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- What is captopril and hydrochlorothiazide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is captopril and hydrochlorothiazide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
- What are the side effects of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
- What is the dosage for captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
- Is captopril and hydrochlorothiazide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
What is captopril and hydrochlorothiazide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Capozide is a combination of captopril (Capoten) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a diuretic (water pill), respectively, and is used in the treatment of high blood pressure. ACE is an enzyme in the body that causes the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes the arteries in the body to narrow, thereby elevating blood pressure. ACE inhibitors, such as captopril, lower blood pressure by preventing the formation of angiotensin II thereby relaxing the arteries. HCTZ is a diuretic (water pill) used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension) and accumulation of fluid. It works by blocking salt and fluid reabsorption in the kidneys, causing increased urine output (diuresis). The mechanism of its action in lowering high blood pressure is not well understood. The combination of captopril and HCTZ reduces blood pressure better than either drug alone. Captopril increases potassium levels while HCTZ reduces potassium levels; the combination of both drugs has less effect on potassium levels. The FDA approved captopril/HCTZ in October 1984.
What are the side effects of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
Other common side effects include:
- loss of taste,
- weight loss,
- low blood pressure, and
- sexual dysfunction.
Increased blood glucose and potassium levels also may occur.
Capozide may reduce kidney function in some patients and should not be used by patients who have bilateral renal artery stenosis (narrowing of both arteries going to the kidneys).
Quick GuideHow to Lower Blood Pressure: Exercise Tips
What is the dosage for captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
The starting dose is 25/15 mg once daily. The dose may be increased every 6 weeks.
Which drugs or supplements interact with captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
Captopril may increase potassium levels (hyperkalemia) in blood. Therefore, there is an increased risk of hyperkalemia when captopril is given with potassium supplements or drugs that increase potassium levels (for example, spironolactone [Aldactone]).
There have been reports of increased lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) levels when lithium is used in combination with ACE inhibitors. The reason for this interaction is not known, but the increased levels may lead to toxicity from lithium.
There have been reports that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, etc.), indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve) may reduce the effects of ACE inhibitors.
Combining captopril or other ACE inhibitors with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with poor kidney function may result in reduced kidney function, including kidney failure. These effects usually are reversible.
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension or low blood pressure) may occur when injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate), used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is combined with ACE inhibitors, including captopril.
Hydrochlorothiazide reduces the elimination of lithium (Lithobid) by the kidneys and can lead to lithium toxicity. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, for example, ibuprofen, may reduce the blood pressure lowering effects of hydrochlorothiazide. Blood sugar levels can be elevated by HCTZ, necessitating adjustment in the doses of medications that are used for treating diabetes. Combining HCTZ with corticosteroids may increase the risk for low levels of blood potassium and other electrolytes. Low blood potassium can increase the toxicity of digoxin (Lanoxin). Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) and colestipol (Colestid) bind to hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by 43%-85%.
Is captopril and hydrochlorothiazide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Both captopril and HCTZ are excreted in breast milk and may potentially affect nursing infants.
What else should I know about captopril and hydrochlorothiazide?
What preparations of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide are available?
Tablets (captopril/HCTZ): 25/15, 25/25, 50/15, and 50/25 mg.
How should I keep captopril and hydrochlorothiazide stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, 15 C - 30 C (59 F - 86 F).
Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide (Capozide) is a combination medication prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure. Side effects, drug interactions, and warnings and precautions should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
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Top captopril and hydrochlorothiazide Related Articles
ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin (generic name) converting enzyme inhibitors, is a class of drugs that interact with blood enzymes to enlarge or dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure. These drugs are used to:
- Control high blood pressure (hypertension)
- Treat of heart failure and ventricular dysfunction
- Prevent and treat of kidney disease in people with diabetes or hypertension.
These drugs also improve the survival rate of people who have survived heart attacks and they prevent early death of people from heart attacks, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Sometimes ACE inhibitors are combined with other drugs for treating a condition. Examples of ACE inhibitors include:
- benazepril (Lotensin)
- captopril (Capoten)
- enalapril (Vasotec)
- fosinopril (Monopril)
- ramipril (Altace)
Examples of the most common side effects of this class of drugs are:
- chest pain,
- and rash.
There are serious side effects of this drug like
- kidney failure,
- severe allergic reactions,
- and liver dysfunction or failure.
ACE inhibitors all are similar in the way they work; however, they differ in how the body eliminates doses of the drug. Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
benazeprilBenazepril (Lotensin) is a medication prescribed alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide for treating high blood pressure. Off label uses for Lotensin include treatment for heart failure or diabetic neuropathy. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) OverviewCongestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Heart Attack and Atherosclerosis Prevention
Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management. Symptoms of heart attack in men and women include chest discomfort and pain in the shoulder, neck, jaw, stomach, or back. Women experience the same symptoms as men; however, they also may experience:
- Extreme fatigue
- Pain in the upper abdomen
Leading a healthy lifestyle with a heart healthy low-fat diet, and exercise can help prevent heart disease and heart attack.
High Blood Pressure Hypertension
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms.
Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Take the HBP QuizTake this quiz and test your IQ of high blood pressure (hypertension), the cardiovascular disease that causes most strokes and heart attacks. How are dizziness, snoring, and gout related to HBP? Find the answer and learn how medical treatments and lifestyle adjustments fight this common problem.
Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Hydrodiuril, Ezide, and Hydro-Par have been discontinued) is a diuretic drug prescribed to treat
- high blood pressure,
- edema caused by heart failure,
- chronic kidney failure,
- nephrotic syndrome, and
- corticosteroid medications.
Drug interactions, side effects, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis.
Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil, Qbrelis) is an ACE inhibitor prescribed for the treatment of:
- High blood pressure
- Heart failure
- Heart attack survival
- Preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure
Side effects are, nasal congestion, anxiety, headaches, insomnia, drowsiness, and nausea. ACE inhibitors may cause a nonproductive cough that resolves once you stop taking the drug. Drug interactions include potassium supplements or derivatives of potassium, lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen), and symptoms of flushing; high blood pressure; nausea; and vomiting. Warnings and precautions, pregnancy information, and other safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
ParathyroidectomyParathyroidectomy is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism. Risks of parathyroidectomy include:
- paralysis of the vocal cords,
- difficulty swallowing thin liquids,
- difficulty breathing,
- and drug reactions.
- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
- bleeding or hematoma,
- problems maintaining calcium levels in the blood,
- need for further and more aggressive surgery,
- need for a limited or total thyroidectomy,
- prolonged pain,
- impaired healing,
- and recurrence of the tumor.
Pregnancy Drug DangersTaking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some medications that have been found to cause no problems in pregnancy, however, medications such as Accutane for acne, should never be taken during pregnancy.
ramiprilramipril (Altace) is an ACE inhibitor drug prescribed for the treatment of congestive heart failure and high blood pressure. Altace also prevents heart attacks, strokes, and deaths due to heart disease in individuals at risk for these diseases. Side effects, multiple drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.