Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin
Brand Names: Cipro, Cipro XR
Drug Class: Fluoroquinolones
What is Cipro, and what is it used for?
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections. It stops the multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). The FDA approved ciprofloxacin in October 1987.
Ciprofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Examples of other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class includes:
- levofloxacin (Levaquin)
- ofloxacin (Floxin)
- gatifloxacin (Tequin)
- norfloxacin (Noroxin)
- moxifloxacin (Avelox)
- trovafloxacin (Trovan)
- Skin infections
- Lung or airway Infections, for example, TB (tuberculosis), pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), lower respiratory tract infections, and chronic bronchitis)
- Bone infections
- Joint infections
- Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by certain bacteria such as E. coli.
- Infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
- Anthrax patients with fever and low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections.
- Typhoid fever
- Cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Acute uncomplicated cystitis
Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones they should not be used for treating certain infections unless there are no other alternatives, and include:
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI)
- Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
- Acute bacterial sinusitis
Cipro and Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been associated with tendonitis and even tendon rupture, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some doctors and other medical professionals recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
What are the side effects of Cipro?
The most common side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR are:
Symptoms of shock include:
Possible serious side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects (CNS), for example, toxic psychosis, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, tremors, depression, and hallucinations.
- Clostridiumdifficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)
- Abnormal heart beats
- Liver dysfunction
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Allergic pneumonitis
- Interstitial nephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Liver failure
Other serious side effects and adverse events of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
- Cipro, Cipro XR should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving Cipro, Cipro XR.
- Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
- Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Cipro, Cipro XR (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their doctor immediately.
- Cardiac arrest
- Respiratory failure
What is the dosage for Cipro?
- For most infections the recommended oral dose for adults is 250-750 mg (immediate release tablets) every 12 hours or 500-1000 mg (extended release tablets) every 24 hours.
- The usual intravenous dose is 200-400 mg every 8-12 hours.
- Tablets: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Tablets extended release (XR): 500 and 1000 mg.
- Microcapsules for suspension: 250 mg/5 ml, 500 mg/5 ml.
- Injection or Injection concentrate: 200 mg/100 ml, 200 mg/20 mg, 400 mg/200 ml, 400 mg/40 ml.
What drugs interact with Cipro?
- Ciprofloxacin administered together with theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair) can lead to elevated, toxic blood levels of theophylline. Theophylline is used to open airways in the treatment of asthma. Toxic levels of theophylline can lead to seizures, and disturbances in heart rhythm. If concurrent use of ciprofloxacin and theophylline cannot be avoided, frequent blood tests to monitor theophylline blood levels are recommended.
- Ciprofloxacin increases the effect of tizanidine (Zanaflex) that is used to treat muscle spasticity. Therefore, the two drugs should not be combined.
- Iron salts (for example, ferrous sulfate) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin because of formation of a ciprofloxacin-iron complex that is not absorbable. Antacids also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. If patients are receiving iron salts or antacids and ciprofloxacin, the ciprofloxacin should be given two hours before or six hours after the iron salt or antacid.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase the blood thinning effect of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven). The reason for this is unknown. Anticoagulant activity should be monitored after starting or stopping ciprofloxacin.
- Sevelamer (Renagel) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin and possibly reduce the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin. Milk and orange juice also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin, as with iron and antacids, should be given two hours before or six hours after milk or orange juice.
- Administration of ciprofloxacin with diabetic medications (for example glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) may lead to severe low blood glucose.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase blood concentrations of sildenafil (Viagra) that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. This combination should be avoided if possible.
- Patients taking Cipro, Cipro XR can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
- Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab).
What else should I know about Cipro?
- Storage of Cirpo:
- Tablets should be stored below 30 C (86 F).
- Extended release tablets should be stored between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
- Microcapsules should be stored below 25 C (77 F) and protected from freezing. Injections should be stored between 5 C to 30 C (41 F to 86 F) and prevented from freezing.
- You need a prescription for Cipro from you doctor or other healthcare professional.
- Ciprofloxacin is the generic name for Cipro and Cipro XR.
- Cipro is available in generic form.
Ciprofloxacin (generic name), Cipro, Cipro XR (brand names) is an antibiotic prescribed for the treatment of many skin, lung, airway, bone, and joint infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Examples include complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), gonorrhea, chronic bacterial prostatitis, typhoid fever, chronic bronchitis, infectious diarrhea caused by E. coli, Shigella, and Campylobacter jejuni, anthrax poisoning, and TB (tuberculosis).
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E. coli bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Urinary Tract Infection or Urinary Infection
The urinary system of your body includes two kidneys, two tubes (ureters), a urine sac (bladder) and an opening to expel the urine from the body (urethra). An infection of this system due to germs is called a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI may be treated with antibiotics, especially if a kidney infection is involved.
Cyclospora Infection (Cyclosporiasis)
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite that causes infection when humans ingest food contaminated with feces from an infected individual. Symptoms include profuse diarrhea, abdominal pain, gas, cramping, and fatigue. A 7-day course of Bactrim or Septra is the standard treatment for cyclosporiasis.
Can You Get UTI Antibiotics Over the Counter?
Currently, no urinary tract infection (UTI) antibiotics are available over the counter (OTC) in the United States. A person must consult a doctor to get the UTI treated with an antibiotic.
How Do You Know if You Have a Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections can occur in both women and men. Learn the signs of urinary tract infection, what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat it.
How Do You Get Rid of a UTI at Home?
What is a UTI? Learn whether you need antibiotics and what other home remedies can help to relieve your symptoms.
How Do You Get Rid of a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?
Learn what medical treatments can help treat your urinary tract infection symptoms and help you manage this condition.
How Do You Know If You Have Shigella?
Symptoms of a Shigella infection include diarrhea, fever, stomachache, and tenesmus.
How Can a Urinary Tract Infection Be Treated?
Urinary tract infections can be treated with antibiotics and adequate hydration. Learn more about how UTIs are treated and how they can be prevented. Check out the center below for more medical references on UTIs, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Causes a Urinary Tract Infection in a Child?
What is a urinary tract infection, and how does it affect children? Learn the signs of urinary tract infection in kids, what causes it, and what you can do to treat it.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Penile Discharge
- Cloudy Urine
- Urine Odor
- Bladder Infection
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
- Urinary Urgency
- Drainage of Pus
- Tuberculosis (TB)
- Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
- Cat Scratch Disease
- Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)
- Crohn's Disease
- Typhoid Fever
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Traveler's Diarrhea
- Vibrio Infection
- Urinary Tract Infections in Children
- Urinary Tract Infection FAQs
- Cold & Flu FAQs
- STD FAQs
- Crohn's Disease FAQs
- Tuberculosis (TB) Causes and Risk Factors
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- TB Vaccine Goes on Trial
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Gonorrhea Treatment Recommendations Update
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- What Is the Difference Between a Bladder Infection vs. UTI?
- Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment and Vaccine
- Tuberculosis Diagnosis
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Tuberculosis (TB)?
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms
- Oral Gonorrhea Symptoms
- Antibiotics 101
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Penicillin (Antibiotics)
- Levaquin (levofloxacin) Antibiotic
- Drug Interactions
- ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution (Ciloxan)
- Side Effects of Vancomycin Injection
- Cipro (ciprofloxacin) Side Effects, Warnings, and Interactions
- ciprofloxacin ointment - ophthalmic, Ciloxan
- ciprofloxacin/hydrocortisone suspension - otic, Cipro HC
- trovafloxacin mesylate, Trovan
Prevention & Wellness
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