Alcaravea, Anis Canadien, Anis des Prés, Anis des Vosges, Apium carvi, Carraway, Carum carvi, Carum velenovskyi, Carvi, Carvi Commun, Carvi Fructus, Cumin des Montagnes, Cumin des Prés, Faux Anis, Haravi, Jeera, Jira, Kala Jira, Karwiya, Krishan Jeeraka, Krishnajiraka, Kummel, Kummich, Roman Cumin, Semen Cumini Pratensis, Semences de Carvi, Shahijra, Shiajira, Wiesen-Feldkummel, Wild Cumin.
Caraway is a plant that has an interesting place in legend. Superstitions held that caraway had the power to prevent the theft of any object that contained the seed and to keep lovers from losing interest in one another. These days, some people think caraway has healing power, and they use the oil, fruit, and seeds as medicine.
Caraway is used for digestive problems including heartburn, bloating, gas, loss of appetite, and mild spasms of the stomach and intestines. Caraway oil is also used to help people cough up phlegm, improve control of urination, kill bacteria in the body, and relieve constipation.
Caraway is used in mouthwashes and in skin rubs to improve local blood flow.
In foods, caraway is used as a cooking spice.
How does it work?
Caraway oil might improve digestion and relieve spasms in the stomach and intestines.
Possibly Effective for...
- Heartburn, when used in combination with other herbs. Taking caraway oil as part of a specific combination with peppermint oil (Enteroplant, Spitzner Arzneimittel) seems to relieve heartburn, including symptoms of fullness and mild gastrointestinal (GI) spasms, about as well as a drug called cisapride. This peppermint oil/caraway oil combination is not available in the US. Another combination product that contains caraway plus clown's mustard plant, peppermint leaf, German chamomile, licorice, milk thistle, angelica, celandine, and lemon balm (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc) also seems to improve symptoms of upset stomach. This combination seems to significantly help acid stomach, cramping, nausea, and vomiting.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Asthma. Early research suggests that drinking tea containing chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, cardamom, and black seed twice daily for 6 months reduces symptoms of allergic asthma, including sleep discomfort and coughing.
- Poor appetite.
- Spasms of stomach and intestines.
- Menstrual cramps.
- Poor blood flow.
- Starting menstruation.
- Increasing milk flow in nursing mothers.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Caraway is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. Caraway is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for up to 8 weeks.
Not enough is known about the safety of using caraway during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: There is a concern that caraway might lower blood sugar. If you have diabetes and use caraway, watch your blood sugar carefully. The dose of the medications you use for diabetes might need to be adjusted.
Too much iron in the body (hemochromatosis): Caraway extract might increase the absorption of iron. Overuse of caraway extract with iron supplements or iron-containing food might increase iron levels in the body. This may be a problem for people who already have too much iron in the body.
Surgery: Caraway might lower blood sugar levels. There is a concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using caraway at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway fruit extract might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking caraway fruit extract might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Caraway extract might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking caraway along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking caraway, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking caraway along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Before taking caraway, talk with your healthcare professional if you take any medications.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway seed extract might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking caraway seed extract along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Water pills (Diuretic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway fruit extract might decrease potassium in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking caraway fruit extract along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.
Isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway seed extract might increase how much isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) the body absorbs. This might increase the effects and side effects of isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH). Before taking caraway, talk to your healthcare provider if you take isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH).
PyrazinamideInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway seed extract might increase blood levels of pyrazinamide when taken at the same time. This might increase the effects and side effects of pyrazinamide. Before taking caraway, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking pyrazinamide.
Rifampin (Rifadin)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Caraway seed extract might blood levels of rifampin (Rifadin) when taken at the same time. This might increase the effects and side effects of rifampin (Rifadin). Before taking caraway, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking rifampin (Rifadin).
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For heartburn (acid indigestion): 50-100 mg of caraway oil per day has been used in combination with peppermint oil. A specific combination product containing caraway (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc) and several other herbs has been used in a dose of 1 mL three times daily.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Adam, B., Liebregts, T., Best, J., Bechmann, L., Lackner, C., Neumann, J., Koehler, S., and Holtmann, G. A combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil attenuates the post-inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia in a rat model. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2006;41(2):155-160. View abstract.
Ahro, M., Hakala, M., Sihvonen, J., Kauppinen, J., and Kallio, H. Low-resolution gas-phase FT-IR method for the determination of the limonene/carvone ratio in supercritical CO2-extracted caraway fruit oils. J Agric.Food Chem 2001;49(7):3140-3144. View abstract.
Al Bataina, B. A., Maslat, A. O., and Al Kofahil, M. M. Element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using XRF and Ames test. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2003;17(2):85-90. View abstract.
Ali MA, Kabir MH Quaiyyum MA Rahman MM Uddin A. Antibacterial activity of caraway against Shigella spp. Bangladesh J Microbiol 1995;12:81-85.
Beitz, H., Pank, F., and Ehrt, M. [Pesticide residues in medicinal plants and seasoning herbs--dimethoate residues in caraway and fennel]. Pharmazie 1972;27(4):265-268. View abstract.
Bogucka-Kocka, A., Smolarz, H. D., and Kocki, J. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines. Fitoterapia 2008;79(7-8):487-497. View abstract.
Bonsi, P., Zucco, F., and Stammati, A. Two in vitro models for gas-phase exposure to volatile compounds. Altern.Lab Anim 2002;30(2):241-247. View abstract.
Bouwmeester, H. J., Gershenzon, J., Konings, M. C., and Croteau, R. Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway. I. Demonstration Of enzyme activities and their changes with development. Plant Physiol 1998;117(3):901-912. View abstract.
Boyd EM, Sheppard EP. An autumn-enhanced mucotropic action of inhaled terpenes and related volatile agents. Pharmacology 1971;6:65-80.
Ceska O, Chaudhary SK Warrington PJ Ashwood-Smith MJ. Photoactive furocoumarins in fruits of some umbellifers. Phytochemistry 1987;26:165-169.
Chaiyasit, D., Choochote, W., Rattanachanpichai, E., Chaithong, U., Chaiwong, P., Jitpakdi, A., Tippawangkosol, P., Riyong, D., and Pitasawat, B. Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. Parasitol.Res 2006;99(6):715-721. View abstract.
Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ.Entomol. 2003;96(5):1479-1484. View abstract.
Choi, W. I., Lee, S. G., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). J Econ Entomol. 2004;97(2):553-558. View abstract.
De Martino, L., De, Feo, V, Fratianni, F., and Nazzaro, F. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4(12):1741-1750. View abstract.
de Sousa, D. P., Farias Nobrega, F. F., and de Almeida, R. N. Influence of the chirality of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-carvone in the central nervous system: a comparative study. Chirality 5-5-2007;19(4):264-268. View abstract.
Deeptha, K., Kamaleeswari, M., Sengottuvelan, M., and Nalini, N. Dose dependent inhibitory effect of dietary caraway on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colonic aberrant crypt foci and bacterial enzyme activity in rats. Invest New Drugs 2006;24(6):479-488. View abstract.
Dorsch W, Loew D Meyer-Buchtela E Schilcher H. Carvi fructus (Kummelfruchte). Kopperation Phytopharmaka 1998;47-48.
Dutkiewicz, J., Krysinska-Traczyk, E., Skorska, C., Sitkowska, J., Prazmo, Z., and Golec, M. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants. Ann Agric.Environ.Med 2001;8(2):201-211. View abstract.
El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. View abstract.
el Shobaki, F. A., Saleh, Z. A., and Saleh, N. The effect of some beverage extracts on intestinal iron absorption. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1990;29(4):264-269. View abstract.
Farag RS, Daw ZY Abo-Raya SH. Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and production of alfatoxins in a synthetic medium. J Food Sci 1989;54:74-76.
Farag, R. S. and el Khawas, K. H. Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998;49(2):109-115. View abstract.
Fatemi, F., Allameh, A., Khalafi, H., and Ashrafihelan, J. Hepatoprotective effects of gamma-irradiated caraway essential oils in experimental sepsis. Appl.Radiat.Isot. 2010;68(2):280-285. View abstract.
Fazlara, A., Najafzadeh, H., and Lak, E. The potential application of plant essential oils as natural preservatives against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 9-1-2008;11(17):2054-2061. View abstract.
Forster, HB Niklas H. Lutz S. Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 1980;40:309-319.
Freise, J. and Kohler, S. [Peppermint oil-caraway oil fixed combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia-- comparison of the effects of enteric preparations]. Pharmazie 1999;54(3):210-215. View abstract.
Fricke G, Hoyer H Wermter R Paulus H. EinfluBeta lipophiler Stoffe auf die mikrobiologische Hemmwirkung von Aromaextrakten am Beispiel von Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 1998;49:107-111.
Friedman, L. and Miller, J. G. Odor incongruity and chirality. Science 6-4-1971;172(987):1044-1046. View abstract.
George, D. R., Smith, T. J., Sparagano, O. A., and Guy, J. H. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae). Vet.Parasitol. 8-17-2008;155(3-4):333-335. View abstract.
George, D. R., Sparagano, O. A., Port, G., Okello, E., Shiel, R. S., and Guy, J. H. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor. Vet.Parasitol. 5-26-2009;162(1-2):129-134. View abstract.
Goerg, K. J. and Spilker, T. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 2003;17(3):445-451. View abstract.
Guerin J-C, Reveillere H-P. Activite antifongiques d'extraits vegetaux a usage therpeutique.II. Etude de 40 extraits sur 9 souches fongiques. Ann Pharm Fr 1985;43:77-81.
Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening. J Food Prot. 2008;71(9):1846-1854. View abstract.
Hagan, E. C., Hansen, W. H., Fitzhugh, O. G., Jenner, P. M., Jones, W. I., Taylor, J. M., Long, E. L., Nelson, A. A., and Brouwer, J. B. Food flavourings and compounds of related structure. II. Subacute and chronic toxicity. Food cosmet toxicol 1967;5(2):141-157. View abstract.
Hawrelak, J. A., Cattley, T., and Myers, S. P. Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study. Altern.Med Rev. 2009;14(4):380-384. View abstract.
Higashimoto, M., Purintrapiban, J., Kataoka, K., Kinouchi, T., Vinitketkumnuen, U., Akimoto, S., Matsumoto, H., and Ohnishi, Y. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of extracts of three spices and a medicinal plant in Thailand. Mutat.Res. 1993;303(3):135-142. View abstract.
Hildebrandt H. Uber das verhalten von carvon und santalol im thierkorper. Hoppe-seyler's z physiol chem 1902;36:441-451.
Hitokoto, H., Morozumi, S., Wauke, T., Sakai, S., and Kurata, H. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 1980;39(4):818-822. View abstract.
Iacobellis, N. S., Lo, Cantore P., Capasso, F., and Senatore, F. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. J Agric.Food Chem 1-12-2005;53(1):57-61. View abstract.
Jalali-Heravi, M., Zekavat, B., and Sereshti, H. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with resolution methods to characterize the essential oil components of Iranian cumin and caraway. J Chromatogr.A 3-2-2007;1143(1-2):215-226. View abstract.
Janssen AM, Scheffer JJC Parhan-van Atten AW Baerheim Svendsen A. Screening of some essential oils for their activities on dermatophytes. Pharm Weekbl Sci Ed 1988;10:277-280.
Josimovic, L. and Cudina, I. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices. Int J Rad.Appl Instrum.[A] 1987;38(4):269-274. View abstract.
Kamaleeswari, M. and Nalini, N. Dose-response efficacy of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2006;58(8):1121-1130. View abstract.
Kamaleeswari, M., Deeptha, K., Sengottuvelan, M., and Nalini, N. Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 2-14-2006; View abstract.
Kelber O, Kroll U Maidonis P Weiser D Okpanyi SN. Study of gastrointestinal absorption of plant extracts and their phytomedicinal combination (STW 5) in an ex vivi/in vitro model. In: abstracts of 3
Khayyal, M. T., El Ghazaly, M. A., Kenawy, S. A., Seif-El-Nasr, M., Mahran, L. G., Kafafi, Y. A., and Okpanyi, S. N. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(7):545-553. View abstract.
Khayyal, M. T., Seif-El-Nasr, M., El Ghazaly, M. A., Okpanyi, S. N., Kelber, O., and Weiser, D. Mechanisms involved in the gastro-protective effect of STW 5 (Iberogast) and its components against ulcers and rebound acidity. Phytomedicine 2006;13 Suppl 5:56-66. View abstract.
Koppula S, Kopalli SR, and et al. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi Linn (caraway) fruit: an experimental study in Wistar rats. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism (AUST J MED HERBALISM) 2009;21(3):72-78.
Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., and Copti, R. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38(9):755-762. View abstract.
Kumar, P. and Singh, D. K. Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere 2006;63(9):1568-1574. View abstract.
Kumar, P., Singh, V. K., and Singh, D. K. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata. Phytother.Res 2009;23(2):172-177. View abstract.
Kunzemann, J. and Herrmann, K. [Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavon-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices (author's transl)]. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 7-29-1977;164(3):194-200. View abstract.
Kurita N, Miyaji M Kurane R Takahara Y. Antifungal activity of components of essential oils. Agric Biol Chem 1981;45:945-952.
Lado, C., Hajdu, M., Farkas, E., Then, M., Taba, G., and Szentmihalyi, K. Study on the transfer of components of Aetheroleum carvi and Aetheroleum foeniculi oils. Fitoterapia 2005;76(2):166-172. View abstract.
Lahlou, S., Tahraoui, A., Israili, Z., and Lyoussi, B. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-4-2007;110(3):458-463. View abstract.
Laribi, B., Kouki, K., Mougou, A., and Marzouk, B. Fatty acid and essential oil composition of three Tunisian caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed ecotypes. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90(3):391-396. View abstract.
Lemhadri, A., Hajji, L., Michel, J. B., and Eddouks, M. Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-19-2006;106(3):321-326. View abstract.
Llewellyn, G. C., Burkett, M. L., and Eadie, T. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production, and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1981;64(4):955-960. View abstract.
Lowe, J. R., Tolman, W. B., and Hillmyer, M. A. Oxidized Dihydrocarvone as a Renewable Multifunctional Monomer for the Synthesis of Shape Memory Polyesters. Biomacromolecules. 6-8-2009; View abstract.
Luczaj, L. and Szymanski, W. M. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review. J.Ethnobiol.Ethnomed. 2007;3:17. View abstract.
Madisch, A., Miehlke, S., and Labenz, J. Management of functional dyspepsia: Unsolved problems and new perspectives. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6577-6581. View abstract.
Mahady, G. B. and Pendland, S. L. Resveratrol inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro. Am.J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(7):1849. View abstract.
Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B. M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):988-991. View abstract.
Mahmoud I, Alkofahi A Abdelaziz A. Mutagenic and toxic activities of several spices and some Jordanian medicinal plants. Int J Pharmacognosy 1992;30:81-85.
MARUZZELLA, J. C. and FREUNDLICH, M. Antimicrobial substances from seeds. J.Am.Pharm.Assoc.Am.Pharm.Assoc.(Baltim.) 1959;48(6):356-358. View abstract.
Matsumura, T., Ishikawa, T., and Kitajima, J. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides. Phytochemistry 2002;61(4):455-459. View abstract.
Matsumura, T., Ishikawa, T., and Kitajima, J. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: carvone derivatives and their glucosides. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50(1):66-72. View abstract.
May, B., Funk, P., and Schneider, B. Peppermint oil and caraway oil in functional dyspepsia--efficacy unaffected by H. pylori. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 4-1-2003;17(7):975-976. View abstract.
Mazaki, M., Kataoka, K., Kinouchi, T., Vinitketkumnuen, U., Yamada, M., Nohmi, T., Kuwahara, T., Akimoto, S., and Ohnishi, Y. Inhibitory effects of caraway (Carum carvi L. ) and its component on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenicity. J Med Invest 2006;53(1-2):123-133. View abstract.
MELICHAR, B. and HORKA, J. [Azeotropic distillation as a method of control of drugs. II. Determination of carvone and caraway oil.]. Cesk.Farm 1954;3(7):231-235. View abstract.
Meyer F, Meyer E. Percutane resorption von atherischen olen und ihren inhaltsstoffen. Arzneim-forsch/drug res 1959;9:516-519.
Micklefield, G., Jung, O., Greving, I., and May, B. Effects of intraduodenal application of peppermint oil (WS(R) 1340) and caraway oil (WS(R) 1520) on gastroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. Phytother.Res 2003;17(2):135-140. View abstract.
Misharina, T. A., Terenina, M. B., and Krikunova, N. I. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils]. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 2009;45(6):710-716. View abstract.
Modu S, Gohla K Umar IA. The hypoglycaemic and hypocholrsterolaemic properties of black caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil in alloxan diabetic rats. Biokemistri (Nigeria) 1997;7:91-97.
Mohsenzadeh, M. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 10-15-2007;10(20):3693-3697. View abstract.
Naderi-Kalali, B., Allameh, A., Rasaee, M. J., Bach, H. J., Behechti, A., Doods, K., Kettrup, A., and Schramm, K. W. Suppressive effects of caraway (Carum carvi) extracts on 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent gene expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 in the rat H4IIE cells. Toxicol.In Vitro 2005;19(3):373-377. View abstract.
Nakano, Y., Matsunaga, H., Saita, T., Mori, M., Katano, M., and Okabe, H. Antiproliferative constituents in Umbelliferae plants II. Screening for polyacetylenes in some Umbelliferae plants, and isolation of panaxynol and falcarindiol from the root of Heracleum moellendorffii. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1998;21(3):257-261. View abstract.
Nesterenko, A. V., Nesterenko, V. B., and Yablokov, A. V. 12. Chernobyl's radioactive contamination of food and people. Ann.N Y.Acad.Sci 2009;1181:289-302. View abstract.
NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Carvone (CAS No. 2244-16-8) in B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). Natl.Toxicol.Program.Tech.Rep.Ser 1990;381:1-113. View abstract.
O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.
Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yaniv, Z., and Spiegel, Y. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology 2000;90(7):710-715. View abstract.
Okuyama T, Matsuda M Masuda Y Baba M Masubuchi H Adachi M et al. Studies on cancer biochemoprevention of natural resources. X. inhibitory effect of spices on TPA-enhanced 3H-choline incorporation in phosolipids of C3H10T1/2 cells and on TPA-induced mouse ear edema. Chinese pharmaceut J 1-1-1995;47:421-430.
Opdyke DLJ. Monographs on fragrance raw materials: d-carvone. Food cosmet toxicol 1978;16:673-674.
Opdyke DLJ. Monographs on fragrance raw materials;caraway oil. Food cosmet toxicol 1973;11:1051.
Park, I. K., Kim, J. N., Lee, Y. S., Lee, S. G., Ahn, Y. J., and Shin, S. C. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). J Econ.Entomol. 2008;101(1):139-144. View abstract.
Purintrapiban J, Shaheduzzaman SM Vinitketkumnuen U Kinouchi T Katoaka K Higashimoto M et al. Inhibitory effect of caraway seeds on mutation by alkylating agents. Environ Mut Res Commun 1995;17:99-105.
Rabsch, W., Prager, R., Koch, J., Stark, K., Roggentin, P., Bockemuhl, J., Beckmann, G., Stark, R., Siegl, W., Ammon, A., and Tschape, H. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona: characterization of a diffuse outbreak caused by aniseed-fennel-caraway infusion. Epidemiol.Infect. 2005;133(5):837-844. View abstract.
Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.
Richter, J. and Schellenberg, I. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography. Anal.Bioanal.Chem. 2007;387(6):2207-2217. View abstract.
Rodov, V., Vinokur, Y., Gogia, N., and Chkhikvishvili, I. Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of Georgian spices for meat and their possible health implications. Georgian.Med News 2010;(179):61-66. View abstract.
Rothbacher, H. and Suteu, F. [About hydroxlic compounds of caraway oil (author's transl)]. Planta Med 1975;28(2):112-123. View abstract.
Saad, el, Hussien, R., Saher, F., and Ahmed, Z. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Zhejiang.Univ Sci B 2006;7(12):957-962. View abstract.
Sadeghian S, Neyestani TR, and et al. Bacteriostatic effect of dill, fennel, caraway and cinnamon extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine (J NUTR ENVIRON MED) 2005;15(2-3):47-55.
Saller, R., Iten, F., and Reichling, J. [Dyspeptic pain and phytotherapy--a review of traditional and modern herbal drugs]. Forsch.Komplementarmed.Klass.Naturheilkd. 2001;8(5):263-273. View abstract.
Salveson, A. and Svendsen, A. B. Gas liquid chromatographic separation and identification of the constituents of caraway seed oil. I. The monoterpene hydrocarbons. Planta Med 1976;30(1):93-96. View abstract.
Salzer, U. J. The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings--a critical review. CRC Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 1977;9(4):345-373. View abstract.
Satyanarayana, S., Sushruta, K., Sarma, G. S., Srinivas, N., and Subba Raju, G. V. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro systems. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. View abstract.
Schemann, M., Michel, K., Zeller, F., Hohenester, B., and Ruhl, A. Region-specific effects of STW 5 (Iberogast) and its components in gastric fundus, corpus and antrum. Phytomedicine. 2006;13 Suppl 5:90-99. View abstract.
Schempp, H., Hippeli, S., Weiser, D., Kelber, O., and Elstner, E. F. Comparison of the inhibition of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed hypochlorite formation in vitro and in whole blood by different plant extracts contained in a phytopharmacon treating functional dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung. 2004;54(7):389-395. View abstract.
Schilcher H. Atherische Ole- Wirkungen und Nbenwirkungen. Dtscg Apoth Ztg 1984;124:1433-1442.
Schilcher H. Pharmakologie und Toxikologie atherischer Ole. Anwendungshinwiese fur die artxliche Praxis. Therapiewoche 1986;36:1100-1112.
Schone, F., Vetter, A., Hartung, H., Bergmann, H., Biertumpfel, A., Richter, G., Muller, S., and Breitschuh, G. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2006;90(11-12):500-510. View abstract.
Seidler-Lozykowska, K., Baranska, M., Baranski, R., and Krol, D. Raman analysis of caraway (Carum carvi L.) single fruits. Evaluation of essential oil content and its composition. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-12-2010;58(9):5271-5275. View abstract.
Seo, S. M., Kim, J., Lee, S. G., Shin, C. H., Shin, S. C., and Park, I. K. Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric.Food Chem. 8-12-2009;57(15):6596-6602. View abstract.
Shwaireb MH, El-Mofty MM Rizk AM Abdel-Galil AMM Harasani HA. Inhibition of mammary gland tumorigenesis in the rat by caraway seeds and dried leaves of watercress. Oncology Reports 1995;2:689-692.
Sibaev, A., Yuece, B., Kelber, O., Weiser, D., Schirra, J., Goke, B., Allescher, H. D., and Storr, M. STW 5 (Iberogast) and its individual herbal components modulate intestinal electrophysiology of mice. Phytomedicine 2006;13 Suppl 5:80-89. View abstract.
Soliman, K. M. and Badeaa, R. I. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem.Toxicol 2002;40(11):1669-1675. View abstract.
Syed M, Khalid MR Chaudhary FM Bhatty MK. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of the Umbelliferae family. Part V. carum carvi, petroselinum crispum and dorema ammoniacum oils. Pakistan J Sci Ind Res 1987;30:106-110.
Thompson, Coon J. and Ernst, E. Systematic review: herbal medicinal products for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 2002;16(10):1689-1699. View abstract.
Thrasher, J. J. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from ground mace and ground caraway seed. J Assoc Off Anal.Chem 1976;59(4):827-829. View abstract.
Tsolakis, H. and Ragusa, S. Effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis. Ecotoxicol.Environ Saf 2008;70(2):276-282. View abstract.
Von Skramlik E. Uber die giftigkeit und vertraglichkeit von atherischen olen. Pharmazie 1959;14:435-445.
Wattenberg, L. W. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by naturally-occurring and synthetic compounds. Basic Life Sci 1990;52:155-166. View abstract.
Windyga, B., Fonberg-Broczek, M., Sciezynska, H., Skapska, S., Gorecka, K., Grochowska, A., Morawski, A., Szczepek, J., Karlowski, K., and Porowski, S. [High pressure processing of spices in atmosphere of helium for decrease of microbiological contamination]. Rocz.Panstw.Zakl.Hig. 2008;59(4):437-443. View abstract.
Zare, M., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Ranjbar-Bahadori, S., Allameh, A., and Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. Comparative study of the major Iranian cereal cultivars and some selected spices in relation to support Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Iran Biomed.J 2008;12(4):229-236. View abstract.
Cranker, K. J., Phillips, K. M., Gonzales, M. C., and Stewart, K. K. Effect of seeds on bile-enzymatic-gravimetric analysis of total dietary fiber. J AOAC Int 1997;80(1):95-97. View abstract.
Eddouks M, Lemhardri A, Michel JB. Caraway and caper: potential anti-hyperglycaemic plants in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;94:143-8. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
Haqqaq EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC. The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:41-54. View abstract.
Herb Info Canada. Caraway website. www.herb.plant.org/caraway.htm (Accessed 11 September 2000).
Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
Jeannel, D., Hubert, A., de Vathaire, F., Ellouz, R., Camoun, M., Ben Salem, M., Sancho-Garnier, H., and de The, G. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study. Int J Cancer 9-15-1990;46(3):421-425. View abstract.
Madisch A, Heydenreich CJ, Wieland V, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination preparation as compared to cisapride. A multicenter, reference-controlled, double-blind equivalence study. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:925-32. View abstract.
Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52. View abstract.
Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511-7. View abstract.
May B, Kohler S, Schneider B. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1671-7. View abstract.
May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:1149-53. View abstract.
Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87. View abstract.
Micklefield GH, Greving I, May B. Effects of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastroduodenal motility. Phytother Res 2000;14:20-3. View abstract.
Pitasawat B, Champakaew D, Choochote W, et al. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control. Fitoterapia 2007;78:205-10. View abstract.
Sachin BS, Monica P, Sharma SC, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction of some antitubercular drugs with caraway: implications in the enhancement of drug bioavailability. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28(4):175-84. View abstract.
Schamschula, R. G., Sugar, E., Un, P. S., Duppenthaler, J. L., Toth, K., and Barmes, D. E. Aluminium, calcium and magnesium content of Hungarian foods and dietary intakes by children aged 3.9 and 14 years. Acta Physiol Hung 1988;72(2):237-251. View abstract.
Shwaireb MH. Caraway oil inhibits skin tumors in female BALB/c mice. Nutr Cancer 1993;19:321-5. View abstract.
Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Anethofuran, carvone, and limonene: potential cancer chemopreventive agents from dill weed oil and caraway oil. Planta Med 1992;58:338-41. View abstract.
Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Anethofuran, carvone, and limonene: potential cancer chemopreventive agents from dill weed oil and caraway oil. Planta Med 1992;58:338-41. View abstract.