What is Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and what is it used for?
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections including infections of the skin, lung or airways; for example:
- TB (tuberculosis);
- pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis);
- lower respiratory tract infections;
- chronic bronchitis;
- Infections of bones and joints;
- urinary tract infections caused by certain bacteria such as E. coli;
- diarrheas (caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria);
- anthrax patients with fever, low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections;
- typhoid fever;
- cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae;
- chronic bacterial prostatitis; and
- acute uncomplicated cystitis.
Common side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include
Serious side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include
- peripheral neuropathy,
- central nervous system effects
- (for example, toxic psychosis, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, tremors, depression, and hallucinations),
- high blood sugar (hyperglycemia),
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD),
- abnormal heartbeats,
- liver dysfunction,
- toxic epidermal necrolysis,
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome,
- allergic pneumonitis,
- interstitial nephritis,
- acute kidney failure,
- yellowing skin and eyes (jaundice),
- liver failure,
- tendinopathy, and
- low white blood cell counts (leukopenia).
Anaphylaxis, or shock, is a rare allergic reaction and a medical emergency. Seek medical immediately if you experience symptoms of shock including cardiovascular collapse, facial or throat swelling, shortness of breath, hives, or itching.
Drug interactions of Cipro and Cipro XR include theophylline, tizanidine, iron salts (for example, ferrous sulfate), warfarin, sevelamer, diabetic medications, sildenafil, and sulfonylureas.
Milk, orange juice, and antacids may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin.
Use of Cipro and Cipro XR is not recommended if you are pregnant or breastfeeding because it is unknown if it is safe.
What are the important side effects of Cipro (ciprofloxacin)?
Cipro and Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been associated with tendonitis and even tendon rupture, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some doctors and other medical professionals recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis.
The most common side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR are:
Anaphylaxis, or shock, is a rare allergic reaction to this drug. This allergic reaction is a medical emergency and you are experiencing these symptoms seek medical immediately.
Symptoms of shock include:
- Cardiovascular collapse
- Facial or throat swelling
- Shortness of breath
Other possible serious side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects (CNS), for example,
- toxic psychosis,
- depression, and
- Clostridiumdifficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)
- Abnormal heartbeats
- Liver dysfunction
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Allergic pneumonitis
- Interstitial nephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Liver failure
- Cardiac arrest
- Respiratory failure
Other serious side effects and adverse events of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
Cipro, Cipro XR should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving Cipro, Cipro XR.
Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Cipro, Cipro XR (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their doctor immediately.
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:
- Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions
- Tenditits and Tendon Rupture
- Peripheral Neuropathy
- Central Nervous System Effects
- Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
- Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Adverse Reactions
- Hypersensitivity Reactions
- Serious Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Theophylline
- Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
- Prolongation of the QT Interval
- Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients
- Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical trials in patients with urinary tract infections enrolled 961 patients treated with 500 mg or 1000 mg CIPRO XR. The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse reactions were similar in patients receiving both 500 mg and 1000 mg of CIPRO XR. The adverse reaction information from clinical studies does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
In the clinical trial of uncomplicated UTIs, CIPRO XR (500 mg once daily) in 444 patients was compared to ciprofloxacin immediate-release tablets (250 mg twice daily) in 447 patients for 3 days. Discontinuations due to adverse reactions thought to be drug-related occurred in 0.2% (1/444) of patients in the CIPRO XR arm and in 0% (0/447) of patients in the control arm.
In the clinical trial of cUTI and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) defined as infections occurring in premenopausal, non-pregnant women with no known urological abnormalities or comorbidities, CIPRO XR (1000 mg once daily) in 517 patients was compared to ciprofloxacin immediate-release tablets (500 mg twice daily) in 518 patients for 7 to 14 days. Discontinuations due to adverse reactions thought to be drug-related occurred in 3.1% (16/517) of patients in the CIPRO XR arm and in 2.3% (12/518) of patients in the control arm. The most common reasons for discontinuation in the CIPRO XR arm were nausea/vomiting (4 patients) and dizziness (3 patients). In the control arm the most common reason for discontinuation was nausea/vomiting (3 patients).
In these clinical trials, the following events occurred in ≥ 2% of all CIPRO XR patients: nausea (4%), headache (3%), dizziness (2%), diarrhea (2%), vomiting (2%) and vaginal moniliasis (2%).
Adverse reactions, judged by investigators to be at least possibly drug-related, occurring in greater than or equal to 1% of all CIPRO XR treated patients were: nausea (3%), diarrhea (2%), headache (1%), dyspepsia (1%), dizziness (1%), and vaginal moniliasis (1%). Vomiting (1%) occurred in the 1000 mg group.
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
|Body as a Whole||Abdominal pain|
|Central Nervous System||Abnormal dreams|
Convulsive seizures (including status epilepticus) Depersonalization
Depression (potentially culminating in self-injurious behavior, such as suicidal ideations/thoughts and attempted or completed suicide)
|Hepatobiliary Disorders||Liver function tests abnormal|
Kidney function abnormal
The following adverse reactions have been reported from worldwide marketing experience with fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure (Table 3).
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
Torsade de Pointes
Vasculitis and ventricular arrhythmia
|Central Nervous System||Hypertonia|
Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis
|Hemic/Lymphatic||Pancytopenia (life threatening or fatal outcome)|
|Hepatobiliary||Hepatic failure (including fatal cases)|
|Infections and Infestations||Candidiasis (oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal)|
|Investigations||Prothrombin time prolongation or decrease|
Cholesterol elevation (serum)
Potassium elevation (serum)
|Skin/Hypersensitivity||Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)|
Serum sickness-like reaction
Adverse Laboratory Changes
Changes in laboratory parameters while on CIPRO are listed below:
Hepatic – Elevations of ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase, LDH, serum bilirubin.
Hematologic – Eosinophilia, leukopenia, decreased blood platelets, elevated blood platelets, pancytopenia.
Renal – Elevations of serum creatinine, BUN, crystalluria, cylindruria, and hematuria have been reported.
Other changes occurring were: elevation of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, elevation of serum amylase, reduction in blood glucose, elevated uric acid, decrease in hemoglobin, anemia, bleeding diathesis, increase in blood monocytes, and leukocytosis.
What drugs interact with Cipro (ciprofloxacin)?
Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated metabolism. Co-administration of CIPRO XR with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the co-administered drug.
|Drugs That are Affected by CIPRO|
|Tizanidine||Contraindicated||Concomitant administration of tizanidine and CIPRO XR is contraindicated due to the potentiation of hypotensive and sedative effects of tizanidine.|
|Theophylline||Avoid Use (Plasma Exposure Likely to be Increased and Prolonged)||Concurrent administration of CIPRO XR with theophylline may result in increased risk of a patient developing central nervous system (CNS) or other adverse reactions. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate.|
|Drugs Known to Prolong QT Interval||Avoid Use||Cipro XR may further prolong the QT interval in patients receiving drugs known to prolong the QT interval (for example, class IA or III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics).|
|Oral antidiabetic drugs||Use with caution Glucose-lowering effect potentiated||Hypoglycemia sometimes severe has been reported when CIPRO XR and oral antidiabetic agents, mainly sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide, glimepiride), were co-administered, presumably by intensifying the action of the oral antidiabetic agent. Fatalities have been reported. Monitor blood glucose when CIPRO XR is co-administered with oral antidiabetic drugs.|
|Phenytoin||Use with caution Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased)||To avoid the loss of seizure control associated with decreased phenytoin levels and to prevent phenytoin overdose-related adverse reactions upon CIPRO XR discontinuation in patients receiving both agents, monitor phenytoin therapy, including phenytoin serum concentration during and shortly after co-administration of CIPRO XR with phenytoin.|
|Cyclosporine||Use with caution (transient elevations in serum creatinine)||Monitor renal function (in particular serum creatinine) when CIPRO XR is co-administered with cyclosporine.|
|Anti-coagulant drugs||Use with caution (Increase in anticoagulant effect)||The risk may vary with the underlying infection, age and general status of the patient so that the contribution of CIPRO XR to the increase in INR (international normalized ratio) is difficult to assess. Monitor prothrombin time and INR frequently during and shortly after co-administration of CIPRO XR with an oral anti-coagulant (for example, warfarin).|
|Methotrexate||Use with caution Inhibition of methotrexate renal tubular transport potentially leading to increased methotrexate plasma levels||Potential increase in the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions. Therefore, carefully monitor patients under methotrexate therapy when concomitant CIPRO XR therapy is indicated.|
|Ropinirole||Use with caution||Monitoring for ropinirole-related adverse reactions and appropriate dose adjustment of ropinirole is recommended during and shortly after co-administration with CIPRO XR.|
|Clozapine||Use with caution||Careful monitoring of clozapine associated adverse reactions and appropriate adjustment of clozapine dosage during and shortly after co-administration with CIPRO XR are advised.|
|NSAIDs||Use with caution||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not acetyl salicylic acid) in combination of very high doses of quinolones have been shown to provoke convulsions in pre-clinical studies and in postmarketing.|
|Sildenafil||Use with caution Two-fold increase in exposure||Monitor for sildenafil toxicity.|
|Duloxetine||Avoid Use Five-fold increase in duloxetine exposure||If unavoidable monitor, for duloxetine toxicity|
|Caffeine/Xanthine Derivatives||Use with caution Reduced clearance resulting in elevated levels and prolongation of serum half-life||CIPRO XR inhibits the formation of paraxanthine after caffeine administration (or pentoxifylline containing products). Monitor for xanthine toxicity and adjust dose as necessary.|
|Zolpidem||Avoid Use||Co-administration with ciprofloxacin may increase blood levels of zolpidem, concurrent use is not recommended|
|Drug(s) Affecting Pharmacokinetics of CIPRO XR|
|Antacids, Sucralfate, Multivitamins and Other Products Containing Multivalent Cations (magnesium/aluminum antacids; polymeric phosphate binders (for example, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate); sucralfate; Videx®(didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder; other highly buffered drugs; or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc and dairy products)||CIPRO XR should be taken at least two hours before or six hours after Multivalent cation-containing products administration.||Decrease CIPRO XR absorption, resulting in lower serum and urine levels considerably lower than desired for concurrent administration of these agents with CIPRO XR|
|Probenecid||Use with caution (interferes with renal tubular s ecretion of CI PRO XR and increases CIPRO XR serum levels)||Potentiation of CIPRO XR toxicity may occur.|
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections including infections of the skin, lung or airways, lower respiratory tract, bones, joints, urinary tract, and many other types of bacterial infections.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Bacterial Infections 101: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments
Get more information on bacterial skin infections, which bacteria cause food poisoning, sexually transmitted bacteria, and more....
Picture of Bacterial Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, is redness and inflammation of the membranes (conjuctiva) covering the whites of the eyes and the...
Germs: Everyday Items with the Most Bacteria
Explore the germiest places you may encounter daily. Bacteria is everywhere. Learn tips to avoid germs and bacteria in public...
Related Disease Conditions
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)
Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition with signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge, vaginal odor, and vaginal pain. It results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina.
H. pylori (Helicobacter Pylori) Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach, and also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. About 50% of people in the world carries or is infected with H. pylori. Common symptoms of H. pylori infection are occasional abdominal discomfort, bloating, belching or burping, and nausea and vomiting. H. pylori infection is difficult to eradicate, and treatment is with two or more antibiotics.
SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth)
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine, but they are more like the bacteria that are found in the colon. There are many conditions associated with SIBO, including: Diabetes Scleroderma Crohn's disease Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) It has been theorized that SIBO may be responsible for the symptoms of at least some patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms of SIBO include: Excess gas Abdominal bloating Abdominal pain Treatment for SIBO can include: Antibiotics Probiotics Low FODMAP Diet
E. coli (0157:H7) Infection
There are many types of E. coli (Escherichia coli). E. coli can cause urinary tract and bladder infections, or lead to sepsis. E coli O157:H7 (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and colitis. Complications of E. coli infection include hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. E coli O157:H7 commonly is due to eating raw or undercooked hamburger or raw milk or dairy products.
Is E. coli Contagious? (Symptoms and Cure)
E. coli is an infection found worldwide. There are several subtypes of the E. coli species. E. coli spreads from person to person via contaminated food or water. Symptoms and signs of E. coli infection include diarrhea, stomach cramps, and sometimes fever. Antibiotics treat E. coli infection.
Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) is bacteria found in fresh and saltwater that can infect the skin through cuts or scrapes, causing granulomas to appear on the skin near the site of infection. This infection may be treated with a long course of oral antibiotics.
CRE Bacteria Infection
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a type of bacteria that is highly resistant to antibiotics. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella are common types of Enterobacteriaceae that can be found in the human intestines. However, these bacteria can cause infections if they escape the intestines. Carbapenems are broad-spectrum antibiotics that treat infections caused by bacteria that are highly resistant to other types of antibiotics.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease (NTM, Symptoms, Treatment, Side Effects)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), most commonly, M. avium complex or MAC, is a mycobacteria that causes lung infections and disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are commonly found in soil, air, and water. Examples of how NTM lung infection are transmitted include swimming, using a hot tub (NTM bacteria are aerosolized), or playing with or handling soil. The most common symptoms of NTM lung infection are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Sometimes the cough may have mucous or blood. Other symptoms of NTM lung disease include fatigue, chest pain, malaise, and weakness. As NTM lung disease progresses, fevers, night sweats, and appetite loss may occur. Treatment guidelines for NTM lung disease depend upon the type and extent of the infection, and the person's health.
Enterovirulent E. coli (EEC)
Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) are strains of related bacteria that have a strong propensity to cause gastrointestinal tract infections. Examples of strains include: EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), EAEC (enteroadherent E. coli), and EAggEC (enteroaggregative E. coli). Symptoms may vary depending on the strain the individual contracts. Infection is spread generally through contaminated food or drink.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects list and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.