- What is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
- Is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
- What are the side effects of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
- What is the dosage for conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
- Is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
What is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Prempro and Premphase are combinations of conjugated estrogens (Premarin) and medroxyprogesterone (Provera). Estrogens and progestins are the two major classes of female hormones. Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of several different estrogens (estrogen salts) that are derived from natural sources and blended to approximate the composition of estrogens in the urine of pregnant horses. The main components are sodium estrone sulphate and sodium equilin sulfate. Estrogens have widespread effects on many tissues in the body. Estrogens cause growth and development of the female sexual organs and maintain female sexual characteristics such as the growth of underarm and pubic hair, body contours, and skeleton. Estrogens also increase secretions from the cervix and growth of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium). Medroxyprogesterone is a derivative of progesterone, a naturally occurring female progestin. Progestins are responsible for changes in the mucus and inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) during the second half (secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle. Progestins prepare the endometrium for implantation of the embryo. Once an embryo implants in the endometrium, for example, and pregnancy occurs, progestins help maintain the pregnancy. At high doses, progestins can prevent ovulation (release of the egg from the ovary) and thereby prevent pregnancy. The FDA approved Prempro and Premphase in June 2003.
What brand names are available for conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
Is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: No
What are the side effects of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
The most common side effects of Prempro and Premphase are:
Other important side effects include:
- breakthrough bleeding, and
The Women's Health Initiative found that postmenopausal women (50-79 years old) taking conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg daily, in combination with medroxyprogesterone, 2.5 mg daily, for five years, had an increased risk of heart attacks, stroke, breast cancer, and blood clots, while postmenopausal women taking conjugated estrogens without progesterone experienced only increased strokes but not increased blood clots, heart disease, or breast cancer. There was an increased risk of impaired cognition and/or dementia among women over age 65 treated with either estrogens or estrogens and medroxyprogesterone.
What is the dosage for conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
One tablet of Prempro should be taken daily. The lowest effective dose should be used. For either hot flashes or osteoporosis, patients are most often started at a dose of 0.3 mg/1.5 mg. For women with hot flashes, the dose is adjusted depending on the response of the hot flashes.
Patients should take one tablet of Premphase daily starting with the 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen tablets for 14 days (days 1 to 14) followed by one tablet daily of the 0.625/5 mg conjugated estrogen/medroxyprogesterone tablets for 14 days (days 14 to 28).
Which drugs or supplements interact with conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
Drugs such as St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), phenobarbital, carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol), and rifampin may increase break-down of estrogens in the liver, reducing blood levels of estrogens and possibly reducing the effect of estrogens. Erythromycin, clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL), ketoconazole (Nizoral, Extina, Xolegel, Kuric), itraconazole (sporanox), ritonavir (Norvir) and grapefruit juice may reduce break-down of estrogens in the liver, increasing blood concentrations of estrogens and possibly increasing side effects of estrogens.
Is conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Prempro and Premphase should not be given to pregnant women due to the risk of harm to the fetus.
Estrogens are secreted in breast milk and cause unpredictable effects in the infant. They should not be taken by women who are breastfeeding.
What else should I know about conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron?
What preparations of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron are available?
- Prempro: Tablets 0.3/1.5, 0.45/1.5, 0.625/2.5, and 0.625/5 (mg conjugated estrogen/mg medroxyprogesterone).
- Premphase: Tablets, 28 day pack containing 14 tablets of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens and 14 tablets of 0.625 mg/5 mg (conjugated estrogen/medroxyprogesterone).
How should I keep conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesteron stored?
Prempro and Premphase should be stored at room temperature between 15-30 C (59-86 F).
Latest Menopause News
Daily Health News
conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate (Prempro, Premphase) is a medication prescribed for women who are experiencing symptoms associated with menopause such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, vaginal atrophy, uterine bleeding. Prempro and Premphase are also prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis. Side effects, dosage, drug interactions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Menopause & Perimenopause: Symptoms, Signs
What is menopause? What are the signs of menopause? What age does menopause start? Learn about menopause and perimenopause...
Menopause Quiz: Symptoms & Signs
The Menopause Quiz challenges your knowledge about the time in a woman’s life when menstruation ceases. Menopause can bring many...
Osteoporosis Quiz: What is Osteoporosis?
What are the causes, symptoms, and risk factors of osteoporosis? Quiz yourself about vitamin deficiency, maintaining bone...
What Is Osteoporosis? Treatment, Symptoms, Medication
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Osteoporosis causes symptoms of weak, thin, fragile bones....
Picture of Osteoporosis
Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. See a picture of Osteoporosis and...
Women's Health: 25 Hormone Imbalance Symptoms and Signs
Hormone imbalance including abnormal levels of estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, and other hormones may lead to...
Related Disease Conditions
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies, and should be discussed with your physician.
Normal vaginal bleeding (menorrhea) occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly most commonly involves excessive, frequent, irregular, or decreased bleeding. Causes of abnormal may arise from a variety of conditions that may include, uterine fibroids, IUDs, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, lupus, STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, emotional stress, anorexia nervosa, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancers, early pregnancy.
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Cholesterol (Lowering Your Cholesterol)
High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.
Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. Unless one experiences a fracture, a person may have osteoporosis for decades without knowing it. Treatment for osteoporosis may involve medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength and bone formation, as well as quitting smoking, regular exercise, cutting back on alcohol intake, and eating a calcium- and vitamin D-rich balanced diet.
Erythema nodosum is a skin inflammation that results in reddish, painful, tender lumps most commonly located in the front of the legs below the knees. Erythema nodosum can resolve on its own in three to six weeks, leaving a bruised area. Treatments include anti-inflammatory medications and cortisone by mouth or injection.
Vaginal dryness and vaginal atrophy occurs in women during perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause. With vaginal atrophy, the lining of the vaginal wall becomes thinner, drier, less elastic, and light pink to bluish in color. Symptoms of vaginal atrophy include: vaginal dryness, itching, irritation, and/or pain during intercourse. Treatment options for vaginal dryness and vaginal atrophy include hormone treatment and over-the-counter vaginal lubricating and moisturizing products.
Dry eyes are caused by an imbalance in the tear-flow system of the eye, but also can be caused by the drying out of the tear film. This can be due to dry air created by air conditioning, heat, or other environmental conditions. Treatment may involve self-care measures, medications, or rarely, surgery.
Sex and Menopause (What to Expect)
Menopause is often associated with a change in sexual functioning. Loss of estrogen, bladder control issues, anxiety, stress, health concerns, medications, and sleep disturbances often result in a decrease in libido. Though there are currently no good drugs for treating sexual problems in women, there are ways to increase intimacy with a partner and treat vaginal dryness.
Sexual health information including birth control, impotence, herpes, sexually transmitted diseases, staying healthy, women's sexual health concerns, and men's sexual health concerns. Learn about the most common sexual conditions affecting men and women.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Menopause FAQs
- Osteoporosis FAQs
- What are granulomatosis with polyangiitis and erythema nodosum?
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Osteoporosis - EVISTA..... Wellness for Women?
- Osteoporosis Prevention & Treatment
- Osteoporosis Prevention & Treatment - Exercise & Estrogen
- Osteoporosis Prevention & Treatment - Medications, Fluoride, Monitoring
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- What Are Hypercoagulable States?
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Drug Interactions
- estradiol, Alora, Climara, Delestrogen, Depo-Estradiol, Divigel, Elestrin, Estrace, and Others
- estrogens conjugated (Premarin)
- esterified estrogens and methyltestosterone, Estratest, Estratest HS
- Evista (raloxifene)
- Conjugated Estrogens (Cenestin, Enjuvia, Estrace, and Others)
- estropipate, Ogen
- esterified estrogens (Menest)
Prevention & Wellness
- Too Much Exercise Delays Pregnancy in Normal-Weight Women: Study
- Estrogen After Hysterectomy Lowers Cancer Risk?
- Anti-Estrogen Treatment Shrank Lung Tumors in Mice
- DHEA May Help Sex, Symptoms after Menopause
- Breast Cancer Risk May Rise With High Hormone Levels
- The X Factor: Why Women May Be Healthier Than Men
- Smoking Might Raise Sex Hormone Levels After Menopause
- Being Heavier May Mean Fewer Hot Flashes for Women Over 60
- Is Soy Safe to Eat After Breast Cancer?
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information