Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections.
Symptoms include yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue.
The prognosis is good for some people with cirrhosis of the liver, and the survival can be up to 12 years; however the life expectancy is about 6 months to 2 years for people with severe cirrhosis with major complications. Read more: Cirrhosis (Liver) Article
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Liver Disease Quiz: Fatty Liver Disease, Cirrhosis & Symptoms
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Related Disease Conditions
Liver disease can be cause by a variety of things including infection (hepatitis), diseases, for example, gallstones, high cholesterol or triglycerides, blood flow obstruction to the liver, and toxins (medications and chemicals). Symptoms of liver disease depends upon the cause and may include nausea, vomiting, upper right abdominal pain, and jaundice. Treatment depends upon the cause of the liver disease.
Bilirubin is a waste product of the normal breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. Normal bilirubin levels vary from lab to lab, and range from around 0.2 to 1.2 mg/dL. High levels of bilirubin can be diagnosed with a bilirubin blood test. Causes of elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood can be caused by infections, viral hepatitis, anemia, genetic diseases, and liver problems. Symptoms of elevated bilirubin levels depend on the cause; however, jaundice is a common sign. Treatment for elevated bilirubin levels depend on the cause.
Itch (Itching or Pruritus)
Itching can be a common problem. Itches can be localized or generalized. There are many causes of itching to include: infection (jock itch, vaginal itch), disease (hyperthyroidism, liver or kidney), reactions to drugs, and skin infestations (pubic or body lice). Treatment for itching varies depending on the cause of the itch.
Ascites, the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity is most commonly caused by cirrhosis of the liver. Some of the other causes of ascites include portal hypertension, congestive heart failure, blood clots, and pancreatitis. The most common symptoms include increased abdominal girth and size, abdominal bloating, and abdominal pain. Treatment depends on the cause of ascites.
Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver cancer often arises due to liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring) caused by alcohol use/abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Liver cancer may not cause any symptoms. Liver cancer is diagnosed with blood tests, imaging tests, and a liver biopsy. Treatment for liver cancer may include surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Symptoms, Signs, Causes,Treatment
An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly, is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood disorders, or decreased blood flow. Symptoms of an enlarged spleen are often unnoticed. A feeling of fullness after eating a small amount of food and not being able to eat large meals may be a symptom of an enlarged spleen. Treatment for an enlarged spleen depends upon the cause.
Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There are two types of edema, non-pitting edema and pitting edema. Causes of pitting edema is caused by systemic diseases (most commonly involving the heart, liver, and kidneys), and medications. Local conditions that cause edema are thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Edema or swelling of the legs, feet, ankles, and face are common during pregnancy. Idiopathic edema is edema in which the cause is not known. Pitting edema is scored on pitting edema measurement scales. Edema is generally treated with medication.
Liver (Anatomy and Function)
The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. Treatment of diseases of the liver depends on the cause.
The Digestion Process (Parts, Organs, and Functions)
Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves creating waste to be eliminated, and is made of a series of muscles that coordinate the movement of food. Learn more about digestion and the body parts that make it possible, including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
Gynecomastia (Enlarged Male Breasts)
Gynecomastia, an enlargement of the gland tissue in the male breast is caused by an imbalance of hormones. Certain medical conditions may also lead to gynecomastia such as cirrhosis, malnutrition, disorders of the male sex organs, kidney failure, thyroid disorders, and medications. Gynecomastia is generally treated with medication, and if necessary, surgery.
Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the body. Internal bleeding can be caused by a variety of situations such as blunt trauma, deceleration trauma, medications, fractures, and spontaneous bleeding. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding.
Drug-Induced Liver Disease
Drug-induced liver diseases are diseases of the liver that are caused by: physician-prescribed medications, OTC medications, vitamins, hormones, herbs, illicit (recreational) drugs, and environmental toxins. Read about the signs and symptoms of drug-induced liver disease like hepatitis (inflammation of the liver cells), liver disease treatment, and types.
Insulin Resistance (Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Reversal))
Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use. Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking. Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication.
Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Other symptoms include: lethargy, dementia, seizures, tremors, and coma. Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the type of encephalopathy (anoxia, diabetic, Hashimoto's, hepatic, hyper - hypotensive, infectious, metabolic, infections, uremic, or Wernicke's) are examples of types of encephalopathy.
Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload)
Hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload) is an inherited disorder in which there is excessive accumulation of iron in the body. Individuals may have no symptoms or signs, or they can have severe symptoms and signs of iron overload. The most effective treatment for hemochromatosis is therapeutic phlebotomy.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Hepatitis (Viral Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G)
Hepatitis is most often viral, due to infection with one of the hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, F (not confirmed), and G) or another virus (such as those that cause infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus disease). The main nonviral causes of hepatitis are alcohol and drugs. Many patients infected with hepatitis A, B, and C have few or no symptoms of illness. For those who do develop symptoms of viral hepatitis, the most common are flu-like symptoms including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, and aching in the abdomen. Treatment of viral hepatitis is dependent on the type of hepatitis.
Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems
Learn how to recognize early warning signs and symptoms of serious diseases and health problems, for example, chronic cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, stool color or consistency changes, heartburn, skin moles, anxiety, nightmares, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, lightheadedness, night sweats, eye problems, confusion, depression, severe pelvic or abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, and nipple changes. The symptoms and signs of serious health problems can be caused by strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in females (for example, cancers, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and sexually transmitted diseases or STDs), breast problems (for example, breast cancer and non-cancer related diseases), lung diseases (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, lung cancer, emphysema, and asthma), stomach or digestive diseases (for example, cancers, gallbladder, liver, and pancreatic diseases, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease), bladder problems (for example, urinary incontinence, and kidney infections), skin cancer, muscle and joint problems, emotional problems or mental illness (for example, postpartum depression, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, and schizophrenia), and headache disorders (for example, migraines, or "the worst headache of your life), and eating disorders and weight problems (for example, anorexia or bulimia).
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBS) is a liver disease in which bile building up in the organ damages bile ducts. Ultimately, this can cause liver failure. A number of drugs are available to treat this disease of unknown cause, but the only ultimate cure is a liver transplant.
Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C)
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks, especially with intravenous drug abuse. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and fever. Chronic hepatitis C may be cured in most individuals with drugs that target specific genomes of hepatitis C.
Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia) in Adults
Jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia) in adults may be caused by a variety of medical diseases or conditions. Some cases of jaundice can be managed at home with a doctor's supervision, while other causes of jaundice may be life-threatening. Symptoms of jaundice are yellow skin, yellowing of the whites of the eyes, pale colored stools, dark urine, itchy skin, vomiting, nausea, and rectal bleeding. Treatment of jaundice is focused on the disease or condition that is causing jaundice.
Peritonitis is a bacterial infection inside of the abdomen. Some doctors choose to group the causes of peritonitis into five categories; 1) primary peritonitis, 2) secondary peritonitis, 3) tertiary peritonitis, 4) chemical (sterile) peritonitis, and 5) peritoneal abscess. Others do not categorize peritonitis, they use a term to describe the disease in front or behind the word peritonitis. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is generally with antibiotics.
Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as losing a job or getting into trouble with the law. It can cause myriad health problems, including cirrhosis of the liver, birth defects, heart disease, stroke, psychological problems, and dementia. Counseling and a few medications can be effective for alcoholism treatment.
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis or PSC is a disease of the liver. The cause of PSC is not known. Symptoms may include itching, fatigue, jaundice, fever, and confusion. The only treatment for Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a liver transplant.
The bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus is common in the mouths of cats, people, and dogs. People with weak immune systems are at risk for contracting Capnocytophaga infections. Antibiotics can kill this bacteria.
Male Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's risk of developing breast cancer is one in 1,000. Signs and symptoms include a firm mass located below the nipple and skin changes around the nipple, including puckering, redness or scaling, retraction and ulceration of the nipple. Treatment depends upon staging and the health of the patient.
Hepatitis C Cure (Symptoms, Transmission, Treatments, and Cost)
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. There are a variety of toxins, diseases, illicit drugs, medications, bacterial and viral infections, and heavy alcohol use can case inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) is one type of hepatitis. According to the CDC, in 2014 there were an estimated 30,500 cases of acute hepatitis C infections in the US. An estimated 2.7-3.9 million people in the US have chronic hepatitis C. The virus is spread from person-to-person via blood-to-blood contact. Symptoms of HCV infection include joint pain, jaundice, dark urine, nausea, fatigue, fever, loss of appetites, clay colored stool. Hepatitis C can be cured with medications in most people. There is no vaccine against the hepatitis C virus.
Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of the virus is determined primarily by the age at which the infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. Successful treatment is associated with a reduction in liver injury and fibrosis (scarring), a decreased likelihood of developing cirrhosis and its complications, including liver cancer, and a prolonged survival.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Symptoms, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. People with the condition are at risk for developing serious lung and liver disease. Symptoms and signs of lung disease caused by this condition include:The earliest symptoms and signs of lung disease usually develop between 20 and 50 years of age, and are Wheezing The reduced ability to exercise Shortness of breath (dyspnea) following mild activity Other symptoms and signs of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency are: Fatigue Rapid heartbeat when going from sitting to standing Recurring respiratory infections Unintentional weight loss Lung disease: People with this condition often develop emphysema, with symptoms of a hacking cough, barrel-shaped chest, and difficulty breathing. If you have this condition and smoke or are exposed to tobacco smoke, it accelerates the appearance of emphysema symptoms and lung damage.Liver disease: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency also cause liver disease in some people with the condition, that include liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, an abnormally large liver (hepatomegaly), liver failure, and hepatitis. Liver damage from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency causes symptom of a swollen abdomen, swollen legs or feet, and jaundice. Treatment of AATD depends upon the severity of symptoms. FDA approved drug for AATD is an orphan product called alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human), sold under the brand name "Prolastin."
Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the two most commnon viruses that infect the liver. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B can be prevented and treated with immunizations (vaccinations) such as Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix, Comvax, Pediarix, and hepatitis b immune globulin (HBIG).
Is There a Cure for Cirrhosis of the Liver?
Liver cirrhosis results from disease- or chemical-induced injury to the liver over a sustained period. The injury kills liver cells, and your body attempts to rebuild the damage. In the process, the existing cells are inflamed and scar tissue results, compromising the structure of the liver and hampering its function.
Varices are dilated blood vessels usually in the esophagus or stomach. Symptoms of bleeding varices include vomiting blood, black stools, low blood pressure, shock, and rapid heart rate. Bleeding varices are a medical emergency. Treatment may involve liver transplant, devascularization, distal splenorenal shunt, banding, sclerotherapy, or transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic shunt.
Hospice is a service that offers support, resources, and assistance to terminally ill patients and their families. In such late stages of diseases, especially when there is "nothing left to do," hospice can offer help for patients and families. There are many aspects of a patient's well-being that can be addressed. Hospice can play a key role in managing physical symptoms of a disease (palliative care) and supporting patients and families emotionally and spiritually.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Treatment (PBC)
Primary biliary sclerosis (PBC) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the deterioration of the liver's small bile ducts. These ducts are crucial to transport bile to the small intestine, digesting fats and removing wastes. Symptoms of PBC are: Edema Itching Elevated cholesterol Malabsorption of fat Liver cancer Gallstones Urinary tract infections (UTIs) Hypothyroidism Treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); colchicine (Colcrys); and immunosuppressive medications, such as corticosteroids; obeticholic acid (Ocaliva); and medications that treat PBC symptoms. For PBC that is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, liver transplantation may be indicated in extreme cases.
Liver Cancer (Hepatocellular Cancer) Prevention
Avoiding certain risk factors (such as hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin) can lower one's risk of developing liver cancer. Getting the hepatitis B vaccine is a protective factor against liver cancer.
Local ResourcesFind a local Gastroenterologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Liver Blood Tests
- Ferritin Blood Test
- CT Scan vs. MRI
- Triglycerides (Tests and Lowering Your Triglyceride Levels)
- CA 125 Ovarian Tumor Marker Blood Test
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
- Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test
- Liver Biopsy
- Liver Resection
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt)
- What Is a Hepaticojejunostomy?
- What Is the Pringle Maneuver Procedure?
- Liver Transplant
- How Is a Transjugular Liver Biopsy Done?
- How Is Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Done?
- What Can a Liver Biopsy Diagnose?
- Liver Disease FAQs
- Hepatitis C FAQs
- Iron Overload -- Hemochromatosis
- Smoking With Liver Disease - A No-No
- Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Alcoholism, Cirrhosis Linked to Liver Cancer
- Digestive Disease Myths
- Biopsy: Questions to Ask Your Doctor Before a Biopsy
- What Is a Hospitalist?
- Can a CAT Scan Falsely Diagnose Liver Cancer?
- Abdominal Pain: Questions to Ask Your Doctor
- Ask the Experts - Gastroentrology (Digestion)
Medications & Supplements
- furosemide (Lasix)
- Thiazides (Diuretics)
- Aldactone (spironolactone)
- vitamin K-1, phytonadione (Mephyton)
- hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril)
- colestipol (Colestid)
- vitamin k - oral, Mephyton
- cholestyramine (Questran)
- torsemide (Demadex)
- triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide
- lactulose laxative (Enulose, Generlac)
- Harvoni (ledipasvir and sofosbuvir)
- Epclusa (sofosbuvir and velpatasvir)
- Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
- Lasix (furosemide) vs. thiazide diuretics
- Lasix Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- bumetanide, Bumex (discontinued brand)
- mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
- boceprevir (Victrelis)
- Actigall (ursodiol) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- telaprevir (Incivek)
- Xiaflex (collagenase clostridium histolyticum)
- Albuminar (albumin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir)
Prevention & Wellness
- Liver Disease, Liver Damage, and COVID-19 Coronavirus
- They Thought She Drank, But Her Body Actually 'Auto-Brewed'
- Alcohol-Linked Deaths Soaring in U.S., Women Hit Hardest
- Machine Could Expand Pool of Livers for Donation
- Study: Home-Brew in Your Gut? 'Auto-Brewery' Syndrome Linked to Fatty Liver
- FDA Warns of Liver Problems for Some Taking Hep C Drugs
- Two Lives Saved in Rare 'Paired' Liver Donation
- Big Gains Against Hep C Possible With Big Investment
- Liver Transplants Tied to Alcohol Use Doubled Since 2002
- Race May Matter for Liver Transplant Success
- Health Tip: Help Fight Fatty Liver Disease
- Label Mix-up Spurs Recall of Accord Blood Pressure Meds
- U.S. Deaths From Liver Disease Rising Rapidly
- Coffee May Do Your Liver Good
- Doptelet Approved for Liver Disease Patients Slated for a Medical Procedure
- Red and Processed Meats Linked to Liver Woes
- Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C
- Researchers Grow Functioning Liver Tissue in Mice
- Can Coffee, Tea Protect the Liver From 'Western' Diet?
- Cirrhosis Could Raise Stroke Risk
- New Hepatitis C Treatments More Effective, Tolerable: FDA
- Hepatitis Infection May Raise Risk for Parkinson's Disease
- Better Efforts Could Help Rid the U.S. of Hepatitis B, C: Report
- Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men
- Baby Boomers Get an 'F' for Hep C Testing
- U.S. Vaccine Guidelines for Flu, HPV Updated
- Even One High-Fat Meal Can Harm Your Liver, Study Finds
- Where You Live May Determine How You Die
- More Than Half of Americans Have Chronic Health Problem: Study
- Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?
- Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later
- Ocaliva Approved for Rare Liver Disease
- Hepatitis C Patients More Likely to Drink, Study Finds
- Generic Hepatitis C Drugs as Effective as Pricey Brand Names: Study
- Should You Stop Drinking?
- Pricey Hepatitis C Drugs Denied to Almost Half of Medicaid Patients: Study
- Illnesses, Deaths Spur FDA Warning on Hepatitis C Drugs
- Tough Alcohol Policies Linked to Lower Death Rates From Liver Damage
- Liver Damage From Hepatitis C More Widespread Than Thought
- Experimental Drug Combo Shows Promise Against Hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C Drugs Will 'Strain Budgets' at Current Prices: Study
- Hispanics May Develop Alcoholic Liver Disease Earlier
- New MRI Test May Help Diagnose Liver Condition in Kids
- Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis, Study Warns
- Many With Hepatitis C Missing Out on Treatment, Study Finds
- Drug Regimen Cures Hepatitis C in Most Liver Transplant Patients in Study
- Pricey Hepatitis Drug a Good Bet in U.S. Prisons, Study Says
- Even Decaf Coffee May Help the Liver
- Hepatitis C Combo Pill May Cure Those Who Can Afford It
- Hepatitis C Could Become Rare Disease in 20 Years: Study
- Daughters Drink More Than Their Moms Did -- in Australia, at Least
- Task Force Recommends Hep B Screening for High-Risk People
- Screening May Help Boost Liver Cancer Survival Rates
- FAQ: The High Cost of Hepatitis C Drugs
- Cure Rate for Experimental Hepatitis C Drug Tops 95 Percent
- Could Coffee Lower Death Risk From Liver Cirrhosis?
- Neanderthal DNA Influences Modern Humans: Study
- James Bond's Dirty Little Spy Secret: He's an Alcoholic
- FDA Approves New Treatment for Hepatitis C Infection
- Study Finds Too Few With Hepatitis C Start or Stick With Treatment
- Study: Coffee Might Lower Risk of Liver Cancer
- Hepatitis B Vaccination Cuts Deaths From Liver Disease, Cancer: Study
- More Drugs Show Promise in Fighting Hepatitis C
- Too Much Drinking, Weight May Harm Liver
- One Man's Harrowing Battle With Hepatitis C
- Antiviral Therapy May Cut Recurrence of Hepatitis B-Linked Liver Cancer
- Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C May Thwart Liver Cancer
- Death Rates Drop for 5 Top Causes of Death
- Follow-Up Lacking for Babies After Hepatitis B Vaccination: CDC
- CDC: All Baby Boomers Should Get Screened for Hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C Treatment May Hamper Kids' Growth
- Vitamin B12 May Boost Hep C Treatment
- Milk Thistle Doesn't Help Hepatitis C
- Screening for Other Health Problems May Aid COPD Survival
- Hepatitis C Now Kills More Americans Than HIV
- Statins May Stave Off Liver Cancer in People With Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis B Vaccine Recommended for Adults With Diabetes
- Curry Spice Offers Hope for Tendinitis Pain
- 'Explosion' of Sex-Spread Hepatitis C in HIV-Positive Men
- FDA Panel Backs 2 Hepatitis C Drugs
- FDA Panel Urges Approval of Hepatitis C Drug
- Hepatitis C Infection Rates Are Stable
- Experimental Drug May Treat Hepatitis C
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