, behavior, mental illness, family health, and community health.
Is Colitis Contagious?
Colitis is a term that us used to describe inflammation of the colon. The terms enteritis, proctitis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) now include colitis. Colitis has many different causes. Some types of colitis are contagious and some are not contagious. Symptoms and signs of colitis include diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, cramping, pain, and blood in the stools. Treatment for colitis depends on the cause and type of colitis.
Is Salmonella Contagious?
Salmonella is a bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases. Salmonella can be transmitted via direct and indirect contact. Salmonellosis typically lasts for 3-5 days and resolves on its own. Supportive care to prevent dehydration due to nausea and vomiting is usually the only treatment.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children throughout the world. Almost all children have become infected with rotavirus by their third birthday. Repeat infections with different viral strains are possible, and most children have several episodes of rotavirus infection in the first years of life. Children between the ages of six and 24 months are at greatest risk for developing severe disease from rotavirus infection. Rotavirus symptoms include: fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Rotavirus infection can be associated with severe dehydration in infants and children.
Why Does My Pee Smell So Bad?
Some conditions can make your pee smell bad. They include dehydration, urinary tract infection, diabetes, bladder fistula, liver disease, and maple syrup urine disease.
Hyperthermia (Heat-Related Illness)
Heat-related illness include heat rash, cramps, exhaustion, stroke, and sunburn. Treatment of heat related illnesses depend on the condition, but symptoms may include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, seizures, and coma. Heat stroke is a medical emergency, and may result in death if not treated promptly. Heat exhaustion may lead to heat stroke if not treated properly.
What Causes Metabolic Acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis develops when the body has too much acidic ions in the blood. Metabolic acidosis can be caused by vomiting and diarrhea, carbon monoxide poisoning, drug overdose, liver failure, low blood sugar, alcohol, seizures and other disorders.
Is Norovirus Contagious?
Noroviruses cause food poisoning symptoms in infected individuals. Norovirus is transmitted via direct and indirect contact. Infections typically resolve in 24-72 hours. Symptoms of norovirus include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fever, headache, and body aches.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a diseases in which blood clots within the capillaries. Causes associated with HUS include: E. coli, birth control pills, pneumonia, medications such as chemotherapy, Ticlid, and quinine. Symptoms of HUS include: gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Diagnosis of HUS includes: medical history, physical examination, and medical tests. Treatment includes: rest, fluids, possible hospitalization for blood transfusion or complications due to kidney failure.
First Aid: Why You Need a First Aid Kit and CPR
First aid is providing medical assistance to someone a sick or injured person. The type of first aid depends on their condition. Preparedness is key to first aid, like having basic medical emergency kits in your home, car, boat, or RV. Many minor injuries may require first aid, including cuts, puncture wounds, sprains, strains, and nosebleeds. Examples of more critical first aid emergencies include heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and heatstroke.
People with bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder that involves episodes of bingeing and purging, experience symptoms and signs such as deteriorating teeth, sore throat, constipation, thinning hair, and dehydration. Treatment of bulimia may involve cognitive behavior therapy, family therapy, nutritional counseling, and medication.
Can Drinking Water Get Rid of Acne and Help Clear My Skin?
Keeping your body hydrated is a well-known wellness tip. Water improves other functions that in turn improve the appearance of the skin.
Cryptosporidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by the Cryptosporidium parasite. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, fever, weight loss, dehydration, and weight loss. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of cyptosporidiosis.
Hepatitis E Viral Infection
Hepatitis E (hep E) is a type of hepatitis viral infection that includes hepatitis A, B, C, D, F, which is caused by the hepatitis E virus. Usually, you get (transmitted) hepatitis E from eating or drinking dirty or contaminated water. Hepatitis E can be very serious, especially if a woman is pregnant. Up to ¼ of women who are pregnant with the hep E virus can die from the infection. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis E infection are nausea and vomiting, brown or dark urine, stool changes jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), pain in the right side of the abdomen, dark or brown urine, and light-colored stool. Some people with hep E don’t have any symptoms so they don’t know that they are contagious. It takes about 6 weeks to recover from hep E. A person who has any type of hepatitis, including hepatitis E, should not drink any alcohol. Hep E complications are rare, but when they do occur they include severe (“fulminant”) hepatitis, liver failure, and death. Currently, no specific drugs or treatments are available for hepatitis E. Moreover, the only hepatitis E vaccine currently is available in China. Avoid alcohol, keep hydrated, and getting rest are home remedies for hepatitis E. Talk to your doctor before taking any over-the-counter (medications), especially those containing acetaminophen (Tylenol and others). Usually, the prognosis and life expectancy for hepatitis E after recovery is good. Most people do not have long term liver problems from the infection.
Cyclospora Infection (Cyclosporiasis)
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite that causes infection when humans ingest food contaminated with feces from an infected individual. Symptoms include profuse diarrhea, abdominal pain, gas, cramping, and fatigue. A 7-day course of Bactrim or Septra is the standard treatment for cyclosporiasis.
Teeth Grinding (Bruxism)
Bruxism is the medical term for teeth grinding. Bruxism may be caused by stress or anxiety and often happens during sleep. Symptoms and signs include jaw pain, headache, and abnormalities in your teeth. Treatment may involve practicing stress-management techniques, cutting back on caffeine and alcohol, avoiding gum chewing, training oneself not to grind the teeth, and wearing a mouth guard.
Enterovirulent E. coli (EEC)
Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) are strains of related bacteria that have a strong propensity to cause gastrointestinal tract infections. Examples of strains include: EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), EAEC (enteroadherent E. coli), and EAggEC (enteroaggregative E. coli). Symptoms may vary depending on the strain the individual contracts. Infection is spread generally through contaminated food or drink.
Febrile seizures, or convulsions caused by fever, can be frightening in small children or infants. However, in general, febrile seizures are harmless. Febrile seizure is not epilepsy. It is estimated that one in every 25 children will have at least one febrile seizure. It is important to know what to do to help your child if he/she has a febrile seizure. Some of the features of a febrile seizure include losing consciousness, shaking, moving limbs on both sides of the body, and lasts 1-2 minutes. Less commonly, a febrile seizure may only affect one side of the body.
Alzheimer's Disease Patient Caregiver Guide
Caring for a loved one or patient with Alzheimer's can become a difficult and overwhelming task at times. This guide helps caregivers of individual's with Alzheimer's deal with communicating, bathing, and dressing; as well as problem solving with incontinence, sleeping, wandering; and coping with difficulties Alzheimer's patients present.
Job Stress and Your Health
Early warning signs of job stress include headache, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, short temper, upset stomach, job dissatisfaction, and low morale. Stress on the job can be damaging to your health in that job stress is the outcome when job demands cannot be met.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
There are many types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): gastrinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas. Symptoms and signs vary with the type of pancreatic NET. Standard treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, chemoembolization, targeted therapy, and supportive care.
Muscle Cramps: Treatment
Muscle cramps cannot be stopped instantly with injections or pills, but some methods can be useful to relieve them which include stretching, massage, application of heat and cold, walking and taking B vitamins.
Hurricanes are based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, which places them in 5 categories. Weather (hurricane) predictions, names, and tracking are provided by The National Hurricane Center (NHC), a division of NOAA. Hurricane season lasts from June to November. Preparing for a hurricane is necessary if you live in an area prone to them. Prepare a hurricane supply and first aid kit ahead of time.
Dehydration: Causes and Prevention
Dehydration occurs when the body fluid loss exceeds the intake. If the lost fluid is not replaced, it will eventually lead to a decrease in fluid levels in the body, affecting normal body functions. The most prominent effect of dehydration is low blood pressure, which triggers the stress response in the body.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Weight Loss
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Low Urine Output
- Cloudy Urine
- Bad Taste in the Mouth
- Pale Skin
- Chapped Lips (Cheilitis)
- Urine Odor
- Dark Circles Under the Eyes
- Muscle Cramps
- Fainting (Syncope)
- Dry Skin
- Dry Mouth
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Hairy Tongue
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Patient: Getting the Best Care
- Caffeine FAQs
- Four Summer Health Myths Debunked
- Drinking Too Much Water While Exercising Can Be Dangerous
- Summer Heat: 15 Ways to Keep Cool When It’s Hot
- 11 Tips for Surviving A Heat Wave Without Air-Conditioning
- 11 Tips for a Safe Fourth of July
- What Is a Hospitalist?
- Cholera, a Disease That Keeps Repeating Its History
- Urine Therapy
- Norovirus Infection: A Cause for Travelers' Concern?
- 6 Tips if You Need Healthcare When Traveling
- Rhabdomyolysis Symptoms and Causes
- Sickle Trait and Sickle Cell Disease
- How Much Protein Do I Need?
- When to Call the Doctor for Fever, Nausea, Diarrhea, Colds, and Coughs
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Kidney Stones?
- 5 Ways to Recognize a Heat-Related Illness
- Thyroid Storm
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- AHA News: Are You Drinking Enough During Winter Months?
- Health Tip: The Importance of Hydration
- How to Protect a Loved One With Dementia During a Heat Wave
- How to Help Your Heart Weather Extreme Heat
- As Heat Bakes the Nation, Expert Offers Tips to Stay Safe
- Health Tip: Recognizing Heat Exhaustion
- Health Tip: Diarrhea in Kids
- Health Tip: Working in Extreme Heat
- Do You Have the 'Fainting Gene'?
- Health Tip: Energy Drink Safety
- Health Tip: Why You Need Electrolytes
- Health Tip: Prevent Rotavirus
- Rehydration: How Much Is Too Much?
- Why Seniors Can Struggle With Swallowing
- Shield Yourself From the Summer Sun
- Health Tip: Have a Safer Summer
- It's Hot Outside: How to Stay Safe When Thermometers Rise
- Health Tip: Treating Heat-Related Illness
- As Temperatures Soar, Study Warns of Fatal Heat Stroke at Work
- Health Tips for Summer Fun
- No One-Size-Fits-All for Hydrating During Sports
- Aging Brains Gain More From Exercise With Good Hydration
- Everything You Need to Know About Exercise and Hydration
- Pediatricians Sound Alarm on Rapid Weight Changes in Young Athletes
- Harvey's Floodwaters Harbor Many Health Hazards
- Health Tip: Prevent Dehydration
- Birth Control Pills Recalled Due to Danger of Unintended Pregnancy
- Wild 'Death Cap' Mushroom Seriously Sickens 14 in California
- For Firefighters, Another Danger: The Heart
- Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury
- Timely Tips for Safe Snow Removal
- 'Teen' Finds Minors Can Buy Bodybuilding Supplement at Health Food Stores
- Polar Vortex Tightens Grip on U.S.
- Water: Can It Be Too Much of a Good Thing?
- Clots May Be the Cause of Fainting in Some Elderly
- 1 in 10 Stroke Rehab Interruptions May Be Preventable
- First Days of Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players
- Heat Waves Hit Seniors Hardest
- How to Have Fun -- and Stay Safe -- at the Beach or Pool
- 'Heat Dome' Not Budging Until Week's End
- How to Spot the Warning Signs of Heat Stroke
- Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?
- Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats
- Dangerous Urinary Tract Infections Common in Nursing Homes
- Study Links Climate Change to Kidney Disease
- Health Tip: Enjoy a Healthier Plane Ride
- How to Clear Snow Without Getting Hurt
- Mixed Martial Arts Fighters May Go to Dangerous Lengths to Shed Pounds
- Health Tip: Why Muscles Cramp
- U.S. Kids Not Drinking Enough Water Each Day
- Widespread Vaccination Fights Serious Stomach Infection in Kids: CDC
- Stomach Bug Traced to Swimming in Contaminated Lake Water
- Abnormal Test Results in Hospital Signal Raised Kidney Injury Risk
- Study Links Antibiotics to Digestive Complication in Infants
- Dehydration Linked to Greater Stroke Damage
- Infection Most Likely Cause of Hospital Readmission After Surgery
- Protect Yourself in Icy Temperatures, Heavy Snow
- Tonsillectomy Complications May Be More Likely in Poor, Minority Kids
- Water: Too Much of a Good Thing Can Be Deadly for Athletes
- Human Brain Has Coping Mechanism for Dehydration
- Will a Warmer Climate Mean More Kidney Stones?
- If You Can't Stand the Heat . . .
- Health Tip: Drink Lots of Fluids This Summer
- No Link Found Between Playing Football in Hot Weather, Concussion Risk
- Complication Rate After Adult Tonsillectomy Higher Than Thought
- U.S. Children's Hospitals Vary Widely In Tonsillectomy Care
- FDA Warns Against Misuse of Laxatives
- Farxiga Approved for Type 2 Diabetes
- Ultramarathoners: How's Their Health?
- Avoiding That New Year's Hangover
- Keeping Healthy During Holiday Travel
- Health Tip: Warning Signs of a Serious Sore Throat
- Weight-Loss Surgery Safe for Very Obese Teens, Study Says
- Popular Morning Sickness Drug Safe in Pregnancy, Study Finds
- After Tonsillectomy, Over-the-Counter Painkillers Suffice, Study Says
- Overlooked Delirium Worsens Hospital Course for People With Dementia
- Health Tip: Chickenpox May Lead to Complications
- Migraines Linked to Artery Networks in Brain
- Signs of Potential Trouble for Nursing Home Residents
- Hot Weather Takes Toll on Farmworkers: Study
- Boston Bombing Injuries Like a 'War Zone'
- Health Tip: Be Safe at the Beach
- Doctor Explains Why Flu a Greater Threat to Seniors
- Hillary Clinton Plans to Return to Work Next Week
- Health Tip: Understanding Morning Sickness
- Health Tip: Make Sure Kids Get Enough Water
- Kate and William Expecting First Baby
- 'Worm Therapy' Might Help Ease Colitis, Monkey Study Shows
- Water or Sports Drink?
- Bottle-Feeding May Raise Baby's Risk for Intestinal Trouble
- Health Tip: If Your Child Develops Food Poisoning
- Fainting Might Run in Families, Twin Study Finds
- Extreme Heat Biggest Weather Killer, Expert Warns
- The Care and Feeding of Olympic Athletes
- New Drug Approved for Colonoscopy Preparation
- Electric Fans May Be Risky in Extreme Heat
- Keep Infants Out of Sun and Heat, Experts Warn
- It's Not So Much the Heat, It's the Lack of Power
- Health Tip: Understanding Adult Dehydration
- Health Tip: Warning Signs of Infant Dehydration
- C. diff on Rise in Kids -- and Outside Hospital
- Survey: 1 in 3 Kids Hurt Playing Sports
- Parents Often Right to Bring Kids With Fever to the ER: Study
- Even Mild Dehydration May Cause Emotional, Physical Problems
- Screening Alone Not Enough to Prevent Sudden Death in College Athletes
- Health Officials Urge Americans: Get Your Flu Shot Now
- Ground Beef Recalled in 14 States
- FDA: Osteoporosis Drug Reclast Ups Kidney Failure Risk
- Ground Beef Recalled Due to E. coli
- FDA Panel Opposes New Type of Diabetes Drug
- Rotavirus Vaccine Linked to Bowel Disorder
- Ground Beef Recalled in 10 States
- Rare Form of Stroke Affects Young People
- High School Athletes Hit Hard by the Heat
- Pregnant Women Don't Get Enough Exercise
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter