What is a sleep-disordered breathing condition?

CPAP machine
A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine treats the following sleep-disordered breathing conditions: obstructive sleep apnea and snoring

Sleep disorders that cause difficulty in breathing during sleep are known as sleep-disordered breathing conditions. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing condition. Other disorders of this type are as follows:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea: This results in the obstruction of the air passage. This results in cessation of breath during sleep.
  • Snoring: This occurs when the flow of breathing makes the tissue of the throat vibrate, creating a loud noise.
  • Central sleep apnea: This causes the body to stop breathing during sleep in an off-and-on cycle.
  • Sleep-related groaning: It occurs as a prolonged sound that resembles groaning while exhaling during sleep.

Who are at risk of getting sleep-disordered breathing conditions?

Patients with the following conditions are at an increased risk of getting sleep-disordered breathing:

  • Obesity
  • Large neck circumference (more than 40 cm)
  • Retrognathia (back-set jaw)
  • Macroglossia (large tongue)
  • Small mandible (lower jaw of the teeth) and maxilla (upper jaw of the teeth)
  • Overbite (overlapping of lower teeth by the upper)
  • Enlarged tonsils
  • Elongated and low-lying uvula
  • Reduced nasal opening
  • Abnormalities in the facial structure

Additionally, poor sleep hygiene and excessive alcohol or sedative use can contribute to sleep-disordered breathing.

Men are at a higher risk of acquiring these disorders compared with women.

What are the symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing conditions?

The symptoms can be classified as those manifesting during the daytime and those manifesting during the nighttime.

  • The symptoms occurring during sleep are
  • Loud snoring
  • Diaphoresis (sweating)
  • Nocturia (urination at night)
  • Hypersalivation
  • Teeth grinding
  • Vivid or strange dreams
  • Nocturnal restlessness
  • Insomnia with frequent awakenings
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Choking attacks

The symptoms observed during the daytime are:

How does a physician diagnose sleep-disordered breathing?

The physician performs a physical examination and may ask about your medical history and sleep history.

  • Polysomnogram is a sleep study that requires you to stay at a sleep center overnight.
  • Multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) measures your daytime sleepiness.
  • Lab tests such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) may be performed.
  • Radiologic tests such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify obstruction sites.

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How is sleep-disordered breathing treated?

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective method to manage sleep-disordered breathing. It delivers air pressure through a mask while sleeping. The air pressure is somewhat higher than the surrounding air and is enough to keep the upper airways open.

Management of sleep-disordered breathing includes the following other drugs:

Diamox (acetazolamide) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and comorbid hypertension found that this agent reduced blood pressure, vascular stiffness, and sleep-

What sleep-disordered breathing conditions are treated with a CPAP machine?

A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine treats the following sleep-disordered breathing conditions:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Snoring

CPAP also reduces the following conditions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea:

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Medically Reviewed on 7/30/2020
References
References:

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/870192-treatment#d9

http://sleepeducation.org/sleep-disorders-by-category/sleep-breathing-disorders

https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/b/behavioral-measures-for-treating-sleep-disordered-breathing/conditions-treated.html
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