- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Generic Name: cranberry
Brand and Other Names: American cranberry, black cranberry, European cranberry, low cranberry, mossberry, Oxycoccus macrocarpus, trailing swamp cranberry, Vaccinium edule, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium occycoccus, Vaccinium vitis
Drug Class: Herbals
What is cranberry, and what is it used for?
The American cranberry, Vaccinum macrocarpon, is an evergreen shrub that grows in the swamplands of North America. Cranberry is used to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and as a urinary deodorizer for incontinent patients. Cranberry is also used for many other ailments such as type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus), chronic fatigue syndrome, and other disorders, however, there is no reliable evidence to support these uses.
Cranberry contains compounds such as flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, and organic acids including salicylate. Cranberry is a rich source of vitamin C, useful as a dietary supplement for scurvy, a condition caused by vitamin C deficiency. Cranberry has antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Cranberry may be eaten as fresh or dried fruit, drunk as juice or juice cocktail, or taken as capsule supplements.
Urinary tract infections are most often caused by Escherichia coli bacteria, and they grow by adhering to the inner lining of the urinary tract. Cranberry prevents the growth of E. coli by preventing their adhesion to the urinary tract surface. Preliminary studies show cranberry may also prevent the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcers.
Cranberry does not kill bacteria and must not be used instead of antibiotics, it cannot treat an existing infection. Cranberry is useful in preventing UTIs, especially in women predisposed to recurrent UTIs, who have the risk of superinfections and antibiotic resistance with repeated antibiotic courses.
Suggested uses of cranberry include the following:
- Prevention of urinary tract infections
- Urinary deodorizing for incontinent patients
- Peptic ulcers
- Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Urination problems (as a diuretic)
- Wounds (as an antiseptic)
- Do not take cranberry if you have a history of kidney stones; cranberry has high oxalate content and can increase the risk of stone formation
- Cranberry products may be sweetened; use with caution if you are diabetic
- Use with caution if you have atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory gastric condition or hypochlorhydria, a condition with low level of stomach acid
- Cranberry may cause hypersensitive reactions
- Cranberry contains salicylate; use with caution if you have aspirin allergy
- Interaction with blood thinners such as warfarin can increase the risk of bleeding; use with caution
What are the side effects of cranberry?
Common side effects of cranberry include:
- Stomach upset
- Stomach pain (rare)
- Elevation of blood glucose levels
- Kidney stone formation
- Increased risk for urinary tract cancer due to oxalate stones
This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug.
Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of cranberry?
There isn’t an established standard dose of cranberry.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Prevention
- Cranberry juice cocktail (26% cranberry juice): 10-16 oz/day orally
- Cranberry juice: 15 mL twice a day orally
400 mg twice a day orally
Urinary Deodorizer for Incontinent Patients
Cranberry juice cocktail
- 3-6 oz/day orally
- Cranberry overdose can cause stomach upset and diarrhea. Discontinue cranberry immediately, and if symptoms persist, seek medical help or contact Poison Control.
What drugs interact with cranberry?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Cranberry has no known severe, serious, or moderate interactions with other drugs.
- Mild Interactions of cranberry include:
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information.
Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- There isn’t reliable information on the safety and benefits of cranberry juice or supplements in pregnant or breastfeeding women.
- Small amounts consumed in foods may be safe, however, check with your doctor. Avoid cranberry juice and supplements.
What else should I know about cranberry?
- Cranberry is generally recognized as safe, particularly as fresh or dried fruits
- Studies show limited evidence of cranberry’s efficacy in preventing UTIs, but not its treatment
- Seek medical help for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections
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Cranberry extract is used to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and as a urinary deodorizer for incontinent patients. Cranberry is also used for many other ailments such as diabetes type II, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other disorders. Common side effects of cranberry include stomach upset, reflux, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain (rare), headaches, elevation of blood glucose levels, kidney stone formation, and increased risk for urinary tract cancer due to oxalate stones. Avoid cranberry juice and supplements if pregnant or breastfeeding.
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Related Disease Conditions
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency, and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer)
Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Learn about symptoms, causes, diet, and treatment.
How Long Should a UTI Last After Antibiotics?
Depending on the severity of your UTI, you may need to take a 3-day, 7-day or even 2-week course of antibiotics. Since the bacteria causing your UTI can stay in your body even after symptoms are gone, it’s important to finish your entire course of antibiotics.
How Long Does It Take a UTI to Turn Into a Kidney Infection?
Failing to treat a urinary tract infection can lead to serious health problems, including kidney infections. If you have lingering symptoms, or recurrent UTIs, it is important to see your medical provider.
Can You Flush Out a UTI With Water?
Patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) are usually advised to drink six to eight glasses (1.5 to 2 liters) of water every day to flush the infection out of the urinary system.
How Do You Know If You Have E. Coli or Salmonella?
E. coli and salmonella are both bacteria that can cause food poisoning. What is the difference between E. coli and salmonella?
Is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Contagious?
Bacteria such as E. coli or Pseudomonas can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). The incubation period for a UTI ranges from three to eight days.
Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including females, the elderly, men with enlarged prostates, and those with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for bladder infection. Bladder infections are treated with antibiotics, but cranberry products and adequate hydration may help prevent bladder infections.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss of interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
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How Can I Treat a UTI While Pregnant Without Antibiotics?
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What Foods Are Bad for Urinary Retention?
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E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
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Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)
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Is E. coli Contagious? (Symptoms and Cure)
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Can You Get Rid of a UTI By Drinking Water?
UTI stands for urinary tract infection and it describes when your urinary system gets infected. While the effects of drinking water to flush out or get rid of UTIs is not proven, there has been a link between drinking over 2.2 liters of water daily and a decreased risk for UTIs.
How Can You Tell If Your Bladder Has Dropped?
The urinary bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine. During urination, urine leaves the bladder and exits the body through the urethra. The vagina supports the front of the bladder in women. This wall can weaken with age or get damaged during vaginal childbirth.
Overactive Bladder (OAB)
Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate unstoppable need to urinate). Overactive bladder is is a form of urinary incontinence. Treatment options may include Kegel exercises, biofeedback, vaginal weight training, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, behavioral therapy, and medications.
Can UTI Symptoms Linger After Antibiotics?
Sometimes, UTI symptoms can linger even after antibiotic therapy. Reasons for this may be that your UTI is caused by an antibiotic-resistance strain of bacteria or caused by another type of bacteria, or you may have another condition entirely that causes UTI-like symptoms.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or SEID)
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Urinary Incontinence in Children
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What Does the Beginning of a UTI Feel Like?
Learn the symptoms seen in the early stages of a UTI below, which include a burning sensation during urination and pain in the lower abdomen.
Yeast Infection vs. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Candida albicans typically causes vaginal yeast infections. Bacterial infections typically cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). Thick white cottage-cheese like vaginal discharge characterizes vaginal yeast infections. Painful, frequent urination characterize urinary tract infections. Antifungal medications treat yeast infections while prescription antibiotics treat UTIs.
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The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis and other health issues. Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more. The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time.
Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in children. Symptoms and signs include fever and abdominal pain. Associated symptoms and signs include flank pain, vomiting, and blood in the urine. Treatment for a UTI involves antibiotic therapy.
What Are the 5 Warning Signs of Bladder Cancer?
The term cancer means an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. When cancer begins in the urinary bladder, it is called bladder cancer. The urinary bladder, often simply called the bladder, is a balloon-like organ present in the lower abdomen near the pelvis.
What Neurological Disorders Cause Loss of Bladder Control?
Loss of bladder control is urinary incontinence. Severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine while straining, coughing or sneezing to having a frequent sudden urge to urinate. The causes of neurologic urinary incontinence include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, brain tumor, spinal injury and heavy metal poisoning.
Can Urinary Incontinence Be Reversed?
Urinary incontinence can happen to anyone and the severity varies depending on the age, cause, and type of urinary incontinence. Most cases of urinary incontinence can be cured or controlled with appropriate treatment.
What Is the Best Treatment for Urinary Tract Infection?
In most cases, the best treatment for a urinary tract infection (UTI) is a course of antibiotics. Which antibiotics are prescribed depend on the type of bacteria responsible.
Can UTI Go Away by Itself?
Urinary tract infection, or UTI, is caused by the bacterial infection in any part of the urinary system, including kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Symptoms typically include an increased urge to urinate with or without pain in the side and lower back. It is more common in women than in men because the urethra of females is shorter and closer to the anus.
Can Bladder Cancer Be Detected With a Urine Test?
Bladder cancer is often detected when a person develops signs and symptoms. It is a highly treatable type of cancer when detected early. Although screening tests for bladder cancer are not conducted routinely, the following tests may be used to diagnose and learn more about bladder cancer:
Enterovirulent E. coli (EEC)
Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) are strains of related bacteria that have a strong propensity to cause gastrointestinal tract infections. Examples of strains include: EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), EAEC (enteroadherent E. coli), and EAggEC (enteroaggregative E. coli). Symptoms may vary depending on the strain the individual contracts. Infection is spread generally through contaminated food or drink.
How Does a Woman Get a Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more frequently in women because they have a shorter urethra, making it easier for bacteria from the anus to travel to the area.
What Is the Most Common Cause of Urinary Tract Infection?
E. coli bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Urinary Tract Infection or Urinary Infection
The urinary system of your body includes two kidneys, two tubes (ureters), a urine sac (bladder) and an opening to expel the urine from the body (urethra). An infection of this system due to germs is called a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI may be treated with antibiotics, especially if a kidney infection is involved.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Peptic ulcers are sores that develop on the inner lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small bowel (duodenum). Peptic ulcers cause symptoms like heartburn, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and other symptoms. Ulcers are treated with lifestyle modification and medications.
How Do You Know If You Have Bladder Stones?
Though bladder stones may not cause any symptoms, when they do, symptoms can range from pain in the lower abdomen to urinary tract infection.
Can You Get UTI Antibiotics Over the Counter?
Currently, no urinary tract infection (UTI) antibiotics are available over the counter (OTC) in the United States. A person must consult a doctor to get the UTI treated with an antibiotic.
Does Botox Help a Neurogenic Bladder?
Botox is well-tolerated and effective in treating an overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, and spastic bladders.
How Do You Know if You Have a Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections can occur in both women and men. Learn the signs of urinary tract infection, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat it.
What Is the Best Treatment for Urinary Incontinence?
Urinary incontinence is the leaking of urine from the bladder that you can’t control. There are different kinds of urinary incontinence, and not all types are permanent. Treatment for urinary incontinence may include catheters, urine drainage bags, absorbent products, toilet substitutes and skin care products.
How Do You Get Rid of a UTI at Home?
What is a UTI? Learn whether you need antibiotics and what other home remedies can help to relieve your symptoms.
What Are the 6 Types of Urinary Incontinence?
Urinary incontinence is loss of bladder control. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine while straining, coughing, or sneezing or having a frequent urge to urinate that occurs suddenly. Some people may only experience occasional and minor leaks of urine, whereas others may lose small-to-moderate amounts of urine frequently.
How Do You Get Rid of a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?
Learn what medical treatments can help treat your urinary tract infection symptoms and help you manage this condition.
What Are the Types of Urinary Diversions?
Urinary diversion is bypassing the normal structures in the urinary tract and creating an alternative way for the flow of urine through either a replacement bladder or an opening in the abdominal wall.
Is Bladder Cancer Common in Females?
Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in the lower abdomen that is responsible for the storage of urine filtered by the kidneys. The disease is caused when deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cells of the bladder mutate or change.
What Is a Urinary Catheter Used For?
A urinary catheter is used to empty the bladder and may be recommended if you have urinary incontinence, urinary retention, or other medical conditions.
How Can UTIs Be Prevented?
The key to preventing urinary tract infections is to keep bacteria out of your system. Drinking plenty of water and relieving yourself often can help prevent a UTI.
What Causes a Urinary Tract Infection in a Child?
What is a urinary tract infection, and how does it affect children? Learn the signs of urinary tract infection in kids, what causes it, and what you can do to treat it.
What Are the Different Stages of Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer is staged according to the TNM classification. TNM stands for T (tumor): It refers to the size of the original tumor. N (node): It describes whether cancer is present in the lymph nodes. M (metastasis): It refers to cancer spread to other parts of the body.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Bladder Infection
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
- Urinary Urgency
- Bladder Spasms
- Stomach Ulcer (Peptic Ulcer)
- Urinary Retention
- E. coli 0157:H7 (Escherichia coli 0157:H7)
- Overactive Bladder (OAB)
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Bladder Cancer
- Urinary Incontinence
- Gestational Diabetes
- Overactive Bladder (OAB)
- Urinary Tract Infections in Children
- Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Treatment Options
- Urinary Tract Infection FAQs
- Chronic Fatigue FAQs
- Urinary Incontinence FAQs
- E. Coli & Pasteurization
- E. Coli Outbreaks in Potato Salad and Wading Pool
- E. Coli in New Orleans Flood Waters
- How Can I Keep E. Coli out of My Pool?
- Does Aspirin Make Ulcers Worse?
- What Is a Lesion in the Bladder?
- Are All Tumors in the Bladder Cancerous?
- What Is the Difference Between a Bladder Infection vs. UTI?
- Do You Get More UTIs During Menopause?
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms
- E. coli Infection Facts
- Bladder Cancer Causes, Symptoms, and Signs
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment
- Prediabetes Symptoms and Diagnosis
- Urinary Incontinence: More Common Than You Think
Prevention & Wellness
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