- Common Medical Abbreviations and Acronyms List Center
- Fat-Fighting Foods Slideshow
- Take the Human Body Quiz
- Causes of Fatigue Slideshow Pictures
- Find a local Doctor in your town
- Medical abbreviations: What do they mean?
- A - Medical abbreviations
- B - Medical abbreviations
- C - Medical abbreviations
- D - Medical abbreviations
- E - Medical abbreviations
- F - Medical abbreviations
- G - Medical abbreviations
- H - Medical abbreviations
- I - Medical abbreviations
- J - Medical abbreviations
- K - Medical abbreviations
- L - Medical abbreviations
- M - Medical abbreviations
- N - Medical abbreviations
- O - Medical abbreviations
- P - Medical abbreviations
- Q - Medical abbreviations
- R - Medical abbreviations
- S - Medical abbreviations
- T - Medical abbreviations
- U - Medical abbreviations
- V - Medical abbreviations
- W - Medical abbreviations
- X - Medical abbreviations
Medical abbreviations: What do they mean?
Have you ever wondered why you can't read the doctor's note or the letters and numbers on a prescription? Health care professionals often quickly scribble notes with important medical information that they would like a patient to reference in regard to the type of current, or recently diagnosed disease, syndrome, or other health condition(s). Have you ever see the doctor's notes in your medical record and found peculiar abbreviations and jargon? Do you wonder what the letters and numbers mean on your prescriptions or other items related to a disease, syndrome, or disorder?
Doctors and other health care professionals commonly use a list of abbreviations, acronyms, and other medical terminology as a reference to rapidly search and accurately record information about, and give instructions to their patients. There is no standard or approved list used by health care professionals to search for medical acronyms or abbreviations. Therefore, it is important to understand the context in which the abbreviation or term has been used.
Abbreviations, acronyms, and medical terminology are used for many conditions, and for instructions on medication prescribed by your doctor. This is a short list of common abbreviations you may have seen on a doctor's notepad; a prescription drug package or bottle; lab or other test results; or in your doctor's notes.
- ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- AMI: Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)
- B-ALL: B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- FSH: Follicle stimulating hormone. A blood test for follicle stimulating hormone which is used to evaluate fertility in women.
- HAPE: High altitude pulmonary edema
- HPS: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. A type of contagious, infectious disease transmitted by rats infected with the virus.
- IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome (A medical disease that involves the gastrointestinal tract.)
- IDDM: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes.
- MDS: Myelo dysplastic syndrome
- NBCCS: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
- PE: Pulmonary embolism. A type of blood clot in the lungs.
- SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome
- TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone. A blood test for TSH is used to diagnose thyroid disease.
Use this list as a resource for common abbreviations and acronyms used in the health care community, to quickly search and answer your questions about those letters and numbers of a drug your doctor has prescribed to you, or other notes from your doctor or other medical professionals.
A - Medical abbreviations
- a.c.: Before meals. As in taking a medicine before meals.
- a/g ratio: Albumin to globulin ratio.
- ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament. ACL injuries are one of the most common ligament injuries to the knee. The ACL can be sprained or completely torn from trauma and/or degeneration.
- Ad lib: At liberty. For example, a patient may be permitted to move out of bed freely and orders would, therefore, be for activities to be ad lib.
- AFR: Acute renal failure
- ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
- ADR: Adverse drug reaction. If a patient is taking a prescription drug to treat high blood pressure disease
- AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- AKA: Above the knee amputation.
- Anuric: Not producing urine. A person who is anuric is often critical and may require dialysis.
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ADH: Antidiuretic hormone
- ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- ASCVD: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A form of heart disease.
B - Medical abbreviations
- b.i.d.: Twice daily. As in taking a medicine twice daily.
- bld: Blood. Blood was visible on the patient’s scalp.
- Bandemia: Slang for elevated level of band forms of white blood cells.
- Bibasilar: At the bases of both lungs. For example, someone with a pneumonia in both lungs might have abnormal bibasilar breath sounds.
- BKA: Below the knee amputation.
- BMP: Basic metabolic panel. Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride) and creatinine and glucose.
- BP: Blood pressure. Blood pressure is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- BPD: Borderline personality disorder. A personality disorder.
- BSO: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A BSO is the removal of both of the ovaries and adjacent Fallopian tubes and often is performed as part of a total abdominal hysterectomy.
C - Medical abbreviations
- C&S: Culture and sensitivity, performed to detect infection.
- C/O: Complaint of. The patient's expressed concern.
- cap: Capsule.
- Ca: Cancer; carcinoma. For example, a patient who undergoing treatment for cancer should assure that they are eating and drinking enough fluids daily, both during and after treatment.
- CABG. Coronary artery bypass graft. A surgery involving the heart.
- CBC: Complete blood count.
- CC: Chief complaint. The patient's main concern.
- CDE: Complete dental (oral) evaluation.
- cc: Cubic centimeters. For example, the amount of fluid removed from the body is recorded in ccs.
- Chem panel: Chemistry panel. A comprehensive screening blood test that indicates the status of the liver, kidneys, and electrolytes.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- CT: Chemotherapy. A type of treatment therapy for cancer.
- CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (Stroke).
D - Medical abbreviations
- D/C or DC: Discontinue or discharge. For example, a doctor will D/C a drug. Alternatively, the doctor might DC a patient from the hospital.
- DCIS: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. A type of breast cancer. The patient is receiving treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.
- DDX: Differential diagnosis. A variety diagnostic possibilities are being considered to diagnose the type of cancer present in the patient.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus.
- DNC, D&C, or D and C: Dilation and curettage. Widening the cervix and scrapping with a curette for the purpose of removing tissue lining the inner surface of the womb (uterus).
- DNR: Do not resuscitate. This is a specific order not to revive a patient artificially if they succumb to illness. If a patient is given a DNR order, they are not resuscitated if they are near death and no code blue is called.
- DOE: Dyspnea on exertion. Shortness of breath with activity.
- DTR: Deep tendon reflexes. These are reflexes that the doctor tests by banging on the tendons with a rubber hammer.
- DVT: Deep venous thrombosis (blood clot in large vein).
E - Medical abbreviations
F - Medical abbreviations
- FX: Fracture.
G - Medical abbreviations
- g: gram, a unit of weight. The cream is available in both 30 and 60 gram tubes.
- GOMER: Slang for "get out of my emergency room."
- GvHD: Graft vs. host disease. It is complicated by the syndromes of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD).
- gtt: Drops.
H - Medical abbreviations
- H&H: Hemoglobin and hematocrit. When the H & H is low, anemia is present. The H&H can be elevated in persons who have lung disease from long term smoking or from disease, such as polycythemia rubra vera.
- H&P: History and physical examination.
- h.s.: At bedtime. As in taking a medicine at bedtime.
- H/O or h/o: History of. A past event that occurred.
- HA: Headache.
- HRT: Hormone replacement or hormone replacement therapy.
- HTN: Hypertension.
I - Medical abbreviations
- I&D: Incision and drainage.
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
- ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- ICU: Intensive care unit. The patient was moved to the intensive care unit.
- IM: Intramuscular. This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into muscle, such as with B12 for pernicious anemia.
- IMP: Impression. This is the summary conclusion of the patient's condition by the healthcare professional at that particular date and time.
- ITU: Intensive therapy unit
- in vitro: In the laboratory
- in vivo: In the body
- IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A type of lung disease.
- IU: International units.
K - Medical abbreviations
- K: Potassium. An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
- KCL: Potassium chloride.
L - Medical abbreviations
- LCIS: Lobular Carcinoma In Situ. A type of cancer of the breast. The patient is receiving treatment for Lobular Carcinoma In Situ.
- LBP: Low back pain. LBP is one of most common medical complaints.
- LLQ: Left lower quadrant. Diverticulitis pain is often in the LLQ of the abdomen.
- LUQ: Left upper quadrant. The spleen is located in the LUQ of the abdomen.
- Lytes: Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride).
M - Medical abbreviations
- MCL: Medial collateral ligament.
- mg: Milligrams.
- M/H: Medical history
- ml: Milliliters.
- MVP: Mitral valve prolapse.
N - Medical abbreviations
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- Na: Sodium. An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
- NCP: Nursing care plan
- npo: Nothing by mouth. For example, if a patient was about to undergo a surgical operation requiring general anesthesia, they may be required to avoid food or beverage prior to the procedure.
- NSR: Normal sinus rhythm of the heart
O - Medical abbreviations
P - Medical abbreviations
- P: Pulse. Pulse is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- p¯: After meals. As in take two tablets after meals.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- p.r.n.: As needed. So that it is not always done, but done only when the situation calls for it (or example, taking a pain medication only when having pain and not without pain).
- PCL: Posterior cruciate ligament.
- PD: Progressive disease. Patients at risk of developing progressive disease of the kidneys include those with proteinuria or hematuria.
PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
PFT: Pulmonary function test. A test to evaluate the how well the lungs are functioning.
- PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
- Plt: Platelets, one of the blood forming elements along with the white and red blood cells.
- PMI: Point of maximum impulse of the heart when felt during examination, as in beats against the chest.
- PMS: Premenstrual syndrome
- PT: Physical therapy
- PTH: Parathyroid hormone
- PTSD: Post-traumatic stress syndrome
- PUD: Peptic ulcer disease. A type of ulcer of the stomach.
Quick Guide8 First Aid Kit Essentials for Scrapes, Cuts, Bug Bites, and More in Pictures
Q - Medical abbreviations
- q.d.: Each day. As in taking a medicine daily.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- q2h: Every 2 hours. As in taking a medicine every 2 hours.
- q3h: Every 3 hours. As in taking a medicine every 3 hours.
- qAM: Each morning. As in taking a medicine each morning.
- qhs: At each bedtime. As in taking a medicine each bedtime.
- qod: Every other day. As in taking a medicine every other day.
- qPM: Each evening. As in taking a medicine each evening.
R - Medical abbreviations
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis. A type of joint disease.
- RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome
- R/O: Rule out. Doctors frequently will rule out various possible diagnoses when figuring out the correct diagnosis.
- REB: Rebound, as in rebound tenderness of the abdomen when pushed in and then released.
- RLQ: Right lower quadrant. The appendix is located in the RLQ of the abdomen.
- ROS: Review of systems. An overall review concerns relating to the organ systems, such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems.
- RUQ: Right upper quadrant. The liver is located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
S - Medical abbreviations
- s/p: Status post. For example, a person who had a knee operation would be s/p a knee operation.
- SAD: Season affective disorder. A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is little light.
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- SQ: Subcutaneous. This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into the fatty tissue under the skin, such as with insulin for diabetes mellitus.
T - Medical abbreviations
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
- T&A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
- t.i.d.: Three times daily. As in taking a medicine three times daily.
- tab: Tablet
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy. A type of surgery to remove a woman’s uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- THR: Total hip replacement
- TKR: Total knee replacement
- TMJ: Tempomandibular joint
U - Medical abbreviations
- UA or u/a: Urinalysis. A UA is a typical part of a comprehensive physical examination.
- U or u**: Unit. Mistaken as the number 0 or 4, causing a 10-fold overdose or greater (for example, 4U seen as "40" or 4u seen as "44"); mistaken as "cc" so the dose is given in volume instead of units (for example, 4u seen as 4cc).
- ULN: Upper limits of normal
- URI: Upper respiratory infection, such as sinusitis or the common cold
- ut dict: As directed. As in taking a medicine according to the instructions that the health care professional gave in the office or in the past
- UTI: Urinary tract infection
V - Medical abbreviations
- VSS: Vital signs are stable. This notation means that from the standpoint of the temperature, blood pressure, and pulse, the patient is doing well.
W - Medical abbreviations
- Wt: Weight. Body weight is often recorded as part of the physical examination.
X - Medical abbreviations
- XRT: Radiotherapy (external). A type of treatment that uses radiation.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Cancerindex.org. "Medical Terminology for Cancer." Updated: Feb 01, 2014.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. "Acronym List."
ConsumerMedSafety.org. "Unsafe Medical Abbreviations." 2015.
Columbia University. "Pediatric Dentistry Approved Abbreviations."
Flanders University; School of Nursing and Midwifery. "Clinical communication."
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
Pidala, J., et al. "Graft-vs-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation." Cancer Control. 2011 Oct;18(4):268-76.
Top Common Medical Abbreviations and Terms Related Articles
Abdominal Pain PicturesGet the facts on the most common causes of abdominal pain. Learn the difference between a stomachache and more serious causes of abdominal pain. Diagnosis of abdominal pain is based on symptoms and the location of pain, like sharp pain in the lower abdomen.
Blood Pressure PictureThe blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. See a picture of Blood Pressure and learn more about the health topic.
Complete Blood Count
A complete blood count (CBC) is a calculation of the cellular makeup of blood. A CBC measures the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets in the blood, and aids in diagnosing conditions and disease such as malignancy, anemia, or blood clotting problems.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Dilation and CurettageDilation and curettage (D and C or D & C), is a surgery procedure in which the cervix is expanded (dilated) enough to permit the cervical canal and uterine lining to be scraped with a spoon-shaped instrument call a curette (curettage). Recovery time for D and C is about 2 weeks. Usually, a D & C is performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Examples of other reasons include endometiral biopsy and to remove tissue after a misscariage or abortion.
HematocritHematocrit in the blood is the proportion of the blood that consists of red blood cells, by volume. A low hematocrit level may signal anemia, or other conditions such as loss of blood, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, and abnormal hematocrit. High hematocrit levels may be due to chronic smoking, living at high altitudes, dehydration, or other conditions and diseases.
HemoglobinHemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein molecule in the blood, specifically in the red blood cells. High hemoglobin count may be caused by dehydration, smoking, emphysema, tumors, or abuse of Epogen. Low levels of hemoglobin may be caused by anemia, blood loss, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, chemotherapy, kidney failure, or sickle cell disease.
Hemoglobin A1c Test
Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example, diabetic neuropathy, eye, and kidney disease.
Low Blood Pressure
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting if not enough blood is getting to the brain.
Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
Lower Your BP ExercisesTrying to lower high blood pressure (hypertension)? Discover exercises good for lowering blood pressure, along with other lifestyle changes and medications to prevent high blood pressure.
Take the Pain QuizIs pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we call pain.
15 Ways to Reduce PainChronic pain can be a symptom of many conditions, including arthritis, headaches, and others. Comprehensive pain management therapy may include physical therapy, lifestyle strategies such as exercise, diet changes, meditation, journaling, medications, and avoiding alcohol and tobacco use. Make helpful changes to manage your chronic condition.
Sinus infection (sinusitis) is caused by allergies, infection, and chemicals or other irritants of sinuses. Signs and symptoms are headache, fever, and facial tenderness, pressure, or pain. Treatments of sinus infections are generally with antibiotics and at times, home remedies.
Stool Color ChangesStool color changes can very from green, red, maroon, yellow, white, or black. Causes of changes of stool color can range from foods a person eats, medication, diseases or conditions, pregnancy, cancer, or tumors. Stool can also have texture changes such as greasy or floating stools. Stool that has a uncharacteristically foul odor may be caused by infections such as giardiasis or medical conditions.
Take the Stroke QuizTake the Stroke Quiz to learn about stroke risks, causes, treatment, and most importantly, prevention.
Tummy Trouble QuizTummy Troubles? Get a better idea of what's causing the nausea, vomiting, bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, pain, and other gastrointestinal discomforts and problems. Take the Tummy Troubles Quiz!
Type 2 Diabetes SlideshowLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes.
Upper Respiratory Infection
An upper respiratory infection is a contagious infection of the structures of the upper respiratory tract, which includes the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx. Common causes of an upper respiratory infection include bacteria and viruses such as rhinoviruses, group A streptococci, influenza, respiratory syncytial, whooping cough, diphtheria, and Epstein-Barre. Examples of symptoms of upper respiratory infection include:
- Sore throat
- Nasal congestion
Treatment of upper respiratory infections are based upon the cause. Generally, viral infections are treated symptomatically with over-the-counter (OTC) medication and home remedies.