In general, it is recommended to eat a low-fiber diet along with laxatives about 2-3 days before a colonoscopy so that your doctor can see potential problems more clearly. Low-fiber foods include:
- Milk and milk products
- Evaporated or powdered milk
- Sour cream
- Low-fat ice cream
- Skim or low-fat milk
- Smooth non-fat or low-fat yogurt without seeds, berries, rinds or nuts
- Any well-cooked vegetables without seeds (e.g., carrots, asparagus tips, green or wax beans, pumpkin, spinach, lima beans)
- Potatoes without skin
- Strained vegetable juice
- Meats and other protein foods
- Smooth nut butter (such as creamy peanut butter)
- Tender, well-cooked chicken, turkey, lamb, lean, pork, veal, fish and seafood
- Bread, bagels, rolls, crackers, pasta and cereals made from white or refined flour (e.g., crispy rice cereal and cornflakes)
- Cooked cereals (farina and creamy rice)
- White rice
- Fruit juice without pulp (except prune juice)
- Most canned, soft and pureed fruit without skin (except pineapple)
- Peeled apple
- Ripe banana or melons
- Snacks and sweets
- Hard candy
- Low-fat ice cream
- Plain cake and plain cookies
- Plain pudding and custard
- Sherbet, popsicles
- Coffee, tea
- Sports drinks (such as Gatorade)
- Ketchup and mustard
- Margarine, butter, oils, mayonnaise, sour cream and salad dressing
- Plain gravies
- Spices, cooked herbs, bouillon, broth and soups made with allowed vegetables
- Sugar, clear jelly, honey and syrup
These foods are light on the stomach and are easy to digest. Fiber is the indigestible part of foods. If these fibers remain in the intestine, they can mask areas of the colon, thus causing a hindrance for doctors to see the colon during a colonoscopy.
Foods that should be avoided before colonoscopy include:
- Milk and milk products
- Yogurt with seeds, berries, rinds, or nuts
- Brussels sprouts
- Cabbage and sauerkraut
- Fried vegetables
- Greens (mustard, turnip, collards)
- Potato skins
- Raw vegetables, except lettuce
- Winter squash
- Meats and other protein foods
- Chunky nut butter
- Dried, canned or frozen legumes (such as beans, peas and lentils)
- Nuts or seeds
- Tough or chewy cuts of meat
- Brown rice and wild rice
- Cereals made from whole grains
- Grain products made with seeds or nuts
- Whole-wheat or whole-grain bread, rolls, crackers or pasta
- All raw fruits except peeled apple, ripe bananas and melon
- Canned berries and cherries
- Dried fruits, including raisins
- Prunes and prune juice
- Snacks, sweets or condiments
- All desserts containing nuts, seeds, dried fruit or coconut or made from whole grain or bran
- Candy made with nuts or seeds
- Jam, marmalade and preserves
- Pickles, olives, relish, horseradish
- Dried peas (including split or black-eyed)
- Dried beans (including kidney, pinto or garbanzo or chickpea)
- Any other legume
The best method of cooking would be simmering, poaching, braising, stewing, and steaming. Baking or microwaving in a covered dish is another good option. The aim is to cook foods until they are tender and soft. Frying and grilling should be avoided because they can make food difficult to digest.
What is a colonoscopy?
Colonoscopy is a medical procedure to examine the inside of the large bowel (colon). It is done with the help of a long, thin, and flexible tube-like instrument that carries a camera and a light source at one end (colonoscope). A colonoscopy is a common procedure done on an outpatient basis. It helps to diagnose various bowel (gastrointestinal) conditions presenting as bleeding, abdominal pain, or change in bowel habits.
A piece of tissue (biopsy) can also be removed with the help of the colonoscope for diagnostic purposes. Removal of colorectal polyps (small clumps of tissue formed in the inner lining of the large bowel) can also be done with the help of colonoscopy. The removal of polyps is essential as they may later turn into colon cancer.
Is a colonoscopy painful?
Modern techniques of colonoscopy are not painful or uncomfortable. The person being examined is given sedation to make them relaxed and not feel any pain during the procedure. The modern-day colonoscopes are thin and flexible, which makes the procedure comfortable for the person being examined.
You may feel some pressure as the colonoscope moves inside the bowel. There may be brief cramps and gas pains when air is inserted or the colonoscope is advanced. This lasts for a short while and one can get relief by passing gas.
How is a colonoscopy done?
Colonoscopy may be done at the doctor’s office or in the outpatient department of a medical center or hospital.
Before the procedure
Your doctor may:
- Order some blood tests and imaging studies (such as X-ray, CT scan, and MRI)
- Ask you about any chronic health conditions
- Ask you about any medications that you are on
- Ask about any allergies that you may have
- Explain the procedure in detail, including possible complications, and address your doubts and concerns related to it
- Obtain your written consent
- Explain to you the steps for bowel cleansing (bowel preparation). The steps for bowel preparation include:
- Using enemas
- Not eating solid foods for 1 to 3 days before the test
- Taking laxatives
- Ask you to drink plenty of clear liquids for 1 to 3 days before the test. Clear fluids include water, clear coffee or tea, gelatin, fat-free bouillon or broth, sports drinks without added color, and strained fruit juices
During the procedure
- You will be asked to wear a hospital gown.
- An intravenous line will be attached, and sedative will be administered. This will make you comfortable and pain-free during the procedure.
- You will lie on your left side with your knees drawn up towards your chest.
- The doctor will gently insert the colonoscope through the anus. The colonoscope will be slowly advanced up to the lowest part of the small bowel.
- Air is inserted through the colonoscope for a better view of the inside.
- Suction may be done for removing fluid or stool.
- The scope will be slowly moved out as the doctor examines the inside of the bowel while withdrawing it.
- Your doctor may remove small tissue samples (biopsy) or polyps using tiny tools inserted through the colonoscope.
- Therapeutic procedures, such as laser therapy, may be done if needed during the procedure.
- Photographs of the inside of the bowel may be taken by the camera at the end of the colonoscope.
After the procedure
You may feel mild cramps in the abdomen and pass a lot of gas. There may be some bloating or the feeling of being sick to your stomach. This will soon go away.
You will be able to go home about an hour after the test. You will need someone’s help to take you home due to the effect of sedatives.
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