- Drug List
- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
What are corticosteroids?
Corticosteroids are steroid hormones that are either produced by the body or are man-made.
Systemic corticosteroids refer to corticosteroids that are given orally or by injection and distribute throughout the body. It does not include corticosteroids used in the eyes, ears, or nose, on the skin or that are inhaled, although small amounts of these corticosteroids can be absorbed into the body.
Naturally occurring corticosteroids, hydrocortisone (Cortef) and cortisone, are produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland known as the cortex (hence the name, corticosteroid). Corticosteroids are classified as either:
- glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatory) which suppress inflammation and immunity and assist in the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, or as
- mineralocorticoids (salt retaining) that regulate the balance of salt and water in the body.
Synthetic corticosteroids mimic the actions of naturally occurring corticosteroids and may be used to replace corticosteroids in people with adrenal glands that are unable to produce adequate amounts of corticosteroids, however, they more often are used in higher-than-replacement doses to treat diseases of immunity, inflammation or salt and water balance.
Examples of synthetic corticosteroids include:
- bethamethasone, (Celestone)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol)
- prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone)
- triamcinolone (Aristospan Intra-Articular, Aristospan Intralesional, Kenalog)
- methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol)
- dexamethasone (Dexamethasone Intensol, DexPak 10 Day, DexPak 13 Day, DexPak 6 Day).
Some glucocorticoids also in addition to their anti-inflammatory actions have salt retaining properties but they are used mostly for their anti-inflammatory effects. Fludrocortisone (Florinef), a synthetic mineralocorticoid has strong salt retaining effects with significant anti-inflammatory actions, and is used mostly for it's salt retaining capabilities.
What are examples of oral and injectable corticosteroids?
The following is a list of the systemic (oral and injectable) corticosteroids that are available in the United States:
- hydrocortisone (Cortef)
- ethamethasoneb (Celestone)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol)
- prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone)
- triamcinolone (Aristospan Intra-Articular, Aristospan Intralesional, Kenalog) Methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol)
- dexamethasone (Dexamethasone Intensol, DexPak 10 Day, DexPak 13 Day, DexPak 6 Day)
- Fludrocortisone (Florinef)
What are corticosteroids used for?
Corticosteroids belonging to the glucocorticoid class influence the body system in several ways, but they are used mostly for their strong anti-inflammatory effects and in conditions that are related to the immune system function such as:
- arthritis (for example, rheumatoid arthritis),
- colitis (ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease),
- some situations involving skin rashes,
- allergic or inflammatory conditions involving the nose and eyes.
Glucocorticoid corticosteroids are used to treat systemic lupus, severe psoriasis, leukemia, lymphomas, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. These corticosteroids also are used to suppress the immune system and prevent rejection in people who have undergone organ transplant as well as many other conditions.
Fludrocortisone (Florinef), a potent systemic oral mineralocorticoid corticosteroid is used to treat Addison's disease and diseases that cause salt loss as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. It also is used commonly to treat conditions of low blood pressure (hypotension) although this is not a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication.
What are the side effects of corticosteroids?
Corticosteroids have many side effects that can be mild or serious. These side effects are more apparent when corticosteroids are used at higher doses or for extended periods of time. This section lists only some of these side effects of corticosteroids.
- cause sodium (salt) and fluid to be retained in the body and cause weight gain or swelling of the legs (edema)
- High blood pressure
- Loss of potassium
- Muscle weakness
- Puffiness of the face (moon face)
- Facial hair growth
- Thinning and easy bruising of the skin
- Slow wound healing
- Ulcers in the stomach and duodenum
- Loss of diabetes control
- Menstrual irregularity
- "Buffalo hump," a condition described as a rounding of the upper back
The prolonged use of corticosteroids can cause obesity, growth retardation in children, and even lead to convulsions and psychiatric disturbances. Reported psychiatric disturbances include depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, and personality changes. Psychotic behaviors also have been reported.
Corticosteroids, since they suppress the immune system, can lead to an increase in the rate of infections and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines and antibiotics.
The long term use of corticosteroids may cause osteoporosis which can result in bone fractures.
Shrinking (atrophy) of the adrenal glands can be caused by the long term use of corticosteroids resulting in the body's inability to produce cortisol, the body's natural corticosteroid, when the systemic corticosteroids are discontinued.
Another condition which can result from the long term use of corticosteroids is adrenal necrosis of the hip joints, a very painful and serious condition that may require surgery. Any symptoms of hip or knee pain in people taking corticosteroids require prompt medical attention.
Corticosteroids should not be stopped suddenly after prolonged use as this can result in adrenal crisis because of the body's inability to secrete enough cortisol to make up for the withdrawal. Nausea, vomiting, and shock are the reported side effects of adrenal crisis.
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What are the differences between the types of systemic corticosteroids?
Corticosteroids differ in their relative amount of anti-inflammatory and mineralocorticoid potency and they are used according to these effects. Among the systemic (oral and injectable) corticosteroids, fludrocortisone (Florinef) has the most significant mineralocorticoid (salt retaining) actions and is best used for this effect despite it's strong anti-inflammatory action.
Other systemically available corticosteroids have mostly glucocorticoid effects, and are used for their anti-inflammatory activities. Examples of these include the naturally occurring hydrocortisone (Cortef) and cortisone, and the synthetic corticosteroids including:
- bethamethasone (Celestone)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol)
- prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone)
- triamcinolone (Aristospan Intra-Articular, Aristospan Intralesional, Kenalog)
- methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol)
- dexamethasone (Dexamethasone Intensol, DexPak 10 Day, DexPak 13 Day, DexPak 6 Day).
Among all glucocorticoids, prednisone is not effective in the body unless it is converted to prednisolone by enzymes in the liver. For this reason prednisone may not be very effective in people with liver disease because of a reduction in their ability to convert prednisone to prednisolone.
What drugs interact with corticosteroids?
Certain drugs such as troleandomycin (TAO), erythromycin (Ery-Tab, EryPed 200), and clarithromycin (Biaxin) and ketoconazole (Nizoral) can reduce the ability of the liver to metabolize (breakdown) corticosteroids and this may lead to an increase in the levels and side effects of corticosteroids in the body. On the other hand, phenobarbital, ephedrine, phenytoin (Dilantin), and rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) may reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids by increasing the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver. This may necessitate an increase of corticosteroid dose when they are used in combination with these drugs.
- Estrogens have been shown to increase the effects of corticosteroids possibly by decreasing their breakdown by the liver.
- Corticosteroid effects on warfarin (Coumadin) can vary; therefore when taking warfarin, along with corticosteroids, there may be an increased need for monitoring coagulation levels more closely.
- Low blood potassium (hypokalemia) and a higher chance of heart failure can result from combining corticosteroids with drugs that reduce potassium in the blood (for example, diuretics, amphotericin B).
- Anticholinesterase drugs (for example, physostigmine) may cause severe weakness in some patients with myasthenia gravis when prescribed corticosteroids.
- Corticosteroids can increase blood glucose, so close monitoring of blood sugar and higher doses of diabetes medications may be needed.
- Cholestyramine can decrease the absorption of oral corticosteroids from the stomach and this could reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids.
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Oral and injectable systemic corticosteroids are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.
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Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a condition that happens when immune cells from transplanted donor tissue attack the recipient's tissues. Signs and symptoms of acute GVHD include enteritis, hepatitis, and dermatitis. Chronic GVHD symptoms and signs include rash, skin discoloration, dry mouth or eyes, jaundice, fatigue, and wheezing, among others. The standard of GVHD treatment is immunosuppressant medications.
Aspergillus Infection (Aspergillosis)
An Aspergillus infection is a fungal infection. Signs and symptoms can include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, bloody sputum, difficulty breathing, and chest and/or joint pain. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the disease.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Fibromyalgia
Though rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia have similar symptoms, RA is an autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome. RA symptoms include joint redness, swelling, and pain that lasts more than 6 weeks. Fibromyalgia symptoms include widespread pain, tingling feet or hands, depression, and bowel irritability. Home remedies for both include stress reduction, exercise, and getting enough sleep.
What Are the Four Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease categorized into the following four stages and classifications. Learn the causes, symptoms, and complications of RA below.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Treatment
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the deterioration of the liver's small bile ducts. These ducts are crucial to transport bile to the small intestine, digesting fats and removing wastes. Symptoms of PBC are edema, itching, elevated cholesterol, malabsorption of fat, liver cancer, gallstones, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and hypothyroidism. Treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); colchicine (Colcrys); and immunosuppressive medications, such as corticosteroids; obeticholic acid (Ocaliva); and medications that treat PBC symptoms. For PBC that is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, liver transplantation may be indicated in extreme cases.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Ankylosing Spondylitis
Learn the differences between rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis below.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Pregnancy
Multiple sclerosis or MS is a central nervous system disease in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheath (the protective coating around nerves). Symptoms of MS include pain, sexual problems, fatigue, numbness and tingling, emotional changes, and depression.Women who are pregnant and have multiple sclerosis may have more difficulty carrying a pregnancy. Multiple sclerosis does not affect ability to conceive, and does not seem to affect fertility. MS symptoms during pregnancy may stay the same or get better; however, they may worsen after giving birth. Pregnancy decreases the number of relapses, but flares increase in the first 3-6 months after delivery. Pregnant women with MS may carrying a pregnancy more difficult to tell when labor starts, and there is an increased need to use forceps or vacuum to assist with delivery or b7 C-section (Cesarean birth) increases. Some treatment MS drugs may be safe to use during pregnancy; however, some drugs should not be taken, for example, baclofen (Gablofen, Lioresal), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), or solifenacin succinate (VESIcare), and most disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Talk with your healthcare team about vitamins, supplements, and medications that you are taking if you are pregnant and have MS.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
What Is the Main Cause of Psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a non-contagious skin disease in which the skin cells grow in numbers faster than normal, producing rashes on the body. Normally, the cells on the surface of the skin are shed as new cells grow beneath. In psoriasis, the swift build-up of skin cells collects on the surface of the skin as scales or plaques. The exact cause of psoriasis is not completely understood. It appears to involve an interplay between a person’s genes, immune system and environment.
How Serious Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that typically affects the joints and other body parts. If not diagnosed early and appropriately treated, RA can lead to permanent deformities, disabilities, and serious systemic complications.
What Makes Guttate Psoriasis Worse?
Guttate psoriasis is often made worse by a bacterial infection, typically Streptococcus (strep throat). Learn about common triggers of guttate psoriasis.
What Triggers Genital Psoriasis?
Triggers of genital psoriasis may include stress, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, injury to the skin, medications, infections, and obesity.
Is Crohn's Disease Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Since Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of the body, including the joints, sufferers are at a greater risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
How Do You Manage Inverse Psoriasis?
Although there is no permanent cure for inverse psoriasis, treatment can help manage and alleviate symptoms, including itching and discoloration.
Is Psoriasis Contagious?
Psoriasis is an incurable skin disease that causes reddish patches of skin topped with a thick layer of dry silvery scales. Psoriasis cannot spread and is not contagious.
Safest Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs During Pregnancy
None of the drugs used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is completely safe during pregnancy. You must discuss with your physician regarding the decision to use, modify, or stop any medications.
Castleman disease is a group of related conditions. It is a rare disease with an unknown prevalence. Castleman disease is caused by an abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. There are two types of Castleman disease; 1) unicentric, and 2) multicentric. Castleman disease is diagnosed by biopsy of the suspected lymph nodes. Castleman disease is treated with medications (for example, corticosteroids, chemotherapy drugs, immunodilating drugs, interferon-alfa, and antiviral medications), surgery, and radiation therapy. The life expectancy for a person with Castleman disease is difficult to determine because the condition is rare and takes different forms.
How Do You Stop Guttate Psoriasis From Spreading?
While there is no definitive way to stop guttate psoriasis from spreading, you can take steps to lower the risk of a flare-up and prevent symptoms from worsening.
Can You Treat Eczema and Psoriasis the Same Way?
Both eczema and psoriasis are hereditary and ongoing skin conditions that cause irritated and inflamed skin. Treatment for eczema and psoriasis depends on the type and the severity.
Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are chronic joint disorders. RA is also an autoimmune disease. OA and RA symptoms and signs include joint pain, warmth, and tenderness. Over-the-counter pain relievers treat both diseases. There are several prescription medications that treat RA.
Breastfeeding With Rheumatoid Arthritis
You can breastfeed your baby even if you have rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, you must always consult your doctor before you start the process.
What Is the Difference Between Eczema and Psoriasis?
Allergies and skin reactions trigger eczema. Psoriasis isn't triggered by allergies. Signs and symptoms of eczema include skin redness, swelling, and itching while psoriasis symptoms and signs include thick, red, itchy, and scaly patches of skin.
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Caused by Sugar?
Despite insufficient evidence, studies have found that people with rheumatoid arthritis may experience worsening symptoms with sugary foods.
What Is the Best Treatment for Psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an incurable chronic autoimmune disorder of the skin that causes patches of thick, flaky, scaly skin, mostly around the scalp, knees, and elbows, though any skin surface may be involved. Some people experience only small patches while others have red, inflamed skin and think scaly patches all over the body. The exact cause of psoriasis is not clear, but it isn’t contagious.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Osteoarthritis Hands
Two of the most frequent types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
What Is Mild to Moderate Psoriasis?
Mild to moderate psoriasis is when the psoriatic scales or plaques (raised surfaces with a silvery cover of dead skin cells) cover less than five percent of the body surface area.
What Are the Levels of Psoriasis? 5 Types
Learn the three levels of psoriasis, as well as the five different types, which each include their own symptoms, causes, triggers, treatment, duration, and prevention.
How Do You Stop Psoriasis From Stress?
Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease that can be passed down (hereditary) to you from your parents or grandparents. Stress is a common factor that can trigger your psoriasis. Psoriasis has a stronger association with psychiatric disorders than other skin diseases. Stress worsens psoriasis by triggering a complex network of signals between the endocrine (hormones), nervous and immune systems.
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, and Colds
If you have a COPD such as emphysema, avoiding chronic bronchitis and colds is important to avoid a more severe respiratory infection such as pneumonia. Avoiding cigarette smoking, practice good hygeine, stay away from crowds, and alerting your healthcare provider if you have a sinus infection or cold or cough that becomes worse. Treatment options depend upon the severity of the emphysema, bronchitis, or cold combination.
What Is IgA Nephropathy (Berger's Disease)?
Berger's disease or immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a kidney disorder that presents with the passing of blood in the urine. This happens due to swelling of the glomeruli (filtering units of the kidney that produce urine). The swelling is usually caused due to a buildup of a substance called IgA in the kidneys.
Does Rheumatoid Arthritis Run in Families?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that tends to run in families. Your likelihood of getting RA, however, is not determined by family history of the disease alone. It is also influenced by environmental factors such as age, obesity and smoking.
What Are the Different Types and Causes of Scalp Psoriasis?
While there is only one type of scalp psoriasis, numerous types of psoriatic conditions can affect the scalp.
What Are the Four Types of Asthma?
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways (bronchi). Bronchi generally allow for the passage of air in and out of the lungs. In asthma, these airways develop hypersensitivity, inflammation, and narrowing. This causes difficulty in breathing. The four types are mild intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent.
Is Psoriasis Associated With HIV?
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition that affects the skin. HIV is linked to a higher likelihood of developing psoriasis and more severe symptoms.
What Triggers Facial Psoriasis?
Possible triggers of facial psoriasis include smoking, obesity, medications, infections, skin injury, stress, vitamin D deficiency, and stress.
What Causes Nail Psoriasis?
Nail psoriasis is caused by the same autoimmune mechanisms as other types of psoriasis. The immune system attacks normal tissues in the body and triggers rapid cell growth.
Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Heart Failure?
Rheumatoid arthritis can increase the risk of various cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and pericarditis. Heart failure is one of the common causes of increased mortality in people with RA.
Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Carpal Tunnel?
Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the common complications of rheumatoid arthritis. Learn the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.
How Is Inverse Psoriasis Diagnosed?
Diagnosis of inverse psoriasis is typically based on medical history and a clinical examination that assesses the location and appearance of the rash.
Is Genital Psoriasis Life-Threatening?
Although genital psoriasis is neither life-threatening nor contagious, it can be uncomfortable and more difficult to treat than other types of psoriasis.
Is Pustular Psoriasis an Autoimmune Disease?
Pustular psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by yellowish pustules over the skin on an erythematous base.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Gout
Although gout is often mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis, learn the differences associated with the causes, symptoms, and treatments below.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Psoriatic Arthritis
Here are the differences between rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.
How Can I Improve My Grip Strength With Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by gradual joint inflammation and degeneration. Here are five exercises that reduce muscle stiffness and improve pain due to RA.
Where Does Psoriasis Usually Start?
The most common sites of psoriasis are the scalp, elbows, and knees, although psoriasis can involve any part of the body such as the face, palms, soles, and back.
How Do You Treat Mild to Moderate Psoriasis?
Mild to moderate psoriasis is typically treated with medications and therapies that aim to reduce inflammation and slow the rapid skin cell growth associated with the condition.
Is Erythrodermic Psoriasis Rare?
Erythrodermic psoriasis is a very rare and potentially fatal form of psoriasis that affects about 1%-2.2% percent of people with the condition.
What Is Chronic Plaque Psoriasis?
Chronic plaque psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by well-distinguished, erythematous (red and inflamed), scaly plaques on the skin of extensor surfaces.
What Is Generalized Pustular Psoriasis?
Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe type of psoriasis that covers large areas of the body and characterized by pus-filled blisters rather than plaques.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Juvenile Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile arthritis are both types of inflammatory arthritis; however, learn their differences below.
Does Psoriasis Cause Cardiovascular Disease?
Long-lasting inflammation due to psoriasis can affect your heart and blood vessels, increasing your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, heart attack, or stroke.
Is Psoriasis Linked to Anxiety?
Like other chronic conditions, psoriasis can take a toll on your emotional health. Anxiety can trigger or worsen psoriasis, and psoriasis can cause anxiety.
Does Rheumatoid Arthritis Increase Cardiovascular Risk?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease, which usually affects joints, and can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
What Are 5 Common Risk Factors to Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder (the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells). Certain factors increase the risk of RA.
Do Anti-Inflammatories Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder. Anti-inflammatory medications can help address symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
What Is Intertriginous Psoriasis?
Intertriginous psoriasis, also known as inverse psoriasis, is a rare type of psoriasis that occurs in skin folds, such as the armpits, under the breasts, and groin.
Are Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis the Same?
Psoriatic arthritis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that occurs due to joint inflammation in people with psoriasis; however, not every person with psoriasis gets psoriatic arthritis.
What Is the Most Severe Form of Psoriasis?
Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP) or erythroderma is a severe type of psoriasis that causes extensive peeling, severe itching, and rashes across the entire surface of the body.
Can Psoriasis Lead to Psoriatic Arthritis?
It is well established that both psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis are linked. Nearly 30 percent of people with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis.
Is Psoriasis a COVID-19 Risk?
Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory condition that primarily affects the skin. There is no definitive link between psoriasis and an increased risk of COVID-19.
What Is Considered Moderate Plaque Psoriasis?
Moderate plaque psoriasis is when patches cover 3%-10% of your body surface area. Learn about symptoms, causes, triggers, and treatment.
How Does Psoriasis Affect the Cardiovascular System?
Psoriasis causes inflammation inside your body, which can damage your cardiovascular system over time and increase your risk of heart problems.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Brain Tumor
- Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
- Ankylosing Spondylitis (Bechterew's Disease)
- IT Band Syndrome
- Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Bell's Palsy
- Scalp Psoriasis
- Placenta Previa
- Reactive Arthritis
- Polymyalgia Rheumatica
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Vestibular Balance Disorder
- Crohn's Disease
- Bullous Pemphigoid
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Chigger Bite
- Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
- Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA)
- Castleman Disease
- Interstitial Lung Disease
- Psoriasis: The Secret to Managing Psoriasis
- Psoriasis: Routes to Relief-- Mark Lebwohl, MD
- Psoriasis: Advances in Treatment
- Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)
- Rheumatoid Arthritis FAQs
- Psoriasis FAQs
- Eczema FAQs
- Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): 17 Warning Signs of Serious Complications
- Will Rheumatoid Arthritis Nodules Go Away?
- What if I get COVID-19 with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Is Inflammatory Arthritis the Same as Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Living With Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Osteoarthritis
- Are Corticosteroids Safe for Pregnant and Nursing Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis and Pregnancy
- Rheumatoid Arthritis Joint Symptoms and Signs: What Do They Mean?
- 5 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Psoriasis, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis Share One Gene
- Psoriasis Drugs Strike Immune Targets (Raptiva, Enbrel)
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Corticosteroid Side Effects
- Can You Get Gout in Your Back?
- What Are the Side Effects of Remicade for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Should You Avoid Drinking Soda with Rheumatoid Arthrits?
- What Are the Side Effects of Asthma Inhalers?
- How Do You Get Psoriasis?
- Can Psoriasis Be Caused by Allergy?
- Is It Eczema or Psoriasis?
- What Are the Triggers of Psoriasis?
- Does Lipitor Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- What's the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prognosis?
- What Are Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Living With a Chronic Disease
- Psoriasis PUVA Therapy Can Increase Melanoma Risk
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- Prednisone Side Effects (Adverse Effects)
- methylprednisolone (Medrol)
- Thiazides (Diuretics)
- What Does Prednisone Do to Your Body?
- Topical Corticosteroids
- prednisolone (Orapred, Pediapred)
- dalteparin injection (Fragmin)
- What Are Immunosuppressive Drugs?
- erenumab (Aimovig)
- Types of Psoriasis Medications
- corticosteroids-ophthalmic ointment
- corticosteroids-oral aerosol inhaler
Prevention & Wellness
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