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- Cipro, XR (ciprofloxacin) vs. Keflex (cephalexin) differences
- What is Cipro? What is Keflex? Are they the same?
- What are the uses for Cipro and Keflex?
- What are the differences in the side effects of Cipro vs. Keflex?
- What are the differences in the strengths and dosages of Cipro vs. Keflex?
- What drugs interact with Cipro and Keflex?
- Is it safe to take Cipro or Keflex if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
Cipro, XR (ciprofloxacin) vs. Keflex (cephalexin) differences
- Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and Keflex (cephalexin) are antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections.
- Keflex and Cipro are in different drug classes. Keflex is a cephalosporin antibiotic, and Cipro is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic.
- Cipro and Keflex are used to treat middle ear, skin, bone, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by certain bacteria.
- Cipro also treats acute sinusitis, chronic prostatitis, infectious diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, anthrax poisoning, the plague, TB, typhoid fever, cystitis, and bronchiectasis caused by certain bacteria.
- Keflex also treats middle ear and throat infections, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
- Side effects of Keflex and Cipro that are similar include:
- One minor side effect of Cipro that is different from Keflex include restlessness. Examples of serious side effects of fluoroquinolone antibiotics like Cipro are:
What is Cipro? What is Keflex? Are they the same?
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is a type of fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used for the treatment of bacterial infections. Cipro stops the multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). Other fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin (Levaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), gatifloxacin (Tequin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), and trovafloxacin (Trovan).
Keflex (cephalexin) belongs to a class of antibiotics called cephalosporins. They are similar to penicillin in action and side effects. They stop or slow the growth of bacterial cells by preventing bacteria from forming and multiplying in the cell wall that surrounds each cell (called cell wall synthesis), which can lead to the destruction of the cell wall. The cell wall protects bacteria from the external environment and keeps the contents of the cell together, and without a cell wall, bacteria are not able to survive. Bacteria that are susceptible to cephalexin include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, and several others.
What are the uses for Cipro and Keflex?
Doctors and other healthcare professionals prescribe Cipro and Cipro XR to treat bacterial infections, for example:
- Skin infections
- Lung or airway Infections, for example, TB (tuberculosis), pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), lower respiratory tract infections, and chronic bronchitis)
- Bone infections
- Joint infections
- Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by certain bacteria such as E. coli.
- Infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
- Anthrax patients with fever and low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections.
- Typhoid fever
- Cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Acute uncomplicated cystitis
Are there infections that should not be treated with Cipro?
Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones they should not be used for treating certain infections unless there are no other alternatives, and include:
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI)
- Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
- Acute bacterial sinusitis
Cephalexin is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are susceptible to the effects of cephalexin. Common infections treated with cephalexin include:
What are the differences in the side effects of Cipro vs. Keflex?
Cipro side effects
The most common side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include:
Serious side effects adverse reactions of Cipro
Cipro and Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been associated with tendonitis and even tendon rupture, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some doctors and other medical professionals recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Anaphylaxis, or shock, is a rare allergic reaction to this drug. This allergic reaction is a medical emergency and you are experiencing these symptoms seek medical immediately. Symptoms of shock include:
Other possible serious side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include:
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects (CNS), for example, toxic psychosis, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, tremors, depression, and hallucinations.
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)
- Abnormal heart beats
- Liver dysfunction
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Allergic pneumonitis
- Interstitial nephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Liver failure
- Cardiac arrest
- Respiratory failure
Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs and symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis, for example, diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock after starting Cipro or Cipro XR should contact their doctor immediately.
Keflex side effects
The most common side effects of cephalexin include:
People who are allergic to penicillin may also be allergic to cephalexin. Serious but rare reactions include seizures, severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), and low platelet or red blood cell count.
Cephalexin, like almost all antibiotics, may cause mild or severe cases of pseudomembranous colitis, a mild to severe inflammation of the colon. Antibiotics, including cephalexin alter the types of bacteria in the colon and permit overgrowth of a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. diff.). Studies indicate that toxins produced by C. difficile are a primary cause of pseudomembranous colitis.
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What are the differences in the strengths and dosages of Cipro vs. Keflex?
- For most infections the recommended oral dose for adults is 250-750 mg (immediate release tablets) every 12 hours or 500-1000 mg (extended release tablets) every 24 hours.
- The usual intravenous dose is 200-400 mg every 8-12 hours.
Cipro doses are available in strengths as:
- Tablets: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Tablets extended release (XR): 500 and 1000 mg.
- Microcapsules for suspension: 250 mg/5 ml, 500 mg/5 ml.
- Injection or Injection concentrate: 200 mg/100 ml, 200 mg/20 mg, 400 mg/200 ml, 400 mg/40 ml.
- The dose of cephalexin for adults is 1 to 4 grams in divided doses.
- The usual adult dose is 250 mg every 6 hours.
- Some infections may be treated with 500 mg every 12 hours.
- Children are treated with 25-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses.
- The dosing interval may be every 6 or 12 hours depending on the type and seriousness of the infection.
Keflex doses are available in strengths as:
- Tablets of 250 and 500 mg.
- Capsules: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Powder for Suspension: 125 and 250 mg/5 ml.
What drugs interact with Cipro and Keflex?
Cipro drug interactions
- Ciprofloxacin administered together with theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair) can lead to elevated, toxic blood levels of theophylline. Theophylline is used to open airways in the treatment of asthma. Toxic levels of theophylline can lead to seizures, and disturbances in heart rhythm. If concurrent use of ciprofloxacin and theophylline cannot be avoided, frequent blood tests to monitor theophylline blood levels are recommended.
- Ciprofloxacin increases the effect of tizanidine (Zanaflex) that is used to treat muscle spasticity. Therefore, the two drugs should not be combined.
- Iron salts (for example, ferrous sulfate) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin because of formation of a ciprofloxacin-iron complex that is not absorbable. Antacids also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. If patients are receiving iron salts or antacids and ciprofloxacin, the ciprofloxacin should be given two hours before or six hours after the iron salt or antacid.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase the blood thinning effect of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven). The reason for this is unknown. Anticoagulant activity should be monitored after starting or stopping ciprofloxacin.
- Sevelamer (Renagel) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin and possibly reduce the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin. Milk and orange juice also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin, as with iron and antacids, should be given two hours before or six hours after milk or orange juice.
- Administration of ciprofloxacin with diabetic medications (for example glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) may lead to severe low blood glucose.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase blood concentrations of sildenafil (Viagra) that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. This combination should be avoided if possible.
- Patients taking Cipro, Cipro XR can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
- Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab).
Keflex drug interactions
Is it safe to take Cipro or Keflex if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
Doctors suggest that should not use this antibiotic if you are pregnant or breastfeeding because they do not know if it is safe.
Cipro, generic name ciprofloxacin, and Keflex, generic name cephalexin, are antibiotics that belong to different drug classes. Cipro is a type of fluoroquinolone and Keflex is a type of penicillin. Cipro and Keflex can cause similar side effects like abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and skin rashes.
Keflex has fewer serious side effects than Cipro, for example, anaphylaxis, a type of severe allergic reaction. Cipro and Keflex both can cause a serious infection with C. difficile, which causes severe, chronic diarrhea and may lead to pseudomembranous colitis. Cipro has many serious side effects, for example, Achilles tendon rupture, peripheral nerve pain, CNS problems, high blood sugar, abnormal heart rhythms, hepatitis, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), liver failure, acute kidney failure, cardiac arrest, and respiratory failure.
Cipro and Keflex are used to treat bacterial infections, for example, infections of the ears, skin, bone, urinary tract, and C. difficile (infectious diarrhea). Cipro also is used for the treatment of lower respiratory infections, sinusitis, chronic prostatitis, TB, typhoid fever, cystitis, the plague, anthrax poisoning, and bronchiectasis. Keflex also is used for the treatment of infections of the middle ear, tonsils (tonsillitis), bronchioles (bronchitis), laryngitis (larynx), and lungs (pneumonia).
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Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
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Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
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Is Tonsillitis Contagious?
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Sun-Sensitive Drugs (Photosensitivity to Drugs)
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Is Pneumonia Contagious?
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Ingrown hairs may be caused by improper shaving, waxing, or blockage of the hair follicle. Symptoms and signs of ingrown hairs include itching, tenderness, and small red pus bumps. Ingrown hairs usually heal on their own, but topical antibiotics, chemical depilatories, and hair-removal lasers may be used in the treatment of ingrown hairs.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)
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Is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Contagious?
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Is Laryngitis Contagious?
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Is Tuberculosis (TB) Contagious?
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Prostatitis vs. BPH (Enlarged Prostate): What Is the Difference?
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Is Sore Throat (Pharyngitis) Contagious?
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Is a Sinus Infection Contagious?
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Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
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Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Diet
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Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss are common symptoms and signs.
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (C. diff, C. difficle Colitis)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile spores are found frequently in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, and nurseries for newborn infants.
Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. The illness is contracted by ingesting the bacteria in contaminated water or food. Symptoms include headaches, fever, diarrhea, lethargy, aches and pains, and poor appetite. Treatment focuses on killing the Salmonella bacteria with antibiotics.
Is Impetigo Contagious?
Impetigo is a contagious bacterial infection that usually occurs in children ages 2-5. There are two types of impetigo: bullous and nonbullous. With nonbullous impetigo, pus-filled blisters develop, ooze, and crust over on the patient's torso, in contrast with bullous impetigo, which is typically confined to the extremities and the face near the mouth.
Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina)
Scarlet fever, a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria, causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash with a sandpaper-like texture, and sore throat. Oral penicillin is the standard treatment for scarlet fever, or scarlatina.
Plague (Black Death)
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Transmission to humans occurs via fleas that have bitten infected rodents. There are three forms of plague that infect humans: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for plague.
Cholera is an infectious disease characterized by intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea and that rapidly lease to dehydration and often death. Cholera is caused by infection with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which may be transmitted via infected fecal matter, food, or water.
Is Jock Itch (Tinea Cruris) Contagious?
Jock itch is a fungal infection in the groin area that causes a raised, itchy, red rash. Jock itch can typically be treated with antifungal medications. People may need to seek medical care for jock itch if the groin area becomes swollen, tender, if red streaks appear, or if the lymph nodes become swollen.
Is Scarlet Fever Contagious?
Scarlet fever is contagious when caused by a certain Group A strep bacteria strain. Scarlet fever can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and by coming in contact with contaminated objects. Treatment includes antibiotics. Scarlet fever symptoms include a red rash, fever, a red, sore throat, strawberry tongue, and others.
What Is Bronchiectasis?
Bronchiectasis has three types: cylindrical bronchiectasis, saccular or varicose bronchiectasis, and cystic bronchiectasis. Causes of bronchiectasis include infection, environmental exposure, drug or alcohol abuse, and alpha-1 antitrypsin (congenital). Symptoms of bronchiectasis include shortness of breath, fatigue, chronic cough, bloody sputum, and wheezing. Treatment for bronchiectasis includes antibiotics and possibly surgery.
Meningococcemia (Meningococcal Disease)
Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and body aches. Meningococcemia is treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is an effective and safe vaccine to protect against most serogroups of meningococcus that cause meningococcemia.
Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in children. Symptoms and signs include fever and abdominal pain. Associated symptoms and signs include flank pain, vomiting, and blood in the urine. Treatment for a UTI involves antibiotic therapy.
Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include a swollen glands, muscle ache, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a red-brown raised spot that enlarges, blisters, and hardens, forming an ulcer crater with black crust. Symptoms of inhalation anthrax are flu-like and may progress to respiratory distress, shock, coma, and death. Symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax include loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment for cutaneous anthrax involves penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxin. Inhalation anthrax necessitates treatment with IV therapy with antibiotics.
Tularemia (rabbit fever) is an infection caused by the Francisella tularensis bacteria. People can become infected with tularemia by coming into contact with infected animals or via a tick bite. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache and rash. Tularemia is treated with streptomycin or gentamicin.
Are Boils Contagious?
A boil is a hair follicle that has been infected with bacteria. Boils can spread if a person's boil touches another person. Treatment typically involves draining the boil and using topical and/or oral antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria inside the boil.
Cat Scratch Disease
Cat scratch disease (CSD or cat scratch fever), a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, poor appetite, swelling of the lymph nodes, and mild infection at the site of the bite or scratch. Cats that carry B. henselae don't show signs of illness. Approximately 40% of cats carry the bacteria at some point in their lives.
Is Cholera Contagious?
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It's typically transmitted via infected fecal matter. Cholera causes frequent bouts of vomiting and watery diarrhea.
Is Crohn's Disease Contagious?
Crohn's disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and is characterized by symptoms and signs that include diarrhea, fever, weight loss, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Though Crohn's disease is not contagious it can spread throughout a person's gastrointestinal tract. An increase in the above symptoms and signs warrants a visit to a doctor's office.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease (NTM, Symptoms, Treatment, Side Effects)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), most commonly, M. avium complex or MAC, is a mycobacteria that causes lung infections and disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are commonly found in soil, air, and water. Examples of how NTM lung infection are transmitted include swimming, using a hot tub (NTM bacteria are aerosolized), or playing with or handling soil. The most common symptoms of NTM lung infection are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Sometimes the cough may have mucous or blood. Other symptoms of NTM lung disease include fatigue, chest pain, malaise, and weakness. As NTM lung disease progresses, fevers, night sweats, and appetite loss may occur. Treatment guidelines for NTM lung disease depend upon the type and extent of the infection, and the person's health.
What Is the Most Common Cause of Septic Arthritis in Kids?
Septic arthritis can be caused by bacterial, fungal or viral infections. Staphylococcus aureus, a type of bacteria, is the most common cause of septic arthritis in infants. Septic arthritis is a general term for any joint pain caused by infection of the joint.
Is Diverticulitis Contagious?
Diverticulitis is an inflammation of the diverticula or diverticulum. Diverticulitis causes are either infectious or noninfectious, however, it is not contagoius. Symptoms of diverticulitis include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gas, constipation, changes in bowel habits, bloating, constipation, fever, abdominal tenderness, swollen abdomen, fistula formation, and lower left abdominal pain.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy (STDs)
When you are pregnant, many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be especially harmful to you and your baby. These STDs include herpes, HIV/AIDS, genital warts (HPV), hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Symptoms include bumps, sores, warts, swelling, itching, or redness in the genital region. Treatment of STDs while pregnant depends on how far along you are in the pregnancy and the progression of the infection.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- Cipro vs. Flagyl
- Keflex (cephalexin)
- Amoxicillin vs. Cipro
- Cipro, Cipro XR (ciprofloxacin) Antibiotic Side Effects
- Cipro vs. Levaquin
- Bactrim vs. Cipro
- Nitrofurantoin vs. Ciprofloxacin
- Keflex vs. Penicillin
- Nitrofurantoin vs. Cephalexin
- ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution (Ciloxan)
- Suprax (cefixime) vs. Keflex (cephalexin)
- Cefdinir vs. cefixime (Suprax) 3rd Generation Antibiotics
- Suprax (cefixime) vs. Rocephin (ceftriaxone)
- ciprofloxacin ointment - ophthalmic, Ciloxan
- ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone suspension - otic, Ciprodex
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