COPD is characterized by a longstanding (chronic) obstruction to air flow out of the lungs. It can take different forms and have different symptoms. Symptoms of COPD can also vary in severity. Symptoms include
Other possible symptoms can include
- finger clubbing,
- exercise intolerance (inability to exercise or reduced ability to exercise),
- chest tightness,
- cough productive of sputum, and
- coughing up blood.
Causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
The primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is cigarette smoking and/or exposure to cigarette smoke. Other causes include air pollution, infectious diseases, and certain genetic or inherited conditions like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Other copd symptoms and signs
- Bluish Discoloration of the Skin and Mucous Membranes (Cyanosis)
- Chest Tightness
- Coughing Up Blood
- Exercise Intolerance
- Finger Clubbing
- Frequent Respiratory Infections
- Morning Headaches
- Shortness of Breath
- Sputum Production
- Swelling of the Feet and Ankles
- Weight Loss
Pictures, Images, Illustrations & Quizzes
10 Smart Exercises for People With COPD: Pictures
The more you exercise, the better you'll feel with COPD. Breathe easier with these 10 exercises from WebMD.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Quiz
COPD is a combination of three conditions? Take this quiz to learn the three conditions that make up the pulmonary disease called...
COPD Foods to Boost Your Health - COPD Diet Tips
What are COPD foods to avoid that may trigger symptoms? Learn more about the COPD diet. Boost your energy and combat COPD with...
COPD Lung Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
COPD is a pulmonary disorder caused by obstructions in the airways of the lungs leading to breathing problems. Learn about COPD...
Examples of Medications for COPD Symptoms and Signs
- albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil)
- albuterol and ipratropium inhaler (Combivent Respimat)
- Anoro Ellipta (umeclidinium and vilanterol)
- Bronchitol (mannitol)
- Daliresp (roflumilast)
- ipratropium bromide inhaler (Atrovent)
- ipratropium solution - inhalation, Atrovent
- magnesium sulfate (injection)
- methylprednisolone (Medrol)
- Ofev (nintedanib)
- pirfenidone (Esbriet)
- ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate)
- salmeterol (Serevent)
- Seebri Neohaler (glycopyrrolate)
- Side Effects of Stiolto Respimat (tiotropium bromide and olodaterol)
- Spiriva (tiotropium bromide)
- Suprax (cefixime) vs. azithromycin
- Suprax (cefixime) vs. Keflex (cephalexin)
- terbutaline (Brethine)
- theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24)
- tiotropium bromide and olodaterol (Stiolto Respimat)
- tiotropium capsule - inhalation
- Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate)
- Yupelri (revefenacin)
- Zemaira (Alpha1-Proteinase Inhibitor)
Lung Disease/COPD Resources
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.