Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors to decrease cancer risk. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and obesity increase the risk of certain cancers. Vaccines, genetic testing, and cancer screening also play a role in cancer prevention. Read more: Cancer Prevention Article
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Top 10 Cancers Quiz
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Sun-Damaged Skin: Pictures of Sun Spots, Wrinkles, Sunburns
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Skin Cancer Symptoms, Types, Images
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Health Screening Tests Every Woman Needs
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Screening Tests Every Man Should Have
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Cancer-Fighting Foods in Pictures: Resveratrol, Green Tea, and More
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Signs of Cancer in Women: Symptoms You Can't Ignore
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Prostate Cancer Symptoms, PSA Test, Treatments
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along with causes and...
Cervical Cancer Symptoms, Stages, and Treatment
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Understanding Cancer: Metastasis, Stages of Cancer, and More
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Related Disease Conditions
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors.
Cancer Risk Factors
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Cervical Cancer (Cancer of the Cervix)
Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Regular pelvic exams, Pap testing and screening can detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine. The most common signs and symptoms are an increase in vaginal discharge, painful sex, and postmenopausal bleeding. The prognosis and survival rate depends upon the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed.
Colon cancer (bowel cancer) is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from colonic polyps. Removal of these precancerous polyps can prevent colon cancer.
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include smoking, heavy alcohol use, Barrett's esophagus, being male and being over age 60. Severe weight loss, vomiting, hoarseness, coughing up blood, painful swallowing, and pain in the throat or back are symptoms. Treatment depends upon the size, location and staging of the cancer and the health of the patient.
Genital Warts (HPV) Infection in Women
Genital warts is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is the most common STD in the US. The warts can appear anywhere on the skin where sexual contact has occurred. The warts look like raised, flesh-colored lumps or bumps that have a cauliflower-like appearance. Signs and symptoms of genital warts in women include vaginal, vulva, or groin pain, itching, and burning where the wart(s) is. Treatment can remove warts or lesions, but it does not prevent spread of the virus, and the warts usually grow back. Removing genital warts does not prevent the infection from spreading elsewhere on the body. There is no cure for genital warts, and there is no vaccine to prevent them; however, there is a vaccine to prevent infection from four common types of HPV. Gardasil vaccine available for female adolescents and teens to prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer.
Blood in Urine (Causes, Pain, and Treatment in Men and Women)
Blood in the urine is termed hematuria. Hematuria, whether it be gross or microscopic, is abnormal and should be further investigated.
H. pylori (Helicobacter Pylori) Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach, and also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. About 50% of people in the world carries or is infected with H. pylori. Common symptoms of H. pylori infection are occasional abdominal discomfort, bloating, belching or burping, and nausea and vomiting. H. pylori infection is difficult to eradicate, and treatment is with two or more antibiotics.
There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell carcinoma, and Wilms tumor. Symptoms of kidney cancer include blood in the urine, an abdominal lump or mass, chronic pain in the side, and tiredness. Treatment of kidney cancer -- which may include surgery, arterial embolization, radiation therapy, biological therapy or chemotherapy -- depends upon the stage of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood cells in which the growth and development of the blood cells are abnormal. Strictly speaking, leukemia should refer only to cancer of the white blood cells (the leukocytes) but in practice it can apply to malignancy of any cellular element in the blood or bone marrow, as in red cell leukemia (erythroleukemia).
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which begins in skin cells called melanocytes and affects more than 53,600 people in the United States each year. These melanocytes can grow together to form benign moles which, after a change in size, shape, or color can be a sign of melanoma. Caused by sun exposure, early detection becomes extremely important to avoid a spread to other areas of the body. Diagnosis is confirmed through a biopsy of the abnormal skin and treatment depends on the extent and characteristics of the patient. Metastatic melanoma is melanoma that has spread to various organs.
Infectious mononucleosis is a virus infection in which there is an increase of white blood cells that are mononuclear (with a single nucleus) "Mono" and "kissing disease" are popular terms for this very common illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Peripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain (especially at night), and loss of reflexes. Possible causes may include carpel tunnel syndrome, shingles, vitamin or nutritional deficiencies, and illnesses like diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, and kidney failure. Peripheral neuropathy is diagnosed with exams and tests. Treatment for the condition depends on the cause. Usually, the prognosis for peripheral neuropathy is good if the cause can be successfully treated or prevented.
The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches inside the mouth, bleeding, loose teeth, pain upon swallowing, a lump in the neck, earache, and a sore on your lip or in your mouth that won't heal are all symptoms of oral cancer. Treatment for oral cancer depends upon the staging of the disease and usually involves surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
There are many types of ovarian cancer, epithelial carcinoma is the most common. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer have an increased risk of developing the disease. Some ovarian cancer symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and abnormal vaginal bleeding, however, they usually do not present until the disease has progressed. Early diagnosis is important for successful treatment.
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause early symptoms. Typically, pancreatic cancer has metastasized (spread to adjacent organs, such as the liver) by the time most people receive a dignosis of pancreatic cancer. Symptoms and signs usually appear later in the course of the disease and include jaundice, back pain, nausea, weight loss, itching, and loss of appetite. Treatment depends upon the type of pancreatic cancer but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy. Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available. Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
Skin cancers occur when skin cells undergo malignant transformations and grow into tumors. The most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are highly curable when they are diagnosed and treated early. Sun exposure, tanning beds, depressed immune system, radiation exposure, and certain viral infections are risk factors for skin cancer. Skin cancers are treated with surgery or radiation. The prognosis of nonmelanoma skin cancers is generally very good.
Though the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age, gastritis, stomach surgery, family history, and pernicious anemia. Symptoms include stomach discomfort, feeling full after a small meal, nausea and vomiting, and weight loss. Treatment depends upon staging and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the thyroid are referred to as thyroid nodules. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include swollen lymph nodes, pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a lump near the Adam's apple. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment or external radiation and depends upon the type of thyroid cancer, the patient's age, the tumor size, and whether the cancer has metastasized.
Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C)
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks, especially with intravenous drug abuse. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and fever. Chronic hepatitis C may be cured in most individuals with drugs that target specific genomes of hepatitis C.
Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20% over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build.
Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD refers to the reflux of acidic fluid from the stomach into the esophagus (the swallowing tube), and is classically associated with heartburn. Learn the symptoms, causes, and treatments for Barrett's esophagus.
Colon polyps are common growths on the inner lining of the colon. Colon polyps may become cancerous. There are several different types of colon polyps, and the chance of the polyp becoming cancerous depends on the type, size, and histology. Blood in the stool or rectal bleeding are the most common symptoms of colon polyps. Treatment for colon polyps depend on the type, size, and histology.
Signs and symptoms of penile cancer include a lump on the penis and redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis. Risk of penis cancer is higher in uncircumcised men, due to a higher risk of HPV infection. Other risk factors include being over 60, having phimosis, having poor hygiene, using tobacco products, and having many sex partners. Prognosis and treatment depend upon the tumor's location and size, the stage of the cancer, and whether the cancer was recently diagnosed or if it recurred.
Breast Cancer Prevention
Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. It's important to be aware of how risk factors such as family history, lifestyle factors, breast conditions, radiation therapy, and hormonal factors may influence your chances of developing breast cancer. Mammography and breast self-examinations are crucial steps in breast cancer prevention.
Sun-Sensitive Drugs (Photosensitivity to Drugs)
Sun sensitivity (photosensitivity) is an inflammation of the skin induced by the combination of medications or substances and sunlight. The effect on the skin is redness, which looks similar to a sunburn. Generally, these reactions are either phototoxic or photoallergic. Phototoxic drugs are more common than photoallergic drugs. Symptoms of phototoxic reactions are a burning and stinging sensation and then redness. Symptoms of photoallergic reactions are itching, redness, swelling, and blisters of the affected area. Treatment generally is discontinuation of the medication and topical application of creams.Treatment generally is discontinuation of the medication and topical application of creams.
Enjoying a healthy diet helps to prevent diseases. A good diet also helps to: control celiac disease, control diabetes, control high blood pressure, prevent loss of bone mass, prevent loss of muscle strength, and prevent vitamin deficiencies. Healthy diets also help prevent obesity and weight gain.
Healthy Living and Disease Prevention
The importance of a healthy lifestyle in disease prevention is widely understood and most people know that lifestyle changes and choices can be critical to good health. Yet, few practice healthy behaviors that constitute healthy living.
Smoking (How to Quit Smoking)
Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. from smoking related illnesses. Secondhand smoke or "passive smoke" also harm family members, coworkers, and others around smokers. There are a number of techniques available to assist people who want to quit smoking.
Asbestos (Exposure Dangers, Testing, Symptoms)
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that is found in soil and rock. Asbestos exposure occurs when asbestos fibers are disturbed and released into the air then and inhaled. Inhaling asbestos fibers causes three lung diseases; asbestosis, lung cancer, and noncancerous lung disease. In asbestosis, the asbestos fibers scar the lungs. Asbestosis and lung cancer have the same symptoms of cough and shortness of breath.Asbestosis progresses slowly, frequently even 20 to 40 years after asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure include can come from a variety of products, for example, drinking water due to the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and erosion of natural deposits (which increases your risk of developing benign intestinal polyps), insulation, vinyl floor tiles, some paints and patching compounds, oil and coal furnaces and doors, heat-resistant fabrics, and automobiles brakes and clutches. Some uses of asbestos are banned; however, most are not. Examples of products banned from using asbestos are commercial, corrugated, and specialty paper, flooring felt, and artificial fireplace embers that contain asbestos. Examples of products not banned from using asbestos include vinyl flooring, clothing, roof and non-roof coatings, friction materials, and some car components.Cancers of the larynx, throat, kidney, esophagusand gallbladder have been linked to asbestos exposure. Treatment is dependent upon the type of condition related to asbestos exposure.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of the virus is determined primarily by the age at which the infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. Successful treatment is associated with a reduction in liver injury and fibrosis (scarring), a decreased likelihood of developing cirrhosis and its complications, including liver cancer, and a prolonged survival.
Disease Prevention in Men
Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in your own health care and discuss screening tests with your doctor early in life. Age of screening and timing of screening depends upon the condition being assessed. Diseases men should take steps to prevent include high blood pressure (hypertension), hypercholesterolemia, type II diabetes mellitus, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), colon cancer and colon polyps, prostate cancer, glaucoma, melanoma and other skin cancer, and bladder cancer.
Disease Prevention in Women
Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are commonly available through your general doctor. Some specialized tests may be available elsewhere.
Colon Cancer Prevention
Colorectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells metastasize to other parts of the body. Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy (along with digital rectal examination and stool occult blood testing) are both effective at preventing colo-rectal cancers and detecting early colo-rectal cancers.
Normal vaginal bleeding (menorrhea) occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly most commonly involves excessive, frequent, irregular, or decreased bleeding. Causes of abnormal may arise from a variety of conditions that may include, uterine fibroids, IUDs, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, lupus, STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, emotional stress, anorexia nervosa, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancers, early pregnancy.
Breast Lumps (in Women)
Breast lumps in women can have a variety of causes such as breast inflammation, infection, injuries, cancer, and non-cancerous growths. Breast lumps in women are diagnosed with physical exam, mammogram, ultrasound, MRI, and biopsy. Treatment of breast lumps in women depend on the cause.
Genetic Diseases (Disorder Definition, Types, and Examples)
The definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or pressure, anal discharge or itching, a change in bowel movements, and/or a lump in the anal region. Treatment for anal cancer may involve radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery and depends upon the stage of the cancer, its location, whether cancer is eradicated after the first treatment, and whether the patient has HIV.
Radon (A Citizen's Guide to Radon)
Radon is a radioactive gas that has been confirmed to cause cancers. About 21,000 individuals die each year due to radon exposure. Radon can be found in the ground, water supply, and the air you breathe. It is found in schools, homes, offices, and other buildings. You can purchase a Radon Test Kit and have the sample sent to the state radon office. Research has shown that the risk of lung cancer from breathing radon in air is much greater than the risk of stomach cancer from swallowing water with radon in it. The EPA offers a Consumers Guide to Radon Reduction so you can take action to reduce radon levels in your home, school, or office. Scientists are more certain about radon risks than from most other cancer-causing substances.
Male Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's risk of developing breast cancer is one in 1,000. Signs and symptoms include a firm mass located below the nipple and skin changes around the nipple, including puckering, redness or scaling, retraction and ulceration of the nipple. Treatment depends upon staging and the health of the patient.
Endometrial Cancer Prevention
Endometrial cancer, or uterine cancer, affects the endometrium of the uterus. It's the most common invasive cancer of the female reproductive system. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, taking estrogen-only hormone therapy, early menstruation, late menopause, and never being pregnant.
Liver Cancer (Hepatocellular Cancer) Prevention
Avoiding certain risk factors (such as hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin) can lower one's risk of developing liver cancer. Getting the hepatitis B vaccine is a protective factor against liver cancer.
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Differences and Similarities
Both Hodgkin's disease (sometimes referred to as Hodgkin's lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are cancers that originate in a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte, an important component of the body's immune system.
Vaginal cancer is fairly uncommon. There are two types of vaginal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Risk factors include being 60 or older, exposure to DES while in the womb, HPV infection, and having a history of abnormal cervical cells. Painful intercourse, pelvic pain, vaginal lumps, and abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge are all symptoms of vaginal cancer. Treatment depends upon the stage of the vaginal cancer and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and the use of radiosensitizers.
Gallbladder cancer is a rare form of cancer with symptoms that include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal lumps, and bloating. Risk factors include being female and Native American. Treatment of gallbladder cancer depends upon the stage of the cancer, the type of gallbladder cancer, and whether the cancer can be removed by surgery.
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a form of cancer in which malignant cells form in the nasopharynx tissues. Risk factors include being of Chinese or Asian ancestry and exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus. Symptoms and signs of nasopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat, a lump in the neck or nose, trouble hearing, nosebleeds, headaches, and trouble hearing, breathing, or speaking. Treatment depends upon the stage of the cancer, the tumor size, the type of cancer, and the patient's health and age.
Genital Warts in Men (HPV)
The HPV virus (genital warts) in men can cause health problems. Genital warts are confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals or around the anus. Genital warts are caused by the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are transmitted through sexual contact.
Sunburn (Sun Poisoning)
Sunburn is caused by overexposure to UV radiation from the sun. UV rays can also damage the eyes. Repeated overexposure to UV rays also increases the risk for scarring, freckles, wrinkles, and dry skin. Symptoms of sunburn include painful, red, tender, and hot skin.The skin may blister, swell, and peel. Sun poisoning (severe sunburn) include nausea, fever, chills, rapid pulse, dizziness and more. Home remedies can help relieve sunburn pain, blisters, and peeling. Severe sunburns may need medical treatment. Sun protection and sunscreen for an person's skin type is recommended to decrease the chance of a severe sunburn and sun poisoning.
Cervical dysplasia is a condition in which the cells of the inner lining of the cervix have precancerous changes. There are two types of cervical dysplasia; 1) squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 2) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cervical dysplasia is caused by infection of the cervix with HPV (human papillomavirus). There are various diagnostic measures for cervical dysplasia. Treatment generally depends upon the progression of the dysplasia: mild, moderate, or severe.
Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory illnesses such as asthma, SIDS, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Learn how you can protect yourself and your family from secondhand smoke exposure in the home environment and workplace.
Chewing Tobacco (Smokeless Tobacco, Snuff)
Chewing tobacco (snuff or smokeless tobacco) has more nicotine absorbed into the system than by smoking a cigarette. Chewing tobacco or snuff can cause: cancers, poor oral health(gum disease and tooth decay), infertility, pregnancy complications, and nicotine addiction. Nicotine addiction can be overcome with available prescription drugs and other treatment programs.
Tumor grade is a system used to classify cancer cells in how likely the tumor is to grow and how abnormal they look under a microscope. Tumor grade is not the same as tumor stage. A biopsy is taken to determine if the tumor is benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Arsenic comes in two forms, inorganic and organic. Organic arsenic poisoning is usually not poisonous to humans; however, inorganic arsenic in large enough amounts can lead to shock and death. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning include: nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, dark urine, vertigo, delirium, shock, and death. Treatment for arsenic poisoning includes Hemodialysis and a variety of drugs.
Interstitial Pneumonitis (Interstitial Lung Disease)
Interstitial lung disease refers to a variety of diseased that thicken the tissue between the lungs' air sacks. Viruses, bacteria, tobacco smoke, environmental factors, cancer, and heart or kidney failure can all cause interstitial lung disease. Shortness of breath, cough, and vascular problems are symptoms caused by interstitial lung disease, and their treatment depends on the underlying cause of the tissue thickening.
Burkitt lymphomas are types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that affect the bone marrow and central nervous system. There are multiple types of Burkitt lymphoma. Gene mutations, malaria, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may increase the risk of these cancers. Symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma may include nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and many other symptoms. Diagnosis involves lab testing, imaging studies, patient history, and cytogenic evaluation. There are multiple staging systems used to stage Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment consists of chemotherapy. The prognosis of the cancer tends to be more favorable in children than in adults.
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Infection
HPVs or human papillomaviruses are a group of viral infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Certain high-risk types of HPV infection cause certain cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, and oral). There are no signs or symptoms of HPV infection. HPV infection is an extremely common STD, and is highly contagious. A person is at a higher risk of getting HPV infection if they have a number of different sex partners; have a weakened immune system (for example, HIV/AIDS); or has breaks in the skin (cuts or abrasions) that come into contact with an infected person or contaminated surface. HPV vaccinations are available to prevent HPV infection. Treatment for HPV infection are antiviral medications. There is no cure for HPV infection.
Why Am I So Bloated and Gassy?
Bloating is a feeling that your abdomen is distended or larger than normal, but it does not necessarily mean that it is. Gas (flatulence) also can be a problem if you are bloated. Common, less serious causes of bloating are eating too fast, too much, or too many fatty foods; swallowing air; pregnancy; and menstruation. Cancer and IBD (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) are examples the more serious causes of bloating. Examples of foods and drinks that cause bloating are high fiber foods if you don't eat them regularly; eventually the bloating and gassiness will resolve if you eat them on a regular basis; fatty greasy foods, dairy products (for example, cheese, ice cream, milk, and yogurt); foods high in salt (for example, processed, frozen, and canned foods), and artificial sweeteners. Some doctors and other health care professionals recommend natural remedies like chamomile or peppermint tea, or pumpkin to relieve bloating. Examples of OTC medicine (medicine available without a prescription) and other products that may relieve bloating and gassiness are, Gas-X, Beano, Pepto Bismol, Metamucil, probiotics, and Ex-Lax for constipation associated with bloating. If you have persistent or severe gas and bloating, and if you have any of these symptoms see a doctor or other healthcare professional, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain, bloody diarrhea, fever, or if you think you are or may be pregnant.
Nature vs. Nurture Theory (Genes vs. Environment)
In the nature vs. nurture debate, "nature" represents our genetic makeup. These are the genes you have inherited from your biological family, and that may affect your physical and mental health, for example, intelligence, disease, and psychological health. While "nurture" represents how our environment effects our intelligence, traits, personality, and mental and physical health. Studies have shown that a person's environment can alter his or her genes, and lower their risk of developing certain inherited diseases, conditions, and mental illnesses that run in his or her family. Hippocrates studied and theorized how our biology affected our overall health and disease development. In 1869, Sir Francis Galton was credited for the term "Nature vs. Nurture Theory." Today it is widely recognized that both your genes and your environment effect both your physical and mental health. Researchers and doctors have found that particular physical traits like eye and skin color, and diseases like Huntington's chorea are the result of genetic inheritance (inherited from a family member). However, patterns of thinking and behavior can be attributed to both nature and nurture (your genes and your environment). Moreover, researchers who study the brain have found overwhelming evidence that a person's genetic factors and his or her experiences guide and support brain development. The human brain produces new nerve cells (neurons) into adulthood, and these nerve cells can change the strength of their connections throughout life, which can effect intelligence and other factors. Research also has shown that sensory input (sights, smells, sounds, touch, etc.) has a critical in the role of brain development in the first few days of our lives, and probably throughout our life.The controversy over how much our genes and environment effect our psychological and physical health still continues, however.REFERENCES: NCBI. PubMed.gov. Brain development and the nature versues nurture debate. Prog Brain Res. 2011;189:3-22. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53884-0.00015-4.<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489380> NCBI Resources. Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2008.<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/>
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Screening Tests for Cancer
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- Clinical Trials
- Colonoscopy (Test, Side Effects, Preparation, Recovery)
- Colon and Colorectal Cancer Screening
- Pap Smear
- Skin Biopsy
- PSA Test (Prostate Specific Antigen)
- Endometrial Biopsy (Procedure)
- CA 125 Ovarian Tumor Marker Blood Test
- Carcinoembryonic Antigen
- Breast Biopsy
- LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure)
- D and C (Dilation and Curettage)
- Fecal Occult Blood Test
- Breast Self Exam
- Preventive Mastectomy
- Prostate Cancer Screening
- Gardasil HPV Vaccine
- Abdominal Pain
- Blood in Urine
- Bloody Sputum (Hemoptysis)
- Rectal Bleeding (Blood in Stool, Hematochezia)
- Breast Discharge (Nipple Discharge)
- Breast Lumps in Women
- Weight Loss
- Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy)
- Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lethargy
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Cancer FAQs
- Skin Cancer Rate Increasing
- Colon Cancer Prevention And Fiber?
- Colon Cancer and Polyp Screening Guidelines
- Ovarian Cancer: Exercise May Help Prevent
- Dana Reeve Dies of Lung Cancer by Dr. Stoppler
- HPV Vaccine Recommendations for Girls, Boys, Women, and Men
- Disease Prevention From a Doctor's Perspective
- 10 Cancer Symptoms That Men Ignore
- Annual Physical Exam
- Testicular Cancer: Symptoms and Detection Podcast
Medications & Supplements
- finasteride (Proscar)
- tamoxifen (Soltamox, Nolvadex)
- Evista (raloxifene)
- Cox-2 Inhibitors
- Aspirin Therapy (Guidelines for Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention)
- folic acid (folate, vitamin B9, FA-8, Folacin, Folic Acid, GNC Folic Acid 400, and many more)
- vitamin b-12/folic acid/vitamin b-6 - oral, Folgard, Folgard RX 2.2, Foltx
- green tea (camellia sinensis) - oral
- omega-3 fatty acids - oral, Max Epa, Omega-3, Salmon Oil,
- Vitamin E (Aquasol E)
- vitamin D (Drisdol (Vitamin D2), Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2), Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
- Gardasil (HPV Vaccine)
- sonidegib (Odomzo)
Prevention & Wellness
- Staying Slim After Weight-Loss Surgery Could Cut Cancer Risk in Half
- Gene Editing Tool Used to Fight Cancer in Early Study
- Most Americans Fear Cancer, but Feel Powerless to Prevent It: Survey
- J&J Baby Powder Pulled from CVS, Rite Aid and Walmart
- Secondhand Smoke May Harm Kids' Eyes
- Johnson & Johnson Recalls Baby Powder Due to Presence of Asbestos
- Head, Neck Melanomas Show Alarming Rise in Young Americans
- Mouse Study Suggests Vaping Might Raise Cancer Risk
- Fungal Invasion May Drive Some Pancreatic Cancers
- Carnivores' Comeback: Review Supports Red Meat in Diet
- Many Poor, Minority Seniors Get Cancer Diagnosis in the ER
- Billions of 'Microplastics' in Your Tea From Each Plastic Teabag: Study
- More Blood Pressure Drugs Recalled
- Don't Let Fear of Cancer Keep You From Doctor Visits
- More CT, MRI Scans Being Used, Despite Calls to Cut Back
- FDA Proposes Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarettes
- America's Obesity Epidemic May Mean Some Cancers Are Striking Sooner
- EPA Won't Approve Warning Labels for Glyphosate
- New Study Finds a Family Risk for Blood Cancer
- Routine Screening for Pancreatic Cancer Not Warranted, Expert Panel Says
- Is an Elusive U.S. Total Ban on Asbestos Finally in Sight?
- Sugary Sodas, Juices Tied to Higher Cancer Risk
- Millions of Life Years, Billions of Dollars Lost to Cancer Each Year
- Cancer Risk Rises After Iodine Rx for Overactive Thyroid: Study
- MS Linked to Higher Cancer Risk
- High Arsenic Levels in Two Brands of Bottled Water
- Your Drinking Water May Harbor Cancer-Causing Nitrate: Study
- California Ends Warning Over Coffee and Cancer
- Aggressive Approach to Pancreatic Cysts May Prevent Dreaded Cancer
- Poor Diet Might Raise Your Cancer Risk
- The Benefits of an Anti-Inflammatory Diet
- With Weeks to Live, Many Cancer Patients Try Useless Treatments
- New 'Cancer Vaccine' Attacks Tumors From Within
- Researchers Seek Firefighters for Data on Cancer Risk
- More Evidence HPV Vaccine Cuts Cervical Cancer Rate
- Genomics Could Improve Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer
- When it Comes to Diet, Not All Plants Are Created Equal
- Roundup Cancer Lawsuit Could Be 'Bellweather' Case
- High-Fiber Diet May Help Gut 'Microbiome' Battle Melanoma
- Obesity-Linked Cancers On the Rise Among Young Americans
- Adding Blood Test for Pancreatic Cancer May Aid Early Detection
- Make Cancer Prevention a Priority in 2019
- More Proof High-Fiber Diets Help Prevent Cancers, Heart Disease
- U.S. Cancer Deaths Continue to Decline
- Health Tip: How Alcohol May Raise Cancer Risk
- Health Tip: How Diet and Exercise Affect Cancer Risk
- Newer Nonstick Coating May Pose Health Threat: EPA
- Cancer May Soon Replace Heart Disease as Leading Killer of Affluent Americans
- Cellphone Radiation Tied to Upped Odds for Cancer -- in Rats
- Tap Into the Health Powers of Garlic
- Why Cancer Risk Is Higher in Taller Folk
- FDA Too Quick to Call BPA Chemical Safe, Health Experts Say
- Love Organic Foods? Your Odds for Some Cancers May Fall
- Toxic Metal Cadmium Found in Chain-Store Jewelry
- Study Casts Doubt on Light Drinking's Benefits
- Doctors Use Bacteria as Weapon Against Cancer
- Most People Don't Know if They Have Genetic Risk for Cancer
- 5 Facts Every Woman Should Know About Ovarian Cancer
- FDA Finds Another Carcinogen in Certain Valsartan Heart Meds
- Many Who Battle Cancer Stay Strong Mentally
- Study Explores New Way to Stop Cancer's Spread
- The Dark Side of Sunless Tanning
- 3-Pronged Approach to Cancer Prevention
- Too Few Americans Getting Screened for Cancer: CDC
- Yes, Fingernail Cancer Is a Thing -- Just Ask This Beauty Queen
- Obamacare May Have Helped More Women Spot Cancer Early
- Health Tip: Exercise May Lower Your Risk of Cancer
- Study Confirms Added Cancer Risk for Diabetics, Especially Women
- Lawsuits Alleging Roundup Causes Cancer Can Move Forward: Judge
- Flight Attendants Show Higher Cancer Risks
- How Much Drinking Is Healthy -- or Not?
- Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early?
- AI Better Than Docs at Catching Skin Cancers
- Heavier Women May Face Higher Cancer Risks, Study Finds
- Men May Gain More From Cancer Immunotherapy
- What Causes Cancer? Misconceptions Abound
- Judge Says Coffee Sold in California Must Carry Cancer Warnings
- What Drives Millennials to Tan, Knowing the Risks?
- Health Tip: Heavy Alcohol Use Increases Cancer Risk
- How a False Alarm Affects Future Cancer Screenings
- Could Banned Chemicals Be Lurking in Your Kitchen?
- Drug Keytruda May Help Block Melanoma's Return
- Want to Help Beat Colon Cancer? Live Healthy
- Diet, Exercise Can Ease Side Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment
- Major Project Completes Genetic 'Map' of 33 Cancers
- More Women Die of Lung Cancer in 2 U.S. 'Hot Spots'
- Researchers Making Inroads Against Ovarian Cancer
- Task Force Issues Stronger Skin Cancer Prevention Guidelines
- Early Colon Cancer Screening Advised for Some
- Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines May Miss Minorities
- Defense Against Skin Cancer May Live on Your Skin
- Cancer 'Vaccine' Rids Body of Multiple Cancer Types -- in Mice
- Mexican-Americans at Higher Risk for Liver Cancer
- Survey: 9 of 10 Americans Take Cancer Prevention Steps
- U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall
- Widening Waistlines May Raise Women's Cancer Risk
- Science Weighs in On How Fat Raises Cancer Risk
- Big Gap in Cancer Deaths Between Rich, Poor Countries
- Mission to Mars Would Double Astronauts' Cancer Risk
- Too Many Americans Still Go Without Cancer Screenings
- Addressing Your Cancer Risk
- Survival Continues to Improve for Most Cancers
- Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks
- Could Statins Help Fight Cancer?
- 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid
- Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months
- Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise
- U.S. Cancer Survivors Living Longer
- Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk
- Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says
- E-Cigarettes a Gateway to Smoking for Teens: Study
- Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That
- Most Smokers Don't Stick With E-Cigarettes
- 'Sunscreen' Gene May Guard Against Skin Cancer
- Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests
- Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer
- Aspirin May Help Protect Against Bile Duct Cancer: Study
- Certain Cancers Seem Less Likely for Kids of Hispanic Moms Born Outside U.S.
- Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk
- Marriage May Be a Cancer Fighter
- U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall
- Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Linked to Reduced Risk of Certain Cancers
- Majority of Americans and Canadians Expects Cancer Cure in Their Lifetime
- Young Black, Hispanic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Face Worse Outcomes: Study
- Melanoma Strikes Earlier If Indoor Tanning Begins in Teens: Study
- Minorities More Likely To Be Diagnosed With Colon Cancer at Younger Age
- Cancer Death Rates Down 23 Percent Since 1991: Study
- Some Steps to Help Protect Yourself From Cancer
- New Imaging Technique 'Lights Up' Cancer Cells in Early Trial
- Kidney Woes Tied to Raised Cancer Risk, Study Finds
- Doctors Who Order More Tests Sued Less Often
- Breast Cancer Equally Common Now Among Blacks, Whites
- Too Much TV Linked to Leading Causes of Death
- New Mammogram Guidelines Already Creating Controversy
- Risk of Bladder Cancer Rising for Workers in Many Industries
- Tanning Bed Use, Skin Cancer Rates High Among Gay Men: Study
- Too Few Women Get Counseling Before Breast Cancer Gene Test: Study
- Americans Support More Funding of Cancer Research
- Low-Dose Aspirin, Other Painkillers May Lower Colon Cancer Risk
- Serving in Middle East May Raise Skin Cancer Risk in U.S. Vets
- 1 in 3 Colon Cancers in Young People Has Genetic Link
- Too Much Sitting May Raise a Woman's Cancer Risk: Study
- Indoor Tanning Rates Decline As Cancer Warnings Mount
- HPV Vaccination for Girls May Help Prevent Cancers in Males
- Many Americans Not Getting Routine Cancer Screenings: CDC
- Healthy Lifestyle May Boost Colon Cancer Survival
- Too Many Americans Neglect Backs in Skin Cancer Prevention
- Midlife Fitness May Be a Real Cancer Fighter for Men
- More Screening Could Cut Annual Colon Cancer Deaths by 21,000: Study
- Spending on Medical Research Falls in U.S. While Growing Globally
- Advisers Endorse HPV Test for Cervical Cancer Checks
- Oral HPV Infection Lasts Longer in Older Men, Study Finds
- Less Booze, More Veggies Might Lower Odds for Some Cancers
- Cancer Doctors Don't Discuss Herbs, Supplements With Patients
- Falling Cancer Death Rate Means 1.5 Million Lives Saved Over 20 Years
- Fewer U.S. Teens in Tanning Salons, Study Finds
- Indoor Tanning Tied to Burns, Fainting, Eye Injuries: Study
- Antacids May Improve Head and Neck Cancer Survival
- Obesity Tied to Half a Million Cancers Worldwide, Report Shows
- Skin Cancer Costs Soar Compared to Other Malignancies: CDC
- Generic Drugs May Help Breast Cancer Patients Stick to Therapy
- Oncologists' Group Calls for Measures to Curb Obesity-Related Cancers
- Obesity Tied to Higher Cancer Risk for Colon Cancer Survivors
- Some U.S. Troops May Face Greater Skin Cancer Risk
- Targeted Drugs Among Successes Against Cancer, Says New Report
- Bras Blameless for Breast Cancer Risk: Study
- Double Mastectomy Doesn't Improve Survival, Study Finds
- Gut Bacteria May Reveal Colon Cancer, Study Finds
- Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Cancer, Study Shows
- Cancer Survivors Face Mounting Costs of Continuing Medical Care: Study
- Experts Debate Value of Self-Exam for Testicular Cancer
- Y Chromosome Loss Linked to Higher Cancer Risk in Men
- Aspirin's Ability to Prevent Colon Cancer May Depend on Your Genes
- People Seek Out Health Info When Famous Person Dies
- Slight Drop in Rate of Advanced Cancers, CDC Says
- Radiation-Free Cancer Scans: Coming Soon?
- Vitamin D Supplements: FAQ
- Doctors May Need to Revise How They Evaluate Breast Biopsy Results
- Progress Against Cancer May Be Greater Than Thought
- Cancer Prevention Guidelines Seem to Pay Off for Older Women
- Drug Arimidex Cuts Risk for Breast Cancer in Older, High-Risk Women: Study
- Why Many U.S. Preteens Aren't Getting the HPV Shot
- Single Dose of HPV Vaccine May Be Enough to Guard Against Cervical Cancer
- Hormone Levels May Help Predict Breast Cancer Risk, Study Finds
- E-Cigarettes May Not Be Gateway to Smoking: Study
- Tests May Someday Show Which Breast, Prostate Cancers Will Turn Aggressive
- Study: Coffee Might Lower Risk of Liver Cancer
- Fatty, High-Calorie Diet Linked to Pancreatic Cancer in Mouse Study
- Seeing Doctor Regularly May Cut Your Colon Cancer Risk
- Can Eating Peanut Butter Cut Breast Cancer Risk in Later Life?
- Nearly 60 Percent of Uterine Cancer Cases Preventable: Report
- Many Teen Girls Using Tanning Beds: Report
- 18-Year Study Finds Drug Cut Prostate Cancer Risk
- Cervical Cancer Overlooked in Less-Developed Nations: Study
- Helping Men Resolve Conflicts About Prostate Cancer Screening
- HPV Vaccine Might Shield Women Against Throat Cancer: Study
- Many Docs Don't Follow HPV/Pap Test Guidelines: Study
- New Clues to Cancer Resistance From Long-Lived Rodents
- Which Women Might Benefit From Drugs to Prevent Breast Cancer?
- Daily Sunscreen Helps Middle-Aged Skin Stay Young: Study
- Minorities Less Prone to Think They'll Get Cancer: Study
- Among Hispanics, Risky Sun Exposure Varies by Language Spoken: Study
- Strides Made in Preventing Cancer, But Challenges Remain: Report
- New Clues to How Exercise May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk
- Can Selenium Lower Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer?
- Moderate Drinking May Not Affect Breast Cancer Survival: Study
- More Genetic Insights Into 3 Types of Cancer
- Mammograms Every Other Year OK for Women Over 50: Study
- Cancer Rates Vary Widely by State, Race: CDC Report
- Alcohol Blamed for 1 in Every 30 Cancer Deaths: Study
- Which Cancer Tests Do You Really Need?
- Folic Acid Supplements Don't Affect Cancer Risk, Review Finds
- U.S. Lung Cancer Deaths Highest for Blacks in Segregated Areas: Study
- Brief Life Expectancy Should Rule Out Certain Cancer Screenings: Study
- Younger Women Start to Follow Pap Test Guidelines: CDC
- Going Online for Info May Reflect a Pro-Active Stance Against Cancer
- Survival of 'Obamacare' Tops List of Biggest Health News in 2012
- U.S. Cancer Screening Rates Dropping: Study
- Coffee May Lower Risk of Death From Mouth Cancer: Study
- What Cancer Patients Need to Know About the Flu
- For Aggressive Breast Cancer, Chemo May Work Better in the Young
- Colorful Fruits, Vegetables May Be Key to Cancer-Fighting Diet
- More Cancers May Be Missed Under Latest Mammogram Guidelines
- Breast Cancer Survival Varies by Race, Ethnicity, Study Shows
- African-American Women: Breast Cancer More Deadly?
- Many Lesbians Not Screened for Cervical Cancer, Study Finds
- Breast-Feeding Might Cut Risk for Tough-to-Treat Breast Cancer: Study
- Can Allergies Thwart Fatal Colon Cancer?
- Depression, DNA Linked to Higher Death Risk in Bladder Cancer Patients
- Blood Test May Help Define Breast Cancer Risk in Older Women
- Green Tea and Cancer Prevention: New Clues
- Study Sees Link Between Prolonged Formula Feeding, Leukemia Risk
- Antioxidants in Tea, Fruit, Veggies Might Fight Prostate Cancer: Study
- Healthy Lifestyle Boosts Survival Odds for Older Women With Cancer
- Race, Income Tied to Late Colon Cancer Diagnoses, Study Finds
- Multivitamins May Help Prevent Cancer
- New DNA Test Shows Promise for Spotting Colon Cancer
- B Vitamin Supplements Don't Affect Colon Cancer Risk: Study
- Drug Used to Prevent Prostate Cancer Won't Lower Quality of Life
- Pan-Fried Red Meat May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk: Study
- Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk of Cancer Death
- Medical Group Notes Key Elements of Well-Woman Exams
- HPV Vaccine Reducing Infections, Even Among Unvaccinated: Study
- Safer Grilling Methods Might Cut Cancer Risk
- Diabetes Drug Metformin May Cut Breast Cancer Risk in Older Women
- Young Cancer Survivors Often Face Long-Term Health Problems
- Many Still Tanning, Despite Dangers, Survey Finds
- Can Aspirin, Other NSAIDs Lower Skin Cancer Risk?
- Sigmoidoscopy Cuts Colon Cancer Cases, Deaths
- Preventing Skin Cancer in Youths: Appeal to Vanity
- Doctors Urge Routine Skin Screenings
- Can Blood Test Predict Breast Cancer Risk?
- Losing Weight May Help Lower Cancer Risk
- Studies Point to Reasons for Mammograms in 40s
- Healthy Lifestyle Choices Could Cut Cancer Rates: Report
- U.S. Panel Rejects Ovarian Cancer Screening
- Lung Cancer Screening Might Pay Off, Analysis Shows
- Cancer Care Costs Higher in U.S. Than Europe, But Survival Longer
- Improved Stem Cell Line May Avoid Tumor Risk: Study
- Preteens More Likely to Report HPV Vaccine Side Effects
- Diabetes Drug Metformin Might Also Help Fight Cancer
- Cancer Deaths Continue to Fall
- New Clues to Link Between Fatty Diet, Colon Cancer
- Can Circumcision Prevent Prostate Cancer?
- Soy Supplements May Not Shield Against Breast Cancer
- Alternative to Colonoscopy Spots Cancers, Too
- Too Few Americans Getting Screened for Common Cancers: CDC
- CDC: Cancer Screening Below Target Rates
- Breast Cancer Before 50 Linked to More Distress
- From Bad to Better: U.S. Cancer Rates Continue to Drop
- Carriers of Breast Cancer Gene at Risk of Second Cancer
- Early Ovary Removal May Raise Arthritis, Osteoporosis Risk
- Steps Women Can Take to Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer
- Mammograms May Halve Breast Cancer Deaths
- Eating Rice May Raise Arsenic Levels
- Higher Cancer Risk in People With HIV
- 'Sun Safety' Counseling Pays Off for Kids and Teens
- Home-Based Test Can Detect Cervical Cancer Virus: Study
- Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Colon Cancer for Those at High Risk
- Vitamin E Supplements May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk
- Ginger May Have Cancer-Fighting Qualities
- FDA: Breast Implant Safety Studies Will Continue
- Many Doctors Ignore Guidelines, Order Annual Pap Test
- HPV Vaccine: Early Evidence of Impact
- FDA Raises Concerns Over Arsenic in Chickens
- Decade's Top 10 Public Health Achievements
- Chemicals May Be Risky to Nail Salon Workers
- Strawberries May Help Prevent Esophageal Cancer
- Osteoporosis Drugs Linked to Lower Cancer Risk
- Low Grades in U.S. for Eating Fruits and Veggies
- Mediterranean Diet Benefits
- Oral Cancer Prevention
- Prostate Cancer Prevention
- Tea: The Health Benefits
- Cancer Prevention: Eat to Lower Your Cancer Risk
- Hair Care Disasters: Caution with Relaxers and Dyes
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Stomach Cancer Prevention
- Lung Cancer Prevention
- Esophageal Cancer Prevention
- Cervical Cancer Prevention
- Quit Smoking
- Testicular Cancer: Treatment and Survival
- Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention