A colonoscopy is a procedure whereby a docotor inserts a viewing tube (colonoscope) into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the colon. Colonoscopy is the best method currently available to diagnose, detect, and treat abnormalities within the colon. Read more: Colonoscopy Procedure and Preparation Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Ulcerative Colitis: Symptoms, Diet, Treatment, Causes
Ulcerative Colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease and is slightly different than Crohn's disease. Learn the causes,...
Signs of Cancer in Women: Symptoms You Can't Ignore
Colon and stomach cancer symptoms can surprise women but can be treated if detected early. Learn about breast cancer signs and...
Ovarian Cancer Symptoms, Signs, Stages
Ovarian cancer symptoms and signs include abdominal pain, bloating, frequent urination, and a feeling of fullness. Ovarian cancer...
Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Screening, Stages
Colorectal cancer (colon cancer) is the cause of many cancer deaths. Learn about the warning signs, symptoms, screening process,...
Health Screening Tests Every Woman Needs
What is a health screening? Why is it important to know your blood pressure? How long will your health screening take? Learn...
Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis) Symptoms, Diet, Treatment
Diverticulitis (diverticulosis) is a condition in which the diverticulum or diverticula rupture in the colon, causing infection....
Cancer: Symptoms of Common Cancers in Men
Can men get breast cancer? Cancer symptoms men need to watch out for include skin changes, difficulty swallowing, rapid weight...
Screening Tests Every Man Should Have
Getting the right screening test at the right time is one of the most important things a man can do for his health. Learn at what...
Ulcerative Colitis Quiz: Diet, Symptoms & Treatment
What is ulcerative colitis and what risks are associated with suffering over the long term? Take this Ulcerative Colitis Quiz to...
Picture of Colon
The part of the large intestine that serves to remove water from digested food and let the remaining material, solid waste called...
Picture of Diverticulitis
Diverticula can be seen via barium x-ray (barium enema). See a picture of Diverticulitis and learn more about the health topic.
Picture of Diverticulosis
Diverticulosis is a condition where a patient has diverticula in the colon. See a picture of Diverticulosis and learn more about...
Picture of Abdomen
The abdomen (commonly called the belly) is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. See a picture of the Abdomen and...
Picture of Colon Cancer
Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from colonic polyps. Removal of these precancerous polyps can prevent colon cancer....
Related Disease Conditions
Low FODMAP Diet for IBS
FODMAPs are foods that contain sugar alcohols and short chain carbohydrates. The gut can't digest them very well. There are "low" FODMAP foods and "high" FODMAP foods. Foods high in FODMAPs lay in the gut and ferment, which causes symptoms of: Excessive gas Bloating Abdominal pain Diarrhea Some people with digestive diseases and disorders, for example, IBS, microscopic colitis, IBD (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), and other functional bowel disorders often are placed on a low FODMAP diet to decrease the amount of high FODMAPs foods in the diet, which create uncomfortable symptoms.
How to Stop Anal Itching
Anal itching is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, accompanied by the desire to scratch. Causes include everything from irritating foods we eat, to certain diseases, and infections. Treatment options include over-the-counter medications, using moist pads, and gentle cleaning and drying of the anus.
Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Symptoms of the inflammation of the colon lining include diarrhea, pain, and blood in the stool. There are several causes of colitis, including infection, ischemia of the colon, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis like C. difficile, or microscopic colitis). Treatment depends on the cause of the colitis.
Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. Causes include pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, low-fiber diet, and prolonged sitting on the toilet. Treatment varies depending upon the severity of the hemorrhoids. Some treatment options include over-the-counter creams and suppositories, stool softeners, warm sitz baths, and hemorrhoidectomies.
Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding, Hematochezia)
Blood in the stool or rectal bleeding (hematochezia) refers to the passage of bright red blood from the anus. Common causes include anal fissures, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, colon and rectum polyps, and cancer. The color of the blood in the stool may provide information about the origin of the bleeding. The color of stool with blood in it may range from black, red, maroon, green yellow, gray, or white, and may be tarry, or sticky. Treatment of blood in the stool depends on the cause.
Anemia: Symptoms, Treatment and Causes
Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, increased gas (flatulence), abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, and food intolerance.Two new tests are now available that may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M) irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D), and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Treatment for IBS includes diet changes, medications, and other lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.
What Causes Abdominal Pain?
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Colon Polyps: Symptoms, Causes, Cancer Risk, Treatment, and Prevention
Colon polyps are common growths on the inner lining of the colon. Colon polyps may become cancerous. There are several different types of colon polyps, and the chance of the polyp becoming cancerous depends on the type, size, and histology. Blood in the stool or rectal bleeding are the most common symptoms of colon polyps. Treatment for colon polyps depend on the type, size, and histology.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
10 Natural Remedies for Colon Cleansing
A colon cleanse is the act of flushing out or cleaning the large intestine. They may be performed by professionals called colonic hygienists. In spite of insufficient research to support its benefits, the goal of colon cleansing is to clear the colon of any stagnant, supposedly toxic waste encrusted on the walls of the large intestine.
Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach Pain)
Indigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some diseases and conditions that do not involve the GI tract. Indigestion can be a chronic condition in which the symptoms fluctuate in frequency and intensity. Signs and symptoms that accompany indigestion include pain in the chest, upper abdominal pain, belching, nausea, bloating, abdominal distention, feeling full after eating only a small portion of food, and rarely, vomiting.
Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease)
Most people with diverticulosis have few if any symptoms at all. When people do experience signs and symptoms of diverticulosis (diverticular disease) they may include abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating. Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticuli in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that surround the colon. Treatment methods for diverticulitis includes prescription medications, and in some cases, diverticulitis surgery.
Amebiasis (Entamoeba Histolytica Infection)
Amebiasis is an infection caused by an amoeba. Signs and symptoms include bloody stools, abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, and gas. Treatment may involve taking luminal agents or antibiotics. Surgery may be indicated for various reasons.
Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) Symptoms Signs, Treatment Remedies, Diet
Stomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remedies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week. Constipation usually is caused by the slow movement of stool through the colon. There are many causes of constipation including medications, poor bowel habits, low-fiber diets, laxative abuse, and hormonal disorders, and diseases primarily of other parts of the body that also affect the colon.
Colon cancer (bowel cancer) is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from colonic polyps. Removal of these precancerous polyps can prevent colon cancer.
An anal fissure is a small tear or cut in the skin lining of the anus. Pain and/or rectal bleeding during bowel movements are common symptoms of anal fissures. Treatment includes increasing liquid intake, using stool softeners, prescription medications, and surgery.
The Digestion Process (Parts, Organs, and Functions)
Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves creating waste to be eliminated, and is made of a series of muscles that coordinate the movement of food. Learn more about digestion and the body parts that make it possible, including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the body. Internal bleeding can be caused by a variety of situations such as blunt trauma, deceleration trauma, medications, fractures, and spontaneous bleeding. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding.
There are many types of ovarian cancer, epithelial carcinoma is the most common. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer have an increased risk of developing the disease. Some ovarian cancer symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and abnormal vaginal bleeding, however, they usually do not present until the disease has progressed. Early diagnosis is important for successful treatment.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Diet
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a name for a group of diseases in which there is inflammation of the digestive tract (gastrointestinal tract). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the most common types of inflammatory bowel disease. While there is no specific recommended diet for a person with IBD, doctors and specialists recommend a low-residue (low fiber) diet for people with inflammatory bowel disease. Nutritionists, registered dieticians, and other health-care professionals can recommend specific foods, create meal plans, and recommend vitamins and other nutritional supplements.Foods to avoid with IBDExamples of foods to avoid that may trigger symptoms include if you have IBD include products alcohol, diary products, fatty, fried, and spicy foods, beans, and creamy sauces. Foods to eat with IBD Examples of a low-residue (low-fiber) diet that may help relieve symptoms after a flares of the disease are plain cereals, canned fruit, rice, oatmeal, and bananas.
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss are common symptoms.
SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth)
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine, but they are more like the bacteria that are found in the colon. There are many conditions associated with SIBO, including: Diabetes Scleroderma Crohn's disease Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) It has been theorized that SIBO may be responsible for the symptoms of at least some patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms of SIBO include: Excess gas Abdominal bloating Abdominal pain Treatment for SIBO can include: Antibiotics Probiotics Low FODMAP Diet
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Schistosomiasis (snail fever), a disease caused by parasites, causes a variety of symptoms and signs, such as cough, rash and bloody diarrhea. Praziquantel is used in the treatment of schistosomiasis.
IBS-D (Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea)
IBS-D or irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea refers to IBS with diarrhea. Symptoms of IBS-D include intestinal gas (flatulence), loose stools, frequent stools, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. New non-FDA approved IBS tests may help diagnose IBS and IBS-D. Treatment of IBS-D is geared to toward managing symptoms with diet, medication, and lifestyle changes.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Ulcerative colitis is closely related to Crohn's disease, and together they are referred to as inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment depends upon the type of ulcerative colitis diagnosed.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ because of the characteristically dissimilar behaviors of the intestinal inflammation in these two diseases.
Aortic Valve Stenosis (Symptoms, Causes, Surgery)
Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart. The causes of aortic stenosis are wear and tear of the valve in the elderly, congenital, or scarring or scarring of the aortic valve from rheumatic fever. Symptoms include angina, fainting, and shortness of breath. Treatment is dependant upon the severity of the condition.
Crohn's Disease vs. Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are diseases that cause inflammation of part of or the entire digestive tract (GI). Crohn's affects the entire GI tract (from the mouth to the anus), while ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis only affects the large and small intestine and ilium. Researchers do not know the exact cause of either disease. About 20% of people with Crohn's disease also have a family member with the disease. Researchers believe that certain factors may play a role in causing UC. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are a type of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis both have similar symptoms and signs, for example, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, episodic and/or persistent diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and cramping, rectal bleeding, bloody stools, joint pain and soreness, eye redness, or pain. Symptoms unique to Crohn’s disease include anemia and skin changes. Symptoms of unique to ulcerative colitis include, certain rashes, an urgency to defecate (have a bowel movement). Doctors diagnose both diseases with similar tests and procedures. While there is no cure for either disease, doctors and other health care professionals can help you treat disease flares, and manage your Crohn's or ulcerative colitis with medication, diet, nutritional supplements, and/or surgery.
Carcinoid Syndrome (Tumor)
A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that sets them apart from other gastrointestinal tract tumors, is their potential to cause the carcinoid syndrome. Local symptoms may include abdominal pain, intestinal bleeding, flushing., gastrointestinal bleeding, and diarrhea. Often, symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome can be more devastating than the local symptoms. There are many options for the treatment of carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome.
IBS vs. IBD: Differences and Similarities
IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) are both problems with the digestive tract (gastrointestinal or GI tract), but they are not the same disease. IBS is a functional disorder (a problem with the way the GI tract functions), and IBD is a disease that causes chronic prolonged inflammation of the GI tract, that can lead to ulcers and other problems that may require surgery. The most common forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, or UC. Researchers do not know the exact cause of either disease, but they believe that IBS may be caused and triggered by a variety of factors (foods, stress, and the nervous system of the GI tract), while IBD may be genetic or due a problem with the immune system.Common symptoms of both diseases are an urgent need to have a bowel movement, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and cramping. There are differences between the signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, for example, symptoms unique to IBD are: Fever Joint pain or soreness Skin changes Rectal bleeding Anemia Eye redness or pain Unintentional weight loss Feeling tired Symptoms unique to irritable bowel syndrome include: Sexual problems Fibromyalgia Abdominal bloating Whitish mucous in the stool Changes in bowel movements and in the way stools look An urgent need to urinate Urinating frequently Treatment for IBS is with diet recommendations from a doctor or nutritionist, medication, and lifestyle changes like stress management and avoiding foods that trigger the condition. Treatments for IBD depend upon the type of disease, its symptoms, and health of the patient. Surgery may be necessary for some individuals.REFERENCES: Brown, AC, et al. "Existing Dietary Guidelines for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis." Medscape. Lehrer, J. "Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Medscape. Updated: Apr 04, 2017. Rowe, W. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Medscape. Updated: Jun 17, 2016. Romanowski, A, MS, RD. "Matching the Right Diet to the Right Patient." Medscape. Jan 27, 2017.
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (C. diff, C. difficle Colitis)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile spores are found frequently in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, and nurseries for newborn infants.
Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis)
Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis) is a disease of inflammation of the colon. Microscopic colitis is only visible when the colon's lining is examined under a microscope. The cause of microscopic colitis is not known. Symptoms of microscopic colitis are chronic watery diarrhea and abdominal pain or cramps.
Endocarditis, a serious infection of one of the four heart valves is caused by growth of bacteria on one of the heart valves; leading to an infected massed called a "vegetation." The infection can be caused by having bacteria in the bloodstream after dental work, colonoscopy, or other similar procedures. Endocarditis symptoms include fever, fatigue, weakness, chills, aching muscles and joints, night sweats, edema in the legs, feet, or abdomen, malaise, shortness of breath and small skin lesions. Treatment for endocarditis is generally aggressive antibiotic treatment.
Pelvic Pain (in Women and Men)
Pelvic pain is described as pain, usually in the lower pelvic area. Causes of acute and chronic pelvic pain in women include endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, menstrual cramps, ovarian cysts, tumors, or fibroids, ovulation, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or congestion syndrome, vulva pain, and rarely cancer. Pelvic pain during pregnancy may be caused by miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy), preterm or premature labor, and placental abruption. Causes of pelvic pain in men include prostate problems, testicular pain, and groin pain. Causes of pelvic pain in men and women include kidney stones, appendicitis, UTIs, IBD, and STDs. Signs and symptoms associated with pelvic pain depend on the cause, but man include pain during or after sexual intercourse, abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, diarrhea, constipation, vaginal discharge or bleeding, blood, pus, in the urine, cloudy urine, blood in the stool, stool color changes, and low back pain. The cause of pelvic pain is diagnosed by a physical exam, blood tests, and imaging procedures. Treatment for pelvic pain depends on the cause.
Can I Eat Mashed Potatoes 2 Days Before Colonoscopy?
Colonoscopy is a procedure used to detect abnormalities in the large intestine (colon). One day before the procedure, it is advised not to eat any solid or semi-solid food, such as mashed potatoes, applesauce, oatmeal, etc. A clear liquid diet must be taken 24 to 72 hours before the procedure.
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis or PSC is a disease of the liver. The cause of PSC is not known. Symptoms may include itching, fatigue, jaundice, fever, and confusion. The only treatment for Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a liver transplant.
Melanosis coli is a condition that is often associated with prolonged laxative use. Dark pigment forms in the wall of the large intestine as a result of wear and tear. Melanosis coli (pseudomelanosis coli) causes no symptoms and can be reversed with discontinuation of laxative use.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in children is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with signs and symptoms of: Abdominal pain Bloating Diarrhea Constipation The cause of IBS is unknown, however, certain foods, stress, anxiety, and depression may contribute to the symptoms of IBS. There is no cure for IBS in children; however, medications, dietary changes, and stress management may relieve symptoms.
Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or pressure, anal discharge or itching, a change in bowel movements, and/or a lump in the anal region. Treatment for anal cancer may involve radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery and depends upon the stage of the cancer, its location, whether cancer is eradicated after the first treatment, and whether the patient has HIV.Anal cancer is usually curable when found localized. Early detection remains the key to long-term survival as it is in many forms of cancer.
Bowel Incontinence (Fecal Incontinence)
Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include partial incontinence, in which a person loses only a small amount of liquid waste, to complete incontinence, in which the entire bowel movement cannot be controlled. Diet changes and elimination of certain medications can help patients to regain bowel control. Treatment involves a combination of medication, biofeedback, and exercise.
How Long Before a Colonoscopy Should I Stop Drinking Water?
A colonoscopy is a test to look at the inside of the colon. Usually, doctors recommend patients undergoing a colonoscopy to stop drinking clear liquid or water at least three to four hours before the procedure. However, patients with diabetes and who are dehydrated may take a few sips of water after consulting their doctor.
Is Bright Red Blood in the Stool Serious?
The presence of blood in the stool needs to be evaluated by your doctor. In most cases, the bright red blood in stools is not an immediate threat to life. The most common causes are piles, anal polyps, anal fissures and colitis (inflammation of the large bowel).
Hirschsprung Disease (Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments)
Hirschsprung disease is an inherited condition that is present at birth (congenital) in which the nerves of parts of the large intestine are missing. The primary symptom is constipation. The diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease is made by examining the newborn or child, genetic testing, and other test results. Treatment for Hirschsprung disease is surgery, either pull-through procedure for newborns or ostomy for children. Most newborns and toddlers feel much better after surgery.Other information about Hirschsprung disease.Hirschsprung disease is a genetic, or inherited, condition. Other symptoms in newborns and toddlers are: Diarrhea, often with blood. Green or brown vomit Abdominal distension Nausea and vomiting Weight loss Sepsis Failure to thrive in infancy Intestinal obstruction Slow growth Intellectual disability The only treatment for Hirschsprung disease is surgery. Doctors and surgeons treat newborns with a pull-through procedure in which the surgeon removes the part of the large intestine that is missing nerves and connects it to the healthy part of the anus. Toddlers and children require ostomy surgery, in which part of the intestine is brought through the abdominal wall so that feces can leave the body without passing through the anus. The opening in the abdominal wall is called a stoma, and a removable external pouch is attached to it. Complications can occur with either type of surgery, and may include: Narrowing of the anus Enterocolitis Delayed toilet training Stool leaking from the anus Hirschsprung disease can be a medical emergency that requires surgery. If your newborn or child has these symptoms listed, contact your OB/GYN or Pediatrician urgently. REFERENCES: NIH; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases. "Hirschsprung Disease." Updated: Sep 2015.<https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/hirschsprung-disease> Genetic Home Reference. "Hirschsprung disease." Updated: Jun 27, 2017.<https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hirschsprung-disease#synonyms> NCBI. "Hirschsprung Disease Overview." Updated: Oct 1, 2015.<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1439/> NIH; National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; GARD. "Hirschsprung's disease." Updated: Jun 01, 2017.<https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6660/hirschsprungs-disease>
Gardner's Syndrome (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis)
Gardners' syndrome, or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), is an inherited condition in which cancer of the colon and rectum develop. Colon polyps and growths may develop as early as the teens. If these polyps are not removed, they will become cancerous. There are different inheritance patterns for familial adenomatous polyposis.
Colon Cancer Prevention
Colorectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells metastasize to other parts of the body. Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy (along with digital rectal examination and stool occult blood testing) are both effective at preventing colo-rectal cancers and detecting early colo-rectal cancers.
Is Colonoscopy Painful? What to Expect?
Colonoscopy is a medical procedure to examine the inside of the large bowel (colon). It is done with the help of a long, thin, and flexible tube-like instrument that carries a camera and a light source at one end (colonoscope).
Disease Prevention in Women
Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are commonly available through your general doctor. Some specialized tests may be available elsewhere.
Disease Prevention in Men
Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in your own health care and discuss screening tests with your doctor early in life. Age of screening and timing of screening depends upon the condition being assessed.
Local ResourcesFind a local Gastroenterologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Is A Colon Resection A Major Surgery?
- Fecal Occult Blood Test
- Hydrogen Breath Test
- Endoscopy vs. Colonoscopy
- How Painful Is a Colonoscopy?
- Capsule Endoscopy
- Is an Anoscopy Painful?
- Screening Tests for Cancer
- Endoscopic Ultrasound
- Sigmoidoscopy vs. Colonoscopy
- Push Endoscopy
- Does a Right Hemicolectomy Remove the Appendix?
- Virtual Colonoscopy
- What Is the Difference Between EMR and ESD?
- Barium Enema
- Colon and Colorectal Cancer Screening
- Cologuard Test vs Colonoscopy
- Balloon Endoscopy
- What Is A Colon Resection?
- What Is Laparoscopic Left Colectomy/Hemicolectomy?
- What Is Laparoscopic Hartmann Procedure Reversal?
- Ulcerative Colitis FAQs
- Colonoscopy With No Sedation
- Cancer Care in the Elderly
- Biopsy: Questions to Ask Your Doctor Before a Biopsy
- Hepatitis C: Nightmare in Vegas
- Ray Manzarek Dies of Bile Duct Cancer
- Doctors Answer Digestion Questions
- Can virtual colonoscopy replace actual colonoscopy
- What Does a Barium Enema Test For?
- Avoid Red Jell-O Before a Colonoscopy
- How Often Should I Have a Colonoscopy with Celiac?
- How Soon Should I Have a Followup Colonoscopy?
- Hospitals: Can Yours Handle Your Emergency?
- Bleeding Ulcer Symptoms and Causes
Medications & Supplements
- magnesium citrate (Citrate of Magnesia, Citroma)
- Sutab (sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and potassium chloride)
- What Is the Difference Between Sedation and General Anesthesia?
- polyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, Glycolax)
- fentanyl injection (Sublimaze)
- What Does Sedation Feel Like?
- Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Electrolytes
- midazolam - oral syrup, Versed
- flumazenil-injection, Romazicon
- Colazal (balsalazide disodium) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- sodium phosphate monobasic/dibasic - oral, OsmoPrep
- Byfavo (remimazolam)
- Colyte (peg-3350 and electrolytes)
- Fusilev (levoleucovorin)
Prevention & Wellness
- Get First Colonoscopy at 45, not 50: U.S. Expert Panel
- Relatives' Colonoscopy Results Could Affect Your Colon Cancer Risk
- FDA Approves First AI Tool to Boost Colonoscopy Accuracy
- Abnormal Stool Test Result? Don't Delay Your Colonoscopy
- Insured Patients Are Getting Surprise Bills After Colonoscopies
- Many High-Risk Patients Don't Know They Need Follow-Up Colonoscopy
- Parent or Sibling With Colon Cancer? You May Need Colonoscopy Earlier
- 5 Ways to Fight America's No. 3 Cancer Killer
- Strong Support Network Is Key to Women's Cancer Recovery: Study
- New Study Supports Lowering Age of First Colonoscopy
- Colon Cancer Hits Poor, City Dwellers Hardest: Study
- Most Seniors 85+ Do Well After Colon Cancer Surgery: Study
- Colon Cancer Screenings Increase When Medicaid Arrives
- Robotically-Assisted Surgical Devices Not Approved for Cancer Surgery: FDA
- Is At-Home Stool Test a Viable Alternative to Colonoscopy?
- Many Patients With Polyps Delay Follow-up Colonoscopy: Study
- Probiotics: Don't Believe the Hype?
- Severe Diarrhea Can Send IBS Patients Over the Edge
- Health Tip: If You're 45 or Older, Get Screened for Colorectal Cancer
- Colonoscopies, Endoscopies Carry Greater Infection Risk Than Thought: Study
- Blue's Clues: Adding Dye to Colonoscopy May Boost Detection
- Health Tip: Prepare for a Colonoscopy
- Common Colon Cancer Screen May Help Men More Than Women
- Study Confirms Lifesaving Value of Colonoscopy
- Early Colon Cancer Screening Advised for Some
- Could Your Colonoscopy Raise Your Risk for Appendicitis?
- Could a Blood Test Spot Early Stage Colon Cancer?
- $100 Sweetens the Pot for a Colonoscopy
- Easier Colon Exam Boosts Screening, But Insurers May Not Pay
- Cancer Deaths Higher in Rural America, CDC Reports
- Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies: Study
- Get Ready for Your 'Capsule Robot' Colon Cancer Check
- Delay a Needed Colonoscopy at Your Own Risk
- Many Disabled Adults Aren't Screened for Colon Cancer: Study
- Prolonged Antibiotic Use Tied to Precancerous Colon Growths
- Many Dialysis Patients Get Unnecessary Colonoscopies
- Keep Colon Cancer at Bay
- Study Questions 'Fecal Transplant' Treatment for Gut Infection
- Obamacare Boosts Breast Cancer Screening, Study Finds
- Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk: Study
- Some Low-Income, Uninsured Patients Aren't Referred for Colonoscopy
- Colorectal Cancers on the Rise in Younger Adults
- Colon Cancer's Location May Determine Patient Survival
- Survey: Doctor/Patient Disconnect on Cancer Prevention
- To Help Prevent Colon Cancer, 'Listen to Your Gut'
- Study: Colonoscopy After 75 May Not Be Worth It
- Is a New at-Home Colon Cancer Test for You?
- Researchers Get Closer to Test Predicting Colon Cancer's Return
- Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer
- Expert Panel Reaffirms Need for Colon Cancer Screen Beginning at Age 50
- Low-Dose Aspirin Tied to Longer Colon Cancer Survival
- Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50
- Time to Drop the 'No-Eating Rule' Before Colonoscopy?
- Tumor Location Affects Colon Cancer Survival: Study
- Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test
- Happy Marriage May Prompt Men to Get Colonoscopy: Study
- Study: Fecal Transplants May Help Colitis
- Canadian Medical Panel Advises Against Routine Colonoscopy
- Health Tip: Restrict Your Diet Before Colonoscopy
- Time to Follow-Up After a Positive Colon Cancer Test Varies by Hospital
- Study Finds Stool Test Effective for Detecting Colon Cancer
- Frozen as Good as Fresh for Fecal Transplant: Study
- The Rise of the Do-It-Yourself Fecal Transplant
- Vitamin D, Calcium May Not Prevent Colon Cancer After All
- Colonoscopy Findings Fade Quickly From Memory
- Longer Colonoscopy Time May Cut Cancer Risk
- Former President Carter's Cancer: FAQ
- 'Scoring System' May Spot Those in Greatest Need of Colonoscopy
- Summer Danger: BBQ Grill Brush Wires Causing Big Health Woes
- The Doctor Who Does Your Colonoscopy Matters
- Too Few Younger, High-Risk Americans Get a Colonoscopy: Study
- Many Americans Not Getting Routine Cancer Screenings: CDC
- Report Shows Progress in America's War on Cancer
- Fecal Transplant Treats Serious, Recurrent Intestinal Infection
- Vegetarian Diet May Lower Colon Cancer Risk, Study Suggests
- Colon Cancer's Location May Be Factor in Survival
- Falling Cancer Death Rate Means 1.5 Million Lives Saved Over 20 Years
- Colon Cancer on the Rise for U.S. Adults Under 50
- 'Purpose in Life' a Boon to Your Health
- 'Angelina Jolie Effect' Prompted More Testing for Breast Cancer Genes: Study
- Polyp Removal Doesn't Always Signal Raised Colon Cancer Risk, Study Says
- Study: Many Seniors Get Unnecessary Cancer Tests
- New At-Home Colon Cancer Test: FAQ
- New Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Approved
- Sigmoidoscopy Does Cut Risk of Dying From Colon Cancer: Study
- Black Veterans Less Likely to Get Colon Cancer Screening, Study Finds
- FDA Approves Highly Accurate At-Home Colon Cancer Test
- Scientists Explore How Fecal Transplant Eases Tough Infection
- Half a Million Cancers Prevented by Colon Screenings: Study
- First-Time Colon Cancer Screening May Be Beneficial for Elderly
- Just Seeing a Doctor May Boost the Odds of Surviving Melanoma
- New Colon Polyp Removal Method May Be Easier on Patients
- Aspirin's Ability to Prevent Colon Cancer May Depend on Your Genes
- Frozen as Good as Fresh for Fecal Transplants for Diarrhea: Study
- Doctors' Skill at Colonoscopy May Affect Patients' Colon Cancer Risk: Study
- FDA Advisory Panel Recommends Approval of At-Home Colon Cancer Test
- Colonoscopy Is Good, Not Perfect
- At-Home Stool Test for Colon Cancer Called Accurate, But Not Foolproof
- Post-Surgical Tests Might Help Spot Colon Cancer's Return
- 1 in 3 Not Meeting Colon Cancer Screening Guidelines: CDC
- Too Much Sitting Tied to Higher Risk of Colon Polyps in Men
- Current Colon Cancer Screening Guidelines Might Miss Some Patients
- Poo in a Pill to Treat Gut Infection?
- Seeing Doctor Regularly May Cut Your Colon Cancer Risk
- Colon Cancer Screenings Work, Twin Studies Report
- Aspirin Every Other Day May Lower Women's Colon Cancer Risk
- Gene-Based Blood Test for Colon Cancer Shows Promise
- Another Study Finds Colonoscopy Can Save Lives
- Gene-Based Blood Test Might Help Spot Colon Cancer
- Prepping for a Colonoscopy: Why It's a Necessary Evil
- Delaying Colonoscopy Puts Man in Grave Danger
- New Device May Show Doctors More of the Colon
- Seniors Getting Unnecessary Colonoscopies: Study
- Colonoscopy Cuts Advanced Cancer Risk by 70 Percent: Study
- Which Cancer Tests Do You Really Need?
- Fecal 'Transplant' to Cure Gut Infection?
- Surgery Checklists Help OR Teams in a Crisis, Study Finds
- U.S. Cancer Screening Rates Dropping: Study
- Boomers Zero In on Health at Age 50 and 65, Study Says
- Big Drop in Colon Cancer Attributed to Colonoscopy
- Race, Income Tied to Late Colon Cancer Diagnoses, Study Finds
- New DNA Test Shows Promise for Spotting Colon Cancer
- New Prep for Colon Screen Uses Four Pills, Not Liquid Laxative
- Missing Follow-Up Colonoscopies Could Raise Colon Cancer Risk
- Health Reform: No-Cost Contraception Starts Today
- Genes May Be Key for Patients With Multiple Colon Polyps
- New Drug Approved for Colonoscopy Preparation
- No Dip in Cancer Screening for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
- Treating Irritable Bowel Poses Challenges
- Some Docs Would Order Cancer Screening for Very Sick Elderly
- Health Tip: Help Prevent Colon Polyps
- Health Tip: Preparing for Colonoscopy
- Colonoscopy May Detect Curable Cancer in Elderly: Study
- Patients Prefer More Invasive Form of Colon Scan: Study
- People With Diabetes May Need Earlier Colon Screen
- Moveable Magnets Used to Forge Gastric Bypass in Pigs
- Sigmoidoscopy Cuts Colon Cancer Cases, Deaths
- Blacks, Hispanics Have Higher Colon Polyp Risk Than Previously Thought
- The Laxative-Free 'Virtual Colonoscopy'
- Many Patients Skip Recommended Colonoscopy: Study
- Many Medical Tests, Procedures Not Always Needed
- Obese White Women Shying Away From Colon Cancer Screening
- New Stool Test Might Aid in Early Detection of Colon Cancer
- Inadequate Bowel Prep May Invalidate Colonoscopy
- Cancer Deaths Continue to Fall
- New Colon Cancer Screening Guidelines Focus on Individual Risk
- Too Many Americans Skipping Colon Cancer Screening
- Study Supports CT-Based 'Virtual' Colonoscopy to Spot Colon Cancer
- Many Cancer Deaths Prevented by Colonoscopy
- Worries About Colonoscopy Unfounded: Study
- Alternative to Colonoscopy Spots Cancers, Too
- Common Gastro Disease Occurs Even With High-Fiber Diet
- Too Few Americans Getting Screened for Common Cancers: CDC
- CDC: Cancer Screening Below Target Rates
- Resolve to Take Colon Cancer Test, Experts Say
- From Bad to Better: U.S. Cancer Rates Continue to Drop
- British Screening Program Finding More Early Stage Colon Cancers
- Diabetes Linked to Precancerous Colon Growths
- Could Listening to Mozart Help Doctors Spot Colon Polyps?
- Fecal Transplant May Treat Stubborn C. diff
- Do Men Need Colon Cancer Screening Earlier Than Women Do?
- Osteoporosis Drugs Linked to Lower Cancer Risk
- Dogs Can Detect Early Colorectal Cancer
- Animal Farms May Produce Superbugs
- New Colon Cancer Screening Test in the Works
- Aspirin May Cut Colon Cancer Deaths
- Rectal Cancer on the Rise in Young People
- Virtual Colonoscopy Can Spot Cancers Outside Colon
- CDC: More Cancer Screenings Needed to Save Lives
- Polyp-Finding Skill Is Key to Colonoscopy Success
- Colonoscopy Prep in a Pill May Be Easier to Swallow
- Single Screening Cuts Colon Cancer Risk
- 'Virtual' Colonoscopy Catches Cancers Outside the Colon
- Colonoscopy Not Needed for Most With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
- Virtual Colonoscopy a Good Bet for Elderly
- Colonoscopy Beats Colon Pill Camera
- Virtual Colonoscopy: Who Should Get It?
- Medicare's 'No' on Virtual Colonoscopy Stirs Expert Debate
- Virtual Colonoscopy Can Spot Osteoporosis
- Repeat Colonoscopies Underused in High-Risk Patients
- Popular Colonoscopy Prep Solution May Pose Kidney Risks
- Colonoscopy 'Coaches' Play Lifesaving Role
- Initial Colonoscopy Key to Cancer Detection
- Virtual Colonoscopy Nears Prime Time
- Cheaper, Easier Virtual Colonoscopy Could Boost Detection
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