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- What is clarithromycin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for clarithromycin?
- Is clarithromycin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for clarithromycin?
- What are the uses for clarithromycin?
- What are the side effects of clarithromycin?
- What is the dosage for clarithromycin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with clarithromycin?
- Is clarithromycin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about clarithromycin?
What is clarithromycin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Clarithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin and azithromycin (Zithromax). It is effective against a wide variety of bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and mycobacterium avium, and many others. Like all macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin prevents bacteria from growing by interfering with their ability to make proteins. Due to the differences in the way proteins are made in bacteria and humans, the macrolide antibiotics do not interfere with production of proteins in humans. The FDA approved clarithromycin in October 1991.
What are the uses for clarithromycin?
Clarithromycin is effective against susceptible bacteria causing the following infections:
It also is used in treating infections caused by mycobacterium avium, a bacterium closely related to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. Clarithromycin has been used in combination with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Prilosec) in treating H. Pylori that causes stomach ulcers.
What are the side effects of clarithromycin?
Clarithromycin generally is well tolerated, and side effects usually are mild and transient. Common side effects of clarithromycin are:
Other important side effects which are rare, but serious include:
Clarithromycin should be avoided by patients known to be allergic to clarithromycin or other chemically-related macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin. Treatment with clarithromycin and other antibiotics can alter the normal bacteria flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of C. difficile, a bacterium responsible for pseudomembranous colitis. Patients who develop pseudomembranous colitis as a result of antibiotics treatment may experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and sometimes even shock.
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What is the dosage for clarithromycin?
Clarithromycin may be taken with or without food. For most infections the recommended adult dose is 250-500 mg of immediate release tablets twice daily or 1000 mg of extended release tablets once daily for 7-14 days.
Which drugs or supplements interact with clarithromycin?
Clarithromycin interacts with several drugs because it reduces the activity of liver enzymes that breakdown many drugs. This leads to increased blood levels and side effects from the affected drugs. Examples of such interactions include
- olchicine (Colcrys),
- simvastatin (Zocor),
- lovastatin (Mevacor),
- atorvastatin (Lipitor),
- verapamil (Calan),
- amlodipine (Norvasc), and
- diltiazem (Carizem).
Clarithromycin increases blood levels of sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca), vardenafil (Levitra), theophylline and carbamazepine (Tegretol), thereby increasing side effects of these drugs.
The occurrence of abnormal heart beats may increase when clarithromycin is combined with drugs that affect heart beat (for example, amiodarone [Coradone], quinidine [Quinidine Gluconate, Quinidine Sulfate], and disopyramide).
Is clarithromycin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Safe use of clarithromycin in pregnancy has not been established. There are no adequate studies in pregnant women.
Clarithromycin is excreted in breast milk.
What else should I know about clarithromycin?
What preparations of clarithromycin are available?
Tablets (immediate or extended release): 250 and 500 mg. Suspension: 125 or 250 mg per 5 ml (teaspoonful).
How should I keep clarithromycin stored?
Tablets and suspension should be stored at room temperature 15 -30 C (59-86 F) in a tightly closed container. The oral suspension should not be refrigerated after mixing and should be used within 14 days.
Clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL) is an antibiotic drug prescribed for the treatment of a large variety of bacterium. Clarithromycin is used to treat infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx, bronchioles, lungs, and skin. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Adenoids and Tonsils
Tonsillitis is a contagious infection with symptoms of bad breath, snoring, congestion, headache, hoarseness, laryngitis, and coughing up blood.
Tonsillitis can be caused acute infection of the tonsils, and several types of bacteria or viruses (for example, strep throat or mononucleosis). There are two types of tonsillitis, acute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis lasts from one to two weeks while chronic tonsillitis can last from months to years.
Treatment of tonsillitis and adenoids include antibiotics, over-the-counter medications, and home remedies to relieve pain and inflammation, for example, salt water gargle, slippery elm throat lozenges, sipping warm beverages and eating frozen foods (ice cream, popsicles), serrapeptase, papain, and andrographism Some people with chronic tonsillitis may need surgery (tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy ).
Bronchitis is inflammation of the airways in the lung. Acute bronchitis is is short in duration (10 to 20 days) in comparison with chronic bronchitis, which lasts for months to years. Causes of acute bronchitis include viruses and bacteria, which means it can be contagious. Acute bronchitis caused by environmental factors such as pollution or cigarette smoke is not contagious. Common symptoms for acute bronchitis include nasal congestion, cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue.
Acute bronchitis in children also my include runny nose, fever, and chest pain. Treatment for acute bronchitis are OTC pain relievers, cough suppressants (although not recommended in children), and rest. Infrequently antibiotics may be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis.
Middle ear infection or inflammation (otitis media) is inflammation of the middle ear. There are two forms of this type of ear infection, acute and chronic. Acute otitis media is generally short in duration, and chronic otitis media generally lasts several weeks. Seventy-five percent of children in the U.S. suffer from otitis media at some point.
Signs and symptoms in babies, toddlers, and children may:
- Be irritable and pull and tug at their ears
- Be fussy
- Have problems feeding or sleeping
- Complain about pain and fullness in the ear
- Have a fever
- A buildup of pus in the ear
- Have signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection
Treatment depends upon the type (chronic or acute).
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- a "barky" cough,
- a hoarse cough,
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- dry cough, and
- loss of voice.
Chronic laryngitis generally lasts more than three weeks. Causes other than infection include smoking, excess coughing, GERD, and more. Treatment depends on the cause of laryngitis.
Swimmer's ear (external otitis) is an infection of the skin that covers the outer ear canal.
Causes of swimmer's ear include excessive water exposure that leads to trapped bacteria in the ear canal. Symptoms of simmer's include a feeling of fullness in the ear, itching, and ear pain. Chronic swimmer's ear may be caused by eczema, seborrhea, fungus, chronic irritation, and other conditions.
Common treatment includes antibiotic ear drops.
Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers are an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to H. pylori bacteria in the stomach, use of anti-inflammatory medications, and cigarette smoking. Symptoms of peptic or stomach ulcers include abdominal burning or hunger pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort after meals.
Treatment for stomach ulcers depends upon the cause.
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Strep throat symptoms in infants and children are different than in adults. Strep throat is contagious and is generally passed from person-to-person. Treatment for strep throat symptoms include home remedies and OTC medication; however, the only cure for strep throat are antibiotics.