- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: cranberry
Brand and Other Names: American cranberry, black cranberry, European cranberry, low cranberry, mossberry, Oxycoccus macrocarpus, trailing swamp cranberry, Vaccinium edule, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium occycoccus, Vaccinium vitis
Drug Class: Herbals
What is cranberry, and what is it used for?
The American cranberry, Vaccinum macrocarpon, is an evergreen shrub that grows in the swamplands of North America. Cranberry is used to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and as a urinary deodorizer for incontinent patients. Cranberry is also used for many other ailments such as type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus), chronic fatigue syndrome, and other disorders, however, there is no reliable evidence to support these uses.
Cranberry contains compounds such as flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, and organic acids including salicylate. Cranberry is a rich source of vitamin C, useful as a dietary supplement for scurvy, a condition caused by vitamin C deficiency. Cranberry has antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Cranberry may be eaten as fresh or dried fruit, drunk as juice or juice cocktail, or taken as capsule supplements.
Urinary tract infections are most often caused by Escherichia coli bacteria, and they grow by adhering to the inner lining of the urinary tract. Cranberry prevents the growth of E. coli by preventing their adhesion to the urinary tract surface. Preliminary studies show cranberry may also prevent the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcers.
Cranberry does not kill bacteria and must not be used instead of antibiotics, it cannot treat an existing infection. Cranberry is useful in preventing UTIs, especially in women predisposed to recurrent UTIs, who have the risk of superinfections and antibiotic resistance with repeated antibiotic courses.
Suggested uses of cranberry include the following:
- Do not take cranberry if you have a history of kidney stones; cranberry has high oxalate content and can increase the risk of stone formation
- Cranberry products may be sweetened; use with caution if you are diabetic
- Use with caution if you have atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory gastric condition or hypochlorhydria, a condition with low level of stomach acid
- Cranberry may cause hypersensitive reactions
- Cranberry contains salicylate; use with caution if you have aspirin allergy
- Interaction with blood thinners such as warfarin can increase the risk of bleeding; use with caution
What are the side effects of cranberry?
Common side effects of cranberry include:
- Stomach upset
- Stomach pain (rare)
- Elevation of blood glucose levels
- Kidney stone formation
- Increased risk for urinary tract cancer due to oxalate stones
This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug.
Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of cranberry?
There isn’t an established standard dose of cranberry.
- Cranberry juice cocktail (26% cranberry juice): 10-16 oz/day orally
- Cranberry juice: 15 mL twice a day orally
400 mg twice a day orally
Urinary Deodorizer for Incontinent Patients
Cranberry juice cocktail
- 3-6 oz/day orally
What drugs interact with cranberry?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Cranberry has no known severe, serious, or moderate interactions with other drugs.
- Mild Interactions of cranberry include:
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information.
Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
What else should I know about cranberry?
- Cranberry is generally recognized as safe, particularly as fresh or dried fruits
- Studies show limited evidence of cranberry’s efficacy in preventing UTIs, but not its treatment
- Seek medical help for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections
Latest Medications News
Daily Health News
Cranberry extract is used to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and as a urinary deodorizer for incontinent patients. Cranberry is also used for many other ailments such as diabetes type II, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other disorders. Common side effects of cranberry include stomach upset, reflux, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain (rare), headaches, elevation of blood glucose levels, kidney stone formation, and increased risk for urinary tract cancer due to oxalate stones. Avoid cranberry juice and supplements if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medication
Bladder infections can be painful and often require medical treatment. Get the latest information on urinary tract infections...
Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatments
Bladder cancer occurs when cancerous cells, often from the lining of the bladder, begin to multiply. Find more information about...
Urinary Incontinence in Women: Types, Causes, and Treatments for Bladder Control
Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. Overactive bladder (OAB), stress incontinence, and urge incontinence can be...
Bladder Infections: UTI Causes, Symptoms, Treatments
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) can happen to anyone. Learn about symptoms, causes and home remedy treatments for bladder and...
Why Do I Pee So Often? Incontinence & Overactive Bladder
You went to the bathroom to pee just a few minutes ago. Now you need to go again. What's going on? Here are some possible reasons.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Tests, Causes, Treatments
What is chronic fatigue syndrome? CFS can occur at any age for men or women. Learn more about the causes of CFS, as well as tests...
Urinary Incontinence in Men: Types, Solutions, Home Remedies, & Treatments
Male urinary incontinence has a variety of causes and treatments. Learn about bladder incontinence surgeries, medications for...
Urinary Incontinence Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
What is urinary incontinence and why do people develop it? Learn all you need to know with this quiz.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Quiz: Symptoms & Treatment
Exhausted all the time? Maybe it's not all in the mind. Take the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Quiz to learn more about tricky...
Urinary Tract Infection Quiz
How would you know if you had urinary tract infection (UTI)? Take the Urinary Tract Infection in Adult Quiz to learn the causes,...
Urinary Incontinence: Foods and Drinks That Cause Overactive Bladder
What causes overactive bladder (OAB)? A natural remedy is to avoid caffeine, alcohol, and these foods. Learn the foods and...
Picture of Peptic Ulcer
A hole in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. See a picture of Peptic Ulcer and learn more about the health topic.
Picture of Bladder
The urinary bladder is a muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone. See a picture of the Bladder and learn...
Related Disease Conditions
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency, and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
How Long Should a UTI Last After Antibiotics?
Depending on the severity of your UTI, you may need to take a 3-day, 7-day or even 2-week course of antibiotics. Since the bacteria causing your UTI can stay in your body even after symptoms are gone, it’s important to finish your entire course of antibiotics.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Early symptoms of diabetes are different in men, such as low testosterone. In many cases, prediabetes that will progress to type 2 diabetes if it is not treated early.
Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including females, the elderly, men with enlarged prostates, and those with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for bladder infection. Bladder infections are treated with antibiotics, but cranberry products and adequate hydration may help prevent bladder infections.
Can You Flush Out a UTI With Water?
Patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) are usually advised to drink six to eight glasses (1.5 to 2 liters) of water every day to flush the infection out of the urinary system.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss of interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer)
Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Learn about symptoms, causes, diet, and treatment.
How Long Does It Take a UTI to Turn Into a Kidney Infection?
Failing to treat a urinary tract infection can lead to serious health problems, including kidney infections. If you have lingering symptoms, or recurrent UTIs, it is important to see your medical provider.
Urinary retention (inability to urinate) may be caused by nerve disease, spinal cord injury, prostate enlargement, infection, surgery, medication, bladder stone, constipation, cystocele, rectocele, or urethral stricture. Symptoms include discomfort and pain. Treatment depends upon the cause of urinary retention.
Urinary Incontinence in Women
Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of urinary incontinence: stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overactive bladder, functional incontinence, overflow incontinence, transient incontinence, and mixed incontinence.
Can UTI Symptoms Linger After Antibiotics?
Sometimes, UTI symptoms can linger even after antibiotic therapy. Reasons for this may be that your UTI is caused by an antibiotic-resistance strain of bacteria or caused by another type of bacteria, or you may have another condition entirely that causes UTI-like symptoms.
Is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Contagious?
Bacteria such as E. coli or Pseudomonas can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). The incubation period for a UTI ranges from three to eight days.
Urinary Tract Infection in Adults
Second Source article from Government
Second Source article from Government
What Does the Beginning of a UTI Feel Like?
Learn the symptoms seen in the early stages of a UTI below, which include a burning sensation during urination and pain in the lower abdomen.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Second Source article from Government
How Can I Treat a UTI While Pregnant Without Antibiotics?
What is a UTI? Learn what other treatments aside from antibiotics can help to relieve your UTI symptoms while pregnant.
Urinary Incontinence in Children
Second Source article from Government
How Do You Know If You Have E. Coli or Salmonella?
E. coli and salmonella are both bacteria that can cause food poisoning. What is the difference between E. coli and salmonella?
What Foods Are Bad for Urinary Retention?
Urinary retention is a condition in which you cannot empty your bladder completely. While no direct connection exists between diet and urinary retention, certain foods may aggravate urinary retention including acidic and spicy foods, artificial sweetener and caffeinated foods.
E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
There are many types of E. coli (Escherichia coli). E. coli can cause urinary tract and bladder infections, or lead to sepsis. E coli O157:H7 (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and colitis. Complications of E. coli infection include hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. E coli O157:H7 commonly is due to eating raw or undercooked hamburger or raw milk or dairy products.
Can Urinary Incontinence Be Reversed?
Urinary incontinence can happen to anyone and the severity varies depending on the age, cause, and type of urinary incontinence. Most cases of urinary incontinence can be cured or controlled with appropriate treatment.
What Are 4 Types of Urinary Incontinence?
What is urinary continence? Learn the four different types, what causes them, and how to treat them.
Is E. coli Contagious? (Symptoms and Cure)
E. coli is an infection found worldwide. There are several subtypes of the E. coli species. E. coli spreads from person to person via contaminated food or water. Symptoms and signs of E. coli infection include diarrhea, stomach cramps, and sometimes fever. Antibiotics treat E. coli infection.
Can You Get Rid of a UTI By Drinking Water?
UTI stands for urinary tract infection and it describes when your urinary system gets infected. While the effects of drinking water to flush out or get rid of UTIs is not proven, there has been a link between drinking over 2.2 liters of water daily and a decreased risk for UTIs.
How Can You Tell If Your Bladder Has Dropped?
The urinary bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine. During urination, urine leaves the bladder and exits the body through the urethra. The vagina supports the front of the bladder in women. This wall can weaken with age or get damaged during vaginal childbirth.
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)
Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome (PBS) is an inflammatory disease of the bladder that can cause ulceration and bleeding of the bladder's lining and can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis may vary among individuals and may even vary with time in the same individual.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or SEID)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that lasts 6 months or longer, is not improved by bed rest, and may be worsened by physical or mental activity.
Overactive Bladder (OAB)
Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate unstoppable need to urinate). Overactive bladder is is a form of urinary incontinence. Treatment options may include Kegel exercises, biofeedback, vaginal weight training, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, behavioral therapy, and medications.
Urinary Incontinence in Children
Urinary incontinence in children (enuresis) is twice as common in boys as in girls and may occur during the daytime or nighttime. Nighttime urinary incontinence is also called bedwetting and sleepwetting. The cause of nighttime incontinence in children is unknown. Daytime incontinence in children may be caused by an overactive bladder. Though many children overcome urinary incontinence naturally, it may be necessary to treat incontinence with medications, bladder training and moisture alarms, which wake the child when he or she begins to urinate.
There are many types of urinary incontinence (UI), which is the accidental leakage of urine. These types include stress incontinence, urge incontinence, and overflow incontinence. Urinary incontinence in men may be caused by prostate or nerve problems. Treatment depends upon the type and severity of the UI and the patient's lifestyle.
Yeast Infection vs. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Candida albicans typically causes vaginal yeast infections. Bacterial infections typically cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). Thick white cottage-cheese like vaginal discharge characterizes vaginal yeast infections. Painful, frequent urination characterize urinary tract infections. Antifungal medications treat yeast infections while prescription antibiotics treat UTIs.
Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in children. Symptoms and signs include fever and abdominal pain. Associated symptoms and signs include flank pain, vomiting, and blood in the urine. Treatment for a UTI involves antibiotic therapy.
How Long Will You Live if You Have Bladder Cancer?
The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis and other health issues. Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more. The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time.
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
What Neurological Disorders Cause Loss of Bladder Control?
Loss of bladder control is urinary incontinence. Severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine while straining, coughing or sneezing to having a frequent sudden urge to urinate. The causes of neurologic urinary incontinence include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, brain tumor, spinal injury and heavy metal poisoning.
A cystocele is also known as a fallen or prolapsed bladder. Heavy lifting and straining may cause a cystocele, which causes urine leakage and incomplete emptying of the bladder. Mild cystoceles may require no treatment, while large cystoceles may require surgery.
People who have bladder spasms, the sensation occurs suddenly and often severely. A spasm itself is the sudden, involuntary squeezing of a muscle. A bladder spasm, or "detrusor contraction," occurs when the bladder muscle squeezes suddenly without warning, causing an urgent need to release urine. The spasm can force urine from the bladder, causing leakage. When this happens, the condition is called urge incontinence or overactive bladder.
How Do You Get Rid of a UTI at Home?
What is a UTI? Learn whether you need antibiotics and what other home remedies can help to relieve your symptoms.
Can UTI Go Away by Itself?
Urinary tract infection, or UTI, is caused by the bacterial infection in any part of the urinary system, including kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Symptoms typically include an increased urge to urinate with or without pain in the side and lower back. It is more common in women than in men because the urethra of females is shorter and closer to the anus.
Can Bladder Cancer Be Detected With a Urine Test?
Bladder cancer is often detected when a person develops signs and symptoms. It is a highly treatable type of cancer when detected early. Although screening tests for bladder cancer are not conducted routinely, the following tests may be used to diagnose and learn more about bladder cancer:
What Are the 5 Warning Signs of Bladder Cancer?
The term cancer means an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. When cancer begins in the urinary bladder, it is called bladder cancer. The urinary bladder, often simply called the bladder, is a balloon-like organ present in the lower abdomen near the pelvis.
Enterovirulent E. coli (EEC)
Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) are strains of related bacteria that have a strong propensity to cause gastrointestinal tract infections. Examples of strains include: EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), EAEC (enteroadherent E. coli), and EAggEC (enteroaggregative E. coli). Symptoms may vary depending on the strain the individual contracts. Infection is spread generally through contaminated food or drink.
What Is the Most Common Cause of Urinary Tract Infection?
E. coli bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI).
What Is the Best Treatment for Urinary Incontinence?
Urinary incontinence is the leaking of urine from the bladder that you can’t control. There are different kinds of urinary incontinence, and not all types are permanent. Treatment for urinary incontinence may include catheters, urine drainage bags, absorbent products, toilet substitutes and skin care products.
Nerve Disease and Bladder Control
A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the bladder do not work properly. Such problems include urine retention, poor control of sphincter muscles, and overactive bladder. Treatment depends upon the cause of the nerve damage and resulting type of bladder control problem.
How Do You Know If You Have Bladder Stones?
Though bladder stones may not cause any symptoms, when they do, symptoms can range from pain in the lower abdomen to urinary tract infection.
Can You Get UTI Antibiotics Over the Counter?
Currently, no urinary tract infection (UTI) antibiotics are available over the counter (OTC) in the United States. A person must consult a doctor to get the UTI treated with an antibiotic.
How Does a Woman Get a Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more frequently in women because they have a shorter urethra, making it easier for bacteria from the anus to travel to the area.
What Is the Best Treatment for Urinary Tract Infection?
In most cases, the best treatment for a urinary tract infection (UTI) is a course of antibiotics. Which antibiotics are prescribed depend on the type of bacteria responsible.
How Do You Know if You Have a Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections can occur in both women and men. Learn the signs of urinary tract infection, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat it.
Is Bladder Cancer Common in Females?
Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in the lower abdomen that is responsible for the storage of urine filtered by the kidneys. The disease is caused when deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cells of the bladder mutate or change.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Peptic ulcers are sores that develop on the inner lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small bowel (duodenum). Peptic ulcers cause symptoms like heartburn, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and other symptoms. Ulcers are treated with lifestyle modification and medications.
What Causes a Urinary Tract Infection in a Child?
What is a urinary tract infection, and how does it affect children? Learn the signs of urinary tract infection in kids, what causes it, and what you can do to treat it.
Does Botox Help a Neurogenic Bladder?
Botox is well-tolerated and effective in treating an overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, and spastic bladders.
What Are the 6 Types of Urinary Incontinence?
Urinary incontinence is loss of bladder control. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine while straining, coughing, or sneezing or having a frequent urge to urinate that occurs suddenly. Some people may only experience occasional and minor leaks of urine, whereas others may lose small-to-moderate amounts of urine frequently.
What Are the Types of Urinary Diversions?
Urinary diversion is bypassing the normal structures in the urinary tract and creating an alternative way for the flow of urine through either a replacement bladder or an opening in the abdominal wall.
How Do You Get Rid of a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?
Learn what medical treatments can help treat your urinary tract infection symptoms and help you manage this condition.
What Are the Different Stages of Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer is staged according to the TNM classification. TNM stands for T (tumor): It refers to the size of the original tumor. N (node): It describes whether cancer is present in the lymph nodes. M (metastasis): It refers to cancer spread to other parts of the body.
Urinary Tract Infection or Urinary Infection
The urinary system of your body includes two kidneys, two tubes (ureters), a urine sac (bladder) and an opening to expel the urine from the body (urethra). An infection of this system due to germs is called a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI may be treated with antibiotics, especially if a kidney infection is involved.
What Is a Urinary Catheter Used For?
A urinary catheter is used to empty the bladder and may be recommended if you have urinary incontinence, urinary retention, or other medical conditions.
How Can UTIs Be Prevented?
The key to preventing urinary tract infections is to keep bacteria out of your system. Drinking plenty of water and relieving yourself often can help prevent a UTI.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Bladder Infection
- Stomach Ulcer (Peptic Ulcer)
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
- Urinary Urgency
- Bladder Spasms
- Urinary Retention
- E. coli 0157:H7 (Escherichia coli 0157:H7)
- Bladder Cancer
- Overactive Bladder (OAB)
- Urinary Incontinence
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Urinary Tract Infections in Children
- Gestational Diabetes
- Overactive Bladder (OAB)
- Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Treatment Options
- Urinary Tract Infection FAQs
- Chronic Fatigue FAQs
- Urinary Incontinence FAQs
- E. Coli & Pasteurization
- E. Coli Outbreaks in Potato Salad and Wading Pool
- E. Coli in New Orleans Flood Waters
- How Can I Keep E. Coli out of My Pool?
- Does Aspirin Make Ulcers Worse?
- What Is a Lesion in the Bladder?
- Are All Tumors in the Bladder Cancerous?
- What Is the Difference Between a Bladder Infection vs. UTI?
- Do You Get More UTIs During Menopause?
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms
- E. coli Infection Facts
- Bladder Cancer Causes, Symptoms, and Signs
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment
- Prediabetes Symptoms and Diagnosis
- Urinary Incontinence: More Common Than You Think
Prevention & Wellness
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.