- Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) Center
- Stages of Pregnancy Slideshow Pictures
- Slideshow of Early Pregnancy Symptoms
- Early Pregnancy Symptoms Quiz
What is chorionic villus sampling (CVS)?
- Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a type of prenatal diagnostic test to detect chromosomal problems that can result in genetic diseases and birth defects.
- It involves taking a small sample of part of the placenta (the chorionic villi) where it is attached to the wall of the uterus.
- CVS can diagnose chromosomal abnormalities that cause conditions like Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and Tay Sachs disease. It does not diagnose neural tube defects.
- Because the procedure examines genetic material, it can tell you the gender of the fetus.
- CVS is performed earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis. It is done between the 10th and 13th week of pregnancy (measured from your last menstrual period). It is reported to be 98% to 99% accurate in detecting genetic abnormalities.
- CVS can also be used to detect paternity and is 99% accurate in establishing paternity of a fetus.
How is CVS performed?
Samples for CVS are taken in one of two ways:
- Transabdominal: In this method, similar to amniocentesis, a long, thin needle is inserted through the abdominal wall into the placenta, guided by ultrasound images.
- Transcervical: With the transcervical method, a long, thin tube is passed into the vagina and up into the uterus to obtain the sample by suction. This method is most common.
The procedure can be completed in about half an hour. The actual sampling process only takes a few minutes. There may be mild discomfort when the sample is taken. After the test you may have mild cramping and bleeding, and you should rest the day of the procedure. You may be asked to abstain from sex and vigorous activity for a few days after the test. You should contact your doctor if you experience fever, heavy vaginal bleeding or cramping, or leakage of fluid from the vagina after the test.
After the sample is removed, the cells are cultured in a laboratory and analyzed. It typically takes 7 to 10 days before results are available.
What are the benefits and risks of CVS?
A major benefit of CVS is that it can be performed earlier in the pregnancy than amniocentesis, providing information about genetic defects earlier in the pregnancy. If a woman chooses termination of pregnancy, it is safer at earlier stages of pregnancy.
Miscarriage is the main risk associated with CVS and occurs in 1 out of every 100 cases. The risk of miscarriage can be slightly greater than the risk of miscarriage associated with amniocentesis. Rarely, defects in the fingers or toes of the fetus have been reported with CVS, but these cases were particularly common when CVS was done very early in pregnancy, before 9 weeks' gestation. For this reason, most cases of CVS are performed only at or after 10 weeks' gestation. Infection is another uncommon complication of CVS.
Who should receive CVS testing?
CVS testing is generally offered to women or couples who have one of the following:
- Women aged 35 or greater
- Couples with a family history of genetic disorders or birth defects
- Women with other abnormalities found in prenatal testing
Genetic counseling and a full discussion of the risks and benefits of the procedure are recommended before undergoing CVS testing.
Some women should not receive CVS testing. CVS testing is typically not recommended for:
- Multiple gestations
- Women with an active infection, such as a sexually-transmitted disease
- Women who have had vaginal bleeding during the pregnancy
Additionally, women with uterine fibroids or a tilted uterus may not be good candidates for transcervical CVS testing.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
American Pregnancy Association.
Chorionic villus sampling.
Chorionic Villus Sampling - Experience
Please describe your experience with chorionic villus sampling.Post
Top Chorionic Villus Sampling Related Articles
Abdomen PictureThe abdomen (commonly called the belly) is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. See a picture of the Abdomen and learn more about the health topic.
Apgar ScoreThe Apgar score is a method for assessing a neonate's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, skin color, and reflex irritability. Each of these signs is give a point value from 0-2. A perfect score of 10 means the infant is in excellent condition, while a score of 0-3 means the infant needs immediate resuscitation.
Cystic FibrosisCystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Genetic DiseaseThe definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
HemophiliaHemophilia is defined as one of a group of inherited bleeding disorders. Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are inherited in an X-linked recessive genetic pattern. Symptoms of hemophilia include bleeding into the:
- GI or urinary tract,
- or brain or skull.
PregnancySigns and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating. Second trimester symptoms include backache, weight gain, itching, and possible stretch marks. Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
Pregnancy Planning (Preparing for Pregnancy)
Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes taking prenatal vitamins, eating healthy for you and your baby, disease prevention (for both parents and baby) to prevent birth defects and infections, avoiding certain medications that may be harmful to your baby, how much weight gain is healthy exercise safety and pregnancy, travel during pregnancy.
Pregnancy Symptoms Am I PregnantPregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, and not all women experience the same symptoms. When women do experience pregnancy symptoms they may include symptoms include missed menstrual period, mood changes, headaches, lower back pain, fatigue, nausea, breast tenderness, and heartburn. Signs and symptoms in late pregnancy include leg swelling and shortness of breath. Options for relief of pregnancy symptoms include exercise, diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Pregnancy: Prenatal Care and TestsPrenatal care is important for the health of the mother and the baby. Common prenatal tests include ultrasound, amniocentesis, screening for group B strep, and chronic villus sampling. Prenatal care also helps detect health conditions related to pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Prenatal care costs can be expensive, but services are available to help women get the care they need.
Sickle CellSickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease which shortens life expectancy, is caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin.
Symptoms of sickle cell anemia may include bacterial infections, painful swelling of the hands and feet, fever, leg ulcers, fatigue, anemia, eye damage, and lung and heart injury.
Treatment for sickle cell anemia aims to manage and prevent the worst manifestations of the disease and focuses on therapies that block red blood cells from stacking together, which can lead to tissue and organ damage and pain.
UltrasoundUltrasound (and ultrasonography) is imaging of the body used in the medical diagnosis and screening of diseases and conditions such as:
- heart valve irregularities,
- carotid artery disease,
- heart disease,
- kidney stones,
- liver disease,
- diseases of the female reproductive, and
- diseases of the male reproductive organs.