- What Is Stage II?
- Causes and Risk Factors
- 7 Management Tips
Kidneys once damaged can never be completely reversed, so there is no such thing as a full recovery from chronic kidney disease (CKD).
In the event of CKD, the kidneys are progressively damaged, and their functions are reduced. Although there is no cure for CKD, you can slow down its progression.
Small actions including taking correct treatment immediately after diagnosis and close monitoring of health and lifestyle modifications will help slow down CKD progression. If further damage to the kidneys is delayed, chances to have a longer life increase.
What is stage II CKD?
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter blood. To identify the level of kidney damage, your doctor will analyze kidney functioning and glomerular filtration rate.
CKD has five stages, with stage II being the early stage of the disease. Stage II CKD is still considered mild in terms of overall disease progression although it is more dangerous than stage I.
If you have stage II CKD, you have mild kidney impairment and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 60 and 89.
- Most of the time, eGFR between 60 and 89 indicates that your kidneys are healthy, but you have mildly reduced kidney function.
- If you have stage II CKD, you have additional symptoms of kidney impairment although your eGFR is normal.
- Protein (albumin) in your urine (proteinuria) or physical damage to your kidneys are signs of CKD.
Not all cases of early-stage CKD progresses to advanced stages in which the kidneys are completely damaged. People with stage II CKD may live for an additional 30 years following diagnosis.
What are the symptoms of stage II CKD?
Generally, people with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not experience any symptoms until it progresses to later stages. However, people with stage II CKD may exhibit some signs that indicate kidney damage despite the estimated glomerular filtration rate being reasonable.
Symptoms of stage II CKD include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Proteinuria (abnormal proteins in the urine)
- Higher than normal levels of creatinine and urea in the blood
- Changes in urine frequency
- Blood in urine
- Dark urine
- Urinary tract infections
- High blood pressure
- Swelling in your legs and feet
- Shortness of breath
- Loss of appetite
- Dry and itchy skin
- Muscle cramps, especially at nights
- Back pain
- Insomnia (sleeplessness)
What are the causes of and risk factors for stage II CKD?
Stage II chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressed from stage I CKD in which there is minimal damage to the kidneys.
Renal diseases are the biggest cause of death in the United States; hence, it is critical to remove or control risk factors that contribute to kidney disease, which include:
- High blood pressure
- Heart disease
- Type I or II diabetes
- Pyelonephritis (recurrent kidney infections)
- Family history of polycystic kidney disease
- Inherited kidney diseases
- History of kidney stones
- Tumors or cysts in the kidneys and surrounding area
- Recurrent urinary tract infection
- Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney's filtering units)
- Vesicoureteral reflux (a condition that causes urine to back up into your kidneys)
- Interstitial nephritis (an inflammation of the kidney's tubules and surrounding structures)
- Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract from
- Smoking tobacco
- Alcohol intake
- Lack of exercise
- Intake of poor diet
- Prolonged use of medications that damage the kidneys
- Abnormal kidney structure
- Older age
What are the complications of stage II CKD?
Complications of stage II chronic kidney disease include:
- Gout (pain in the joints due to accumulation of uric acid in the joints)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Accumulation of fluids in the body tissues
- Metabolic acidosis (an electrolyte disorder in which acids increase in the body because the kidneys fail to eliminate them)
- Secondary hyperparathyroidism (increased secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands)
- Weakening of the bones
- Hyperphosphatemia (high phosphorus)
- Hyperkalemia (high potassium)
How to diagnose stage II CKD
Because most symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not appear until the later stages, many people do not acquire a stage II CKD diagnosis unless they are being followed due to family history or other health concerns.
Doctors may employ the following to diagnose stage II CKD:
- Glomerular filtration rate: It shows how well your kidneys filter blood. It shows how many milliliters of blood is filtered per minute. By determining your estimated glomerular filtration rate, your doctor can determine the stage of the renal disease.
- Urine protein test: The presence of albumin or blood indicates an issue with the glomeruli that filter the blood. As the damage to the kidneys progresses, more glomeruli malfunction, and the filtration process is hindered.
- Radiological imaging: Imaging techniques help the doctor assess the size, shape, and functionality of the kidneys; they include:
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7 ways to manage symptoms and protect the kidneys from further damage
There is no cure for chronic kidney disease (CKD). To protect your kidneys, you have to keep monitoring them with regular urine protein and serum creatinine tests that reveal whether the disease is advancing.
A healthy way of living can help reduce the advancement of CKD.
People with stage II CKD must follow these preventive measures:
- Modify your diet such that you consume nutritious food.
- Cut down on salt (less than 1,500 mg/day) and excess protein intake (less than 0.55 to 0.60 grams/kg of your body weight)
- Eat all varieties of cereals, especially whole grains.
- Consume fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Reduce fat intake and opt for low saturated fats and low cholesterol.
- Reduce the intake of processed foods because they are high in sugars and salt.
- Cook meals with low salt or opt for foods that have low sodium content.
- Maintain a healthy weight, for which you have to consume sufficient calories.
- Engage in physical activity and exercise to maintain the ideal weight.
- Consume vitamins and minerals as directed by your doctor.
- Do not limit potassium and phosphorus unless blood levels are very high.
- Maintain good blood pressure levels.
- Maintain control of blood sugar or diabetes.
- Take medications as directed by your doctor.
- Quit smoking and consumption of alcohol.
- Regularly consult your doctor and monitor serum creatinine to determine the glomerular filtration rate.
- Take medications to protect the kidneys and to control the underlying causes.
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Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474786/
Kidney Disease / Chronic Kidney Disease: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15096-kidney-disease-chronic-kidney-disease
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Symptoms and causes: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/about-chronic-kidney-disease
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