- What other names is Choline known by?
- What is Choline?
- How does Choline work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Choline.
Bitartre de Choline, Chlorure de Choline, Choline Bitartrate, Choline Chloride, Choline Citrate, Citrate de Choline, Colina, Facteur Lipotropique, Hydroxyde de Triméthylammonium (bêta-hydroxyéthyl), Intrachol, L-Choline, Lipotropic Factor, Methylated Phosphatidylethanolamine, Trimethylethanolamine, Triméthyléthanolamine, (beta-hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium hydroxide.
Choline is most commonly used for liver disease. It is also used for memory, mental function, preventing certain birth defects, and many other conditions, but there is not good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
Likely Effective for...
- Fatty liver disease. People who receive nutrition through the vein can develop choline deficiency. Low blood levels of choline can cause fat to accumulate in the liver. Giving choline intravenously (by IV) helps treat this condition.
Possibly Effective for...
- Asthma. Taking choline by mouth seems to lessen symptoms and the number of days that asthma is a problem for some people. It also seems to reduce the need to use bronchodilators.
- Neural tube birth defects (birth defects that involve the brain and spinal cord). Early research suggests that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube birth defect.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Alzheimer's disease. Taking choline by mouth does not reduce symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
- Athletic performance. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to improve athletic performance or lessen tiredness during exercise.
- A brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. Most research shows that taking choline does not improve this condition.
Likely Ineffective for...
- Age-related memory loss. Taking choline by mouth does not improve memory in older people with memory loss.
- Schizophrenia. Taking choline by mouth does not reduce symptoms of schizophrenia.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Allergies (hayfever). Early research shows that taking choline by mouth does not reduce allergy symptoms as well as a prescription nasal spray.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research shows that taking choline by mouth might reduce some mood symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who are also taking lithium.
- Bronchitis (inflamed lungs). Early research shows that inhaling choline solution might reduce symptoms of bronchitis caused by dust.
- Mental performance. Taking a single dose of choline before exercising does not seem to improve memory or thinking skills after exercising. Including choline in nutritional fluid that is injected in the vein does not seem to improve thinking skills.
- Seizures. There are reports that taking high doses of choline might be helpful for some people with a type of seizure called complex partial seizures.
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Giving choline by mouth does not seem to improve memory or thinking skills in children aged 2.5 to 5 years with this condition.
- Infant and child development. Some early research suggests that children of mothers who get more choline during pregnancy have improved memory at the age of 7 years. It's not clear if children of mothers who get more choline during pregnancy have improved intelligence. Results from early research are conflicting.
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (liver disease not caused by alcohol). Low dietary intake of choline is linked with increased liver scarring in some people with this condition. But choline intake does not seem to affect the build-up of fat in the liver of people with this condition.
- Postoperative pain (pain after surgery). Taking choline by mouth the night before and just before surgery does not seem to decrease pain after surgery.
- Inability of the intestines to digest food and absorb nutrients (intestinal failure). People with intestinal failure often have low levels of choline. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to increase blood levels of choline in infants with this condition. But it might help increase choline levels in older children.
- Hepatitis and other liver disorders.
- High cholesterol.
- Huntington's chorea.
- Tourette's syndrome.
- Other conditions.
Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be important in the nervous system and for development of normal brain functioning. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.
Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or when given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for adults due to the increased risk of side effects. Doses up to 3.5 grams for adults over 18 years of age are not likely to cause unwanted side effects. Doses over 3.5 grams daily are more likely to cause side effects such as sweating, a fishy body odor, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Children: Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE due to the increased risk of side effects. Doses up to 1 gram daily for children 1-8 years of age, 2 grams daily for children 9-13, and 3 grams daily for children 14-18, are not likely to cause unwanted side effects.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Choline is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth and used appropriately during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Doses up to 3 grams daily for pregnant and breast-feeding women up to 18 years of age, and 3.5 grams daily for women 19 years and older are not likely to cause unwanted side effects. There isn't enough information available about the safety of choline used in higher doses in pregnant or lactating women. It's best to stick to recommended doses.
Loss of bladder control: Taking choline in doses of 9 grams daily or more might worsen this condition.
AtropineInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking choline with atropine might decrease the effectiveness of atropine.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- General: Adequate intake (AI) of choline for adults is 550 mg per day for males, 425 mg per day for females, 450 mg per day for pregnant females, and 550 mg per day for lactating women. Daily Upper Intake Levels (UL) for choline, which is the highest level of intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects, is 3.5 grams for adults.
- For asthma: 500-1000 mg of choline has been taken three times daily for about 4 months. Total daily doses of 3 grams daily seem to work better than daily doses of 1.5 grams daily.
- For fatty liver disease: 1-4 grams of choline has been used daily for up to 24 weeks.
- General: Adequate Intake (AI) of choline is 125 mg per day for infants less than 6 months, 150 mg per day for infants 7-12 months, 200 mg per day for children 1-3 years, 250 mg per day for children 4-8 years, and 375 mg per day for children 9-13 years. Daily Upper Intake Levels (UL) for choline are 1 gram daily for children 1-8 years, 2 grams for children 9-13 years, and 3 grams for children 14-18 years.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Albright, C. D. Tsai A. Y. Friedrich C. B. Mar M. H. and Zeisel S. H. Choline availability alters embryonic development of the hippocampus and septum in the rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1999;113:13-20.
Are patients with cirrhosis choline deficient? Nutr.Rev. 1990;48(10):383-385. View abstract.
Barbeau, A. Emerging treatments: replacement therapy with choline or lecithin in neurological diseases. Can.J.Neurol.Sci. 1978;5(1):157-160. View abstract.
Blusztajn, J. K. Choline, a vital amine. Science 8-7-1998;281(5378):794-795. View abstract.
Boyd, W. D., Graham-White, J., Blackwood, G., Glen, I., and McQueen, J. Clinical effects of choline in Alzheimer senile dementia. Lancet 10-1-1977;2(8040):711. View abstract.
Buchman, A. L., Ament, M. E., Sohel, M., Dubin, M., Jenden, D. J., Roch, M., Pownall, H., Farley, W., Awal, M., and Ahn, C. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2001;25(5):260-268. View abstract.
Buchman, A. L., Jenden, D., Suki, W. N., and Roch, M. Changes in plasma free and phospholipid-bound choline concentrations in chronic hemodialysis patients. J.Ren Nutr. 2000;10(3):133-138. View abstract.
Chawla, R. K., Wolf, D. C., Kutner, M. H., and Bonkovsky, H. L. Choline may be an essential nutrient in malnourished patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1989;97(6):1514-1520. View abstract.
Chhabra, S. K., Wadehra, N. R., Gaur, S. N., Joshi, A. P., and Agrawal, K. P. Prophylactic treatment of bronchial asthma with theophylline, disodium cromoglycate and choline--a clinical, physiological and biochemical assessment. Indian J.Chest Dis.Allied Sci. 1987;29(2):65-76. View abstract.
Christie, J. G. Blackburn 1. M. Glen A. I. M. Zeisel S. Shering A. & Yates C. M. Effects of choline and lecithin on CSF choline levels and on cognitive functioning in patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Nutrition and the brain 1979;5
Chuaqui, P. and Levy, R. Fluctuations of free choline levels in plasma of Alzheimer patients receiving lecithin: preliminary observations. Br.J.Psychiatry 1982;140:464-469. View abstract.
Conlay LA, Wurtman RJ Blusztajn JK Covielia IJ Maher TJ Evoniuk GE. Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners (letter). NEM 1986;175:892.
Das, S., Gupta, K., Gupta, A., and Gaur, S. N. Comparison of the efficacy of inhaled budesonide and oral choline in patients with allergic rhinitis. Saudi.Med.J. 2005;26(3):421-424. View abstract.
Davis, K. L., Berger, P. A., and Hollister, L. E. Letter: Choline for tardive dyskinesia. N.Engl.J.Med. 7-17-1975;293(3):152. View abstract.
Davis, K. L., Hollister, L. E., Barchas, J. D., and Berger, P. A. Choline in tardive dyskinesia and Huntington's disease. Life Sci. 11-15-1976;19(10):1507-1515. View abstract.
Davis, K. L., Hollister, L. E., Vento, A. L., and Simonton, S. Choline chloride in animal models of tardive dyskinesia. Life Sci. 5-15-1978;22(19):1699-1707. View abstract.
Davis, K. L., Mohs, R. C., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., Pfefferbaum, A., and Kopell, B. S. Cholinomimetics and memory. The effect of choline chloride. Arch.Neurol. 1980;37(1):49-52. View abstract.
de la Huerga, J. and Popper H. Urinary excretion of choline metabolites following choline administration in normals and patients with hepatobiliary diseases. J.Clin.Invest. 1951;30:463.
Deuster, P. A., Singh, A., Coll, R., Hyde, D. E., and Becker, W. J. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil.Med. 2002;167(12):1020-1025. View abstract.
Domino, E. F., Lipper, S., Landau, S. G., and Domino, S. E. Levels of red blood cell choline after discontinuation of lithium therapy. Am.J.Psychiatry 1982;139(5):681-682. View abstract.
Etienne, P., Gauthier, S., Johnson, G., Collier, B., Mendis, T., Dastoor, D., Cole, M., and Muller, H. F. Clinical effects of choline in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 3-4-1978;1(8062):508-509. View abstract.
Fovall, P., Dysken, M. W., Lazarus, L. W., Davis, J. M., Kahn, R. L., Jope, R., Finkel, S., and Rattan, P. Choline bitartrate treatment of Alzheimer-type dementias. Commun.Psychopharmacol. 1980;4(2):141-145. View abstract.
Galeone F, Salvadorini F Guarguaglini M Saba P. Effect of intravenous injection of CDP-choline, S-adenosyl-methionine and citiolone in subjects with hyperlipemia. Artery. 1979;5(2):157-169.
Gelenberg, A. J. Choline and lecithin for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia [proceedings]. Psychopharmacol.Bull. 1979;15(2):74-75. View abstract.
Gelenberg, A. J., Wojcik, J., Falk, W. E., Bellinghausen, B., and Joseph, A. B. CDP-choline for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a small negative series. Compr.Psychiatry 1989;30(1):1-4. View abstract.
Ghoshal, A. K. and Farber, E. Liver biochemical pathology of choline deficiency and of methyl group deficiency: a new orientation and assessment. Histol.Histopathol. 1995;10(2):457-462. View abstract.
Growdon, J. H. and Gelenberg, A. J. Choline and lecithin administration to patients with tardive dyskinesia. Trans.Am.Neurol.Assoc. 1978;103:95-99. View abstract.
Growdon, J. H., Cohen, E. L., and Wurtman, R. J. Effects of oral choline administration on serum and CSF choline levels in patients with Huntington's disease. J.Neurochem. 1977;28(1):229-231. View abstract.
Harris CM, Dysken MW Fovall P Davis JM. Effect of lecithin on memory in normal adults. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140(8):1010-1012.
Korzh, E. V. [The efficacy of inhalations of choline chloride in the treatment of patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis]. Lik.Sprava. 1999;(1):81-85. View abstract.
Lars G.Forssell, Roland Eklöf Bengt Winblad and Lars Forssell. Early Stages of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1989;79(S121):27-42.
Levy, R. Choline in Alzheimers disease. Lancet 10-28-1978;2(8096):944-945. View abstract.
Livingstone, I. R. and Mastaglia, F. L. Choline chloride in the treatment of ataxia. Br.Med.J. 10-13-1979;2(6195):939. View abstract.
Lu L, Ni J Zhou T Xu W Fenech M Wang X. Choline and/or Folic Acid Deficiency is Associated with Genomic Damage and Cell Death in Human Lymphocytes In Vitro. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(3):481-487.
Mandat, T., Wilk, A., Manowiec, R., Koziarski, A., Zielinski, G., and Podgorski, J. K. [Preliminary evaluation of risk and effectiveness of early choline alphoscerate treatment in craniocerebral injury]. Neurol.Neurochir.Pol. 2003;37(6):1231-1238. View abstract.
Mohs RC, Davis KL. Choline chloride effects on memory: correlation with the effects of physostigmine. Psychiatry Res. 1980;2(2):149-156.
Mohs, R. C., Davis, K. L., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., Yesavage, J. A., and Kopell, B. S. Choline chloride treatment of memory deficits in the elderly. Am.J.Psychiatry 1979;136(10):1275-1277. View abstract.
Morrison, L. M. and W. F. Gonzales. Choline in coronary atherosclerosis. Amer.Heart J. 1950;39:729.
Narkewicz MR, Caldwell S Jones G. Cysteine supplementation and reduction of total parenteral nutrition-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in the weanling rat. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21(1):18-24.
Nasrallah, H. A., Dunner, F. J., Smith, R. E., McCalley-Whitters, M., and Sherman, A. D. Variable clinical response to choline in tardive dyskinesia. Psychol.Med. 1984;14(3):697-700. View abstract.
Sachan, D. S., Hongu, N., and Johnsen, M. Decreasing oxidative stress with choline and carnitine in women. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2005;24(3):172-176. View abstract.
Saito, T. [Choline antagonists and antacids for the treatment of peptic ulcer]. Nippon Rinsho 1984;42(1):158-162. View abstract.
Sandage BW, Sabounjian LA White R. Wurtman RJ. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. Physiologist 1992;35:236a.
Schmidt, C., Abicht, A., Krampfl, K., Voss, W., Stucka, R., Mildner, G., Petrova, S., Schara, U., Mortier, W., Bufler, J., Huebner, A., and Lochmuller, H. Congenital myasthenic syndrome due to a novel missense mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase. Neuromuscul.Disord. 2003;13(3):245-251. View abstract.
Schrader WP, Fan DP. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan attached to previously formed cell wall by toluene-treated cells of Bacillus megaterium. J Biol Chem. 8-10-1974;249(15):4815-4818.
Shinozuka H, Katyal SL Perera MI. Choline deficiency and chemical carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;206:253-267.
Sijens, P. E., Oudkerk, M., van Dijk, P., Levendag, P. C., and Vecht, C. J. 1H MR spectroscopy monitoring of changes in choline peak area and line shape after Gd-contrast administration. Magn Reson.Imaging 1998;16(10):1273-1280. View abstract.
Smith, C. M., Swash, M., Exton-Smith, A. N., Phillips, M. J., Overstall, P. W., Piper, M. E., and Bailey, M. R. Choline therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 8-5-1978;2(8084):318. View abstract.
Spector SA, Jackman MR Sabounjian LA Sakas C Landers DM Willis VVT. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27(5):669-673.
Stoll, A. L., Sachs, G. S., Cohen, B. M., Lafer, B., Christensen, J. D., and Renshaw, P. F. Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biol.Psychiatry 9-1-1996;40(5):382-388. View abstract.
Tammenmaa Irina, McGrath John Sailas Eila ES Soares-Weiser Karla. Cholinergic medication for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012;2002(3)
Tamminga, C., Smith, R. C., Chang, S., Haraszti, J. S., and Davis, J. M. Depression associated with oral choline. Lancet 10-23-1976;2(7991):905. View abstract.
Thal, L. J., Rosen, W., Sharpless, N. S., and Crystal, H. Choline chloride fails to improve cognition of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol.Aging 1981;2(3):205-208. View abstract.
von Allworden, H. N., Horn, S., Kahl, J., and Feldheim, W. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in triathletes and adolescent runners during exercise. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1993;67(1):87-91. View abstract.
Warber, J. P., Patton, J. F., Tharion, W. J., Zeisel, S. H., Mello, R. P., Kemnitz, C. P., and Lieberman, H. R. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(2):170-181. View abstract.
Wood, J. L. and Allison, R. G. Effects of consumption of choline and lecithin on neurological and cardiovascular systems. Fed.Proc. 1982;41(14):3015-3021. View abstract.
Wurtman, R. J., Hirsch, M. J., and Growdon, J. H. Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels. Lancet 7-9-1977;2(8028):68-69. View abstract.
Zeisel, S. H., Epstein, M. F., and Wurtman, R. J. Elevated choline concentration in neonatal plasma. Life Sci. 5-26-1980;26(21):1827-1831. View abstract.
Albright CD, Liu R, Mar MH, et al. Diet, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;422:97-107. View abstract.
Boeke CE, Gillman MW, Hughes MD, et al. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years. Am J Epidemiol 2013;177(12):1338-47. View abstract.
Buchman AL, Dubin MD, Moukarzel AA, et al. Choline deficiency: a cause of hepatic steatosis during parenteral nutrition that can be reversed with intravenous choline supplementation. Hepatology 1995;22:1399-403. View abstract.
Buchman AL, Sohel M, Brown M, et al. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001;25(1):30-5. View abstract.
Cho E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary choline and betaine and the risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1224-31. View abstract.
Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
da Costa, K. A., Cochary, E.F., Blusztain, J.K., Garner, S.C., Ziesel, S.H. Accumulation of 1,2-sn-diradylglycerol with increased membrane-associated protein kinase C may be the mechanism for spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in choline-deficient rats. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(3):2100-2105.View abstract.
Davis KL, Berger PA. Pharmacological investigations of the cholinergic imbalance hypotheses of movement disorders and psychosis. Biol Psychiatry 1978;13:23-49. View abstract.
Davis KL, Hollister LE, Berger PA. Choline chloride in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1581-4. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:390-422.
Gaur SN, Agarwal G, Gupta SK. Use of LPC antagonist, choline, in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1997;39:107-13. View abstract.
Gilman AG, et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1990.
Grunewald KK, Bailey RS. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes. Sports Med 1993;15:90-103. View abstract.
Guerrerio AL, Colvin RM, Schwartz AK, et al. Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(4):892-900. View abstract.
Guerrerio AL, Mattis L, Conner KG, et al. Oral choline supplementation in children with intestinal failure. JPGN. 2011;53(1):115-19. View abstract.
Gupta SK, Gaur SN. A placebo controlled trial of two dosages of LPC antagonist-choline in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1997;39:149-56. View abstract.
Knott V, de la Salle S, Choueiry J, et al. Neurocognitive effects of acute choline supplementation in low, medium and high performer healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015;131:119-129. View abstract.
Lawrence CM, Millac P, Stout GS, Ward JW. The use of choline chloride in ataxic disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:452-4. View abstract.
Legg, N. J. Oral choline in cerebellar ataxia. Br.Med.J. 11-18-1978;2(6149):1403-1404. View abstract.
McNamara JO, Carwile S, Hope V, et al. Effects of oral choline on human complex partial seizures. Neurology 1980;30:1334-6. View abstract.
Mohs RC, Davis KL, Tinklenberg JR, Hollister LE. Choline chloride effects on memory in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 1980;1:21-5. View abstract.
Ross RG, Hunter SK, McCarthy L, et al. Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia risk. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(3):290-8. View abstract.
Sehested P, Lund HI, Kristensen O. Oral choline in cerebellar ataxia. Acta Neurol Scand 1980;62:124-6. View abstract.
Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, et al. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:102-9. View abstract.
Shronts EP. Essential nature of choline with implications for total parenteral nutrition. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:639-46. View abstract.
Sidhu N, Davies S, Nadarajah A, et al. Oral choline supplementation for postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth 2013;111(2):249-55. View abstract .
Signore C, Ueland PM, Troendle J, Mills JL. Choline concentrations in human maternal and cord blood and intelligence at 5 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(4):896-902. View abstract.
Spector SA, Jackman MR, Sabounjian LA, et al. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:668-73. View abstract.
Tan J, Bluml S, Hoang T, et al. Lack of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentrations of choline metabolites in human brain. Magn Reson Med 1998;39:1005-10. View abstract.
Villamor E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Oken E. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2012;26(4):328-35. View abstract.
Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, Eckerle JK, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol disorders: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(5): 1113-25. View abstract.
Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, Eckerle JK, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders has high feasibility and tolerability. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):897-904. View abstract.
Wu BT, Dyer RA, King DJ, Richardson KJ, Innis SM. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e43448. View abstract.
Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
Yen CL, Mar MH, Zeisel SH. Choline deficiency-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells is associated with diminished membrane phosphatdylcholine and sphingomyelin, accumulation of ceramide and diacylglycerol, and activiation of a caspase. FASEB J 1999;13:135-42.
Zeisel SH. Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:473-81. View abstract.
Zeisel SH. A Brief History of Choline. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;61(3):254-8. View abstract.
Zeisel SH. Choline: needed for normal development of memory. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:528S-31S. View abstract.
Ziegler RG, Lim U. One-carbon metabolism, colorectal carcinogenesis, chemoprevention - with caution. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1214-5. View abstract.