GENERIC NAME: CIDOFOVIR - INJECTION (sye-DOH-foh-veer)
BRAND NAME(S): Vistide
WARNING: This medication may cause serious (possibly fatal) kidney disease. To prevent kidney problems, your doctor will usually prescribe another medication (probenecid) and direct you to receive fluids into a vein. Avoid other medications that may also damage your kidneys (see also Drug Interactions section). Tell your doctor immediately if you have any symptoms of kidney disease such as a change in the amount of urine.
Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., kidney function tests, complete blood counts) should be performed before each dose to check for these side effects. Consult your doctor for more details. Keep all medical and laboratory appointments.
Cidofovir has caused tumors in laboratory animals. Although there is no information in humans, cidofovir should be considered cancer-causing (carcinogenic). See also How to Use section.
USES: This drug is used with probenecid to treat a certain viral eye infection (retinitis due to cytomegalovirus-CMV) in people with AIDS. It lowers your risk of blindness and other vision problems. Cidofovir belongs to a class of drugs known as antivirals. It works by stopping the growth of the virus.Cidofovir is not a cure for CMV retinitis, and your disease may still worsen during and after treatment.OTHER This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This medication may also be used to treat herpes simplex virus infections that have not responded to other treatment.
HOW TO USE: This medication is given into a vein as directed by your doctor, usually over 1 hour. It is usually given every 1 to 2 weeks or as directed by your doctor. This medication should not be injected into the eyes. Permanent loss of vision may occur.Dosage is based on your medical condition, body weight, and response to treatment. You will usually receive IV fluids before your dose of cidofovir. Your doctor will also direct you to take probenecid by mouth before and after you receive cidofovir. To prevent kidney problems, drink plenty of fluids unless otherwise directed by your doctor. This is especially important if you are vomiting or having diarrhea.If you are giving this medication to yourself at home, learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely.It is very important to use the probenecid with this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Nausea and vomiting due to probenecid may be prevented by taking it after meals. Your doctor may also prescribe another medication to prevent nausea, and may direct you to take antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine) and/or acetaminophen to prevent allergic reactions to probenecid.This medication works best when it is used regularly. Keep all your medical appointments. You may want to mark a calendar to help you remember.Do not use more or less of this drug than prescribed or stop using it (or your HIV medicines) even for a short time unless directed to do so by your doctor. Doing so may cause the amount of virus to increase, make the infection more difficult to treat (resistant), or worsen side effects.Avoid direct contact of this medicine with the skin/eyes/mouth. If contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water. For eyes, rinse with a steady stream of tap water for at least 5 minutes.
SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea may occur. Headache, nausea, and vomiting may occur with probenecid use. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: change in the amount of urine, frothy/dark urine, bloody/pink urine, swelling, loss of appetite, unusual tiredness/sluggishness, stomach/abdominal pain, muscle loss, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat/cough), vision changes, new/increased eye redness or irritation, new/increased eye pain, mental/mood changes (e.g., confusion), persistent nausea/vomiting, yellowing eyes/skin.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any of the following symptoms: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
PRECAUTIONS: Before using cidofovir, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other antivirals (e.g., ganciclovir); or to probenecid; or to other sulfa drugs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: severe kidney disease.Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: diabetes, ganciclovir eye implant, mild/moderate kidney disease.This drug may cause vision changes. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.Kidney function declines as you grow older. This medication is removed by the kidneys. Therefore, elderly people may be at a greater risk for kidney damage while using this drug.During pregnancy, cidofovir should be used only when clearly needed. It may harm an unborn baby. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. The manufacturer recommends avoiding pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, men with female partners should use effective barrier protections (such as latex or polyurethane condoms) during all sexual activity during treatment and for at least 90 days after stopping the medication. Women should use effective forms of birth control (such as birth control pills and condoms) during treatment and for at least 1 month after stopping the medication.It is not known if this medication passes into breast milk. Because of the possible risks to the infant and because breast milk can transmit HIV, do not breast-feed.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.Some products that may interact with this drug include: acyclovir, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aminosalicylic acid, barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (e.g., triazolam), bumetanide, clofibrate, methotrexate, famotidine, furosemide, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen), theophylline, zidovudine.If you are taking probenecid and any of the medications listed above, ask your doctor if you should temporarily stop the other medication or decrease its dosage because probenecid may affect how well those medications are removed from your body. This is very important for zidovudine.Tell your doctor if you have had previous use of foscarnet.Avoid taking other medications that may damage your kidneys (e.g., amphotericin B, foscarnet, pentamidine, vancomycin, aminoglycosides including tobramycin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDs including ibuprofen) within 7 days before and during treatment with this medication. In some cases, serious (possibly fatal) kidney damage may occur. See also Warning section.Check the labels on all your medicines because they may contain NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen). Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.
OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: change in the amount of urine.
NOTES: Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., eye exams) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, always use an effective barrier method (e.g., latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during sexual activity. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
MISSED DOSE: For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose of cidofovir, contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately to establish a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up. If you miss a dose of the probenecid, tell your doctor or pharmacist immediately. You may have to reschedule your cidofovir dose.
STORAGE: Consult the product instructions and your pharmacist for storage details. Keep all medications away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.
Information last revised April 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.
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Cidofovir injection (Vistide) is an antiviral drug used to treat an eye infection (cytomegalovirus retinitis, CMV) in people who are infected with the HIV virus. There are other uses for cidofovir. Possible side effects of cidofovir are nausea, diarrhea, headache, white patches on the lips or mouth, hair loss, cough, and a mild rash.More serious side effects that require immediate medical treatment include allergic reaction, flu-like symptoms, vision changes, and increased thirst and urination, loss of appetites, weakness, and constipation.
Related Disease Conditions
Monkeypox is a viral disease that causes symptoms such as fever, sweating, and a rash with papules and pustules on the face and chest. PCR, ELISA, or Western blot tests are used to diagnose monkeypox. Treatment usually involves administering a smallpox vaccination, cidofovir, and possibly vaccinia immune globulin.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection left untreated causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus, which can infect humans when it comes in contact with tissues that line the vagina, anal area, mouth, or eyes, or through a break in the skin. HIV infection is generally a slowly progressive disease in which the virus is present throughout the body at all stages of the disease. Three stages of HIV infection have been described. The initial stage of infection (primary infection), which occurs within weeks of acquiring the virus, often is characterized by the flu- or mono-like illness that generally resolves within weeks. The stage of chronic asymptomatic infection (meaning a long duration of infection without symptoms) lasts an average of eight to 10 years without treatment. The stage of symptomatic infection, in which the body's immune (or defense) system has been suppressed and complications have developed, is called the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms are caused by the complications of AIDS, which include one or more unusual infections or cancers, severe loss of weight, and intellectual deterioration (called dementia). When HIV grows (that is, by reproducing itself), it acquires the ability to change (mutate) its own structure. These mutations enable the virus to become resistant to previously effective drug therapy. The goals of drug therapy are to prevent damage to the immune system by the HIV virus and to halt or delay the progress of the infection to symptomatic disease. Therapy for HIV includes combinations of drugs that decrease the growth of the virus to such an extent that the treatment prevents or markedly delays the development of viral resistance to the drugs. The best combination of drugs for HIV are those that effectively suppress viral replication in the blood and also are well tolerated and simple to take so that people can take the medications consistently without missing doses.
Smallpox is a disease caused by the variola virus. Symptoms and signs include: a characteristic rash and high fever. Treatment focuses on supporting the patient. Smallpox may be prevented with the ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.