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- What is canagliflozin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for canagliflozin?
- Is canagliflozin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for canagliflozin?
- What are the side effects of canagliflozin?
- What is the dosage for canagliflozin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with canagliflozin?
- Is canagliflozin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about canagliflozin?
What is canagliflozin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Canagliflozin is an oral drug that reduces blood sugar (glucose) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is a new type of diabetes medication in a class of medications called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Under normal conditions, glucose is filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubules as blood passes through the kidneys. The glucose then as absorbed from the tubules back into the blood so that glucose is not lost in the urine. SGLT2 is an enzyme in the kidney tubule that causes glucose to be reabsorbed from urine. Canagliflozin blocks the action of SGLT2. Therefore, canagliflozin reduces the reabsorption of glucose from renal tubules, leading to more excretion of glucose in urine. Canagliflozin was approved by the FDA in March 2013.
What are the side effects of canagliflozin?
AND PRECAUTIONSThe most common side effects of canagliflozin are:
Other side effects of canagliflozin include:
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What is the dosage for canagliflozin?
Canagliflozin should be taken before the first meal of the day. The recommended starting dose is 100 mg once daily and the maximum dose is 300 mg once daily. Renal function should be assessed prior to starting canagliflozin and periodically during treatment, and the dose of canagliflozin should be modified based on renal function.
Which drugs or supplements interact with canagliflozin?
Rifampin, phenytoin (Dilantin, Dilantin-125, phenobarbital, and ritonavir (Norvir) may reduce the effect of canagliflozin by increasing its elimination and reducing its concentration in the body. The dose of canagliflozin should be increased to 300 mg daily when combined with rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, or ritonavir.
Monitoring glucose control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking canagliflozin and similar drugs. These drugs increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glucose control.
Is canagliflozin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
It is unknown whether canagliflozin is secreted in human breast milk.
What else should I know about canagliflozin?
What preparations of canagliflozin are available?
Tablets: 100 and 300 mg
How should I keep canagliflozin stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F)
REFERENCE: FDA prescribing information.
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You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
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- and a diabetic diet.
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
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A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may also help stabilize blood glucose levels. Keeping track of when you take your diabetic medicine, keeping track of food choices, eating the proper amount of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates, and fats will also help maintain proper blood glucose levels. Foods that raise blood sugar levels are "high glycemic index foods;" examples include:
- Short-grain white rice
Foods that help maintain good blood sugar levels are foods that are low on the glycemic index, for example:
- Rolled or steel-cut oats
- Many fruits
- Non-starchy vegetables
Diabetic Home Care and MonitoringManaging your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
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Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Glucose Tolerance TestThe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or glucose tolerance test is a blood test used (not routinely however) to diagnose diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Information in regard to reliability of the oral glucose tolerance test is important, as some conditions (common cold), or food (caffeine), or lifestyle habits (smoking) may alter the results of the oral glucose tolerance test.
Hemoglobin A1c Test
Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example:
- Diabetic neuropathy
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Insulin is a medication prescribed to treat type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are several types, preparations, and dosage amounts of insulin. Side effects include:
- Blurred vision
- Heart palpitations
Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking insulin.
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Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include:
- Urine odor
- Unintentional weight gain or loss
- Frequent urination
- Dark skin under the chin, armpits, or groin
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Treatment for type 2 diabetes are a healthy type 2 diabetes diet, exercise, stress reduction, and medication. Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease. Incorporating healthy lifestyle changes (for example, eating a healthy diet, exercising more, and reducing stress) can prevent type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes SlideshowLearn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes.