Placental abruption or abruptio placentae is a condition that occurs as a complication of pregnancy in which there is premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. It most commonly occurs in the late pregnancy beyond 28 weeks.
The placenta is an organ that develops during pregnancy and is attached to the uterine wall to supply all the nutritional requirements needed for the development of the fetus.
- Placental abruption leads to deprived oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus and causes heavy bleeding in the mother.
- It is relatively rare and affects about one percent of women during pregnancy but a serious complication in which the health of both mother and child is at risk and requires immediate management.
- It is critical to get immediate care for a probable placental abruption.
According to the American Pregnancy Association, fetal death occurs in 15 percent of severe placental abruption instances. The survival of the baby following a placental abruption largely depends on the severity of abruption and fetal age.
The exact cause of placental abruption is unknown. However, certain factors, such as lifestyle and abdominal injuries, can increase the risk of it.
What are the different types of placental abruption?
Placental abruption occurs when the blood vessels of the mother get separated from the placenta and bleeding starts to occur between the uterine lining and the maternal side of the placenta. The accumulated blood pushes and separates the placenta away from the uterine wall.
- As the placenta is the source of oxygen and nutrients, diffusion to and from the maternal circulatory system is essential to maintain the functions of the placenta.
- When the trapped blood causes the placenta to separate from the maternal vasculature, these vital functions of the placenta are interrupted.
Insufficient blood supply may affect fetal viability and may lead to intrauterine death of the fetus.
The two main types of placental abruption include:
- Concealed abruptio placentae: Lower edge of the placenta is intact and the blood gets collected behind the placenta. Retroplacental (behind the placenta) blood may reach up to the outermost layer of the uterus and the uterus appears wine-colored. This type of uterus is called couvelaire uterus or uteroplacental apoplexy.
- Revealed abruptio placentae: In this type, the lower edge of the placenta separates from the uterine wall and manifests as antepartum (occurring before the birth of the baby) hemorrhage.
What are the risk factors of placental abruption?
The most important risk factor of placental abruption in women with a previous history of abruptio placentae.
Other risk factors of placental abruption include:
What are the signs and symptoms of placental abruption?
Placental abruption is one of the reasons for bleeding through the vagina in late pregnancy.
The woman may experience signs and symptoms, such as:
How is placental abruption treated?
The diagnosis of placental abruption is often done with the clinical assessment of the patient and is confirmed with correlation from ultrasound. The patient with a suspected placental abruption often requires hospitalization with a full-service obstetrical unit and a neonatal intensive care unit.
The treatment is administered mainly based on the severity of the condition and fetal maturity.
- In mild placental abruption where bleeding is minimal and fetal heart rate is normal, close monitoring and steroids administration for lung maturity of the fetus are done. If the pregnancy is above 34 weeks of gestation, closely monitored vaginal delivery can be done.
- In severe placental abruption, immediate induction of labor irrespective of gestational age is done along with blood transfusion and close monitoring of vital signs.
Mayo Clinic. Placental abruption. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/placental-abruption/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20376462
Top Can a Baby Survive Placental Abruption Related Articles
4 Common Discomforts of PregnancyPregnancy comes with huge hormonal changes that can cause discomfort, including morning sickness, heartburn, constipation and headaches. Learn what causes these symptoms and how you can cope with them.
What Are the Chances of Successful Pregnancy After Miscarriage?Your body may require anywhere from a few weeks to over a month to recover from a miscarriage. The pregnancy hormones remain in your blood for up to two months. You should expect to get your period four to six weeks after miscarriage.
Exercise & PregnancyPregnancy exercises and workouts for moms-to-be include Kegel exercises and prenatal yoga. A prenatal workout is an important part of healthy living. Try these safe exercises for pregnancy.
Is It Normal to Have Pain on Your Left Side During Pregnancy? Why and When to WorryLeft side pain and back pain are common symptoms that affect many women during pregnancy. Learn what causes it, how doctors diagnose it, and what you can do to treat left side pain and back pain during pregnancy.
Pregnancy: Multiple Births, Twins, Triplets, and MoreMultiple births occur when a woman bears twins, triplets, or even more babies during pregnancy. More multiples are born today thanks to assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization using fertility drugs. Women carrying multiples often give birth via C-section.
What Are the Most Common Pregnancy Cravings?Learn about pregnancy cravings, what they are, the most common foods pregnant women crave such as pickles and ice cream, why they happen, and what they mean.
Pregnancy Myths and Facts QuizBeing pregnant is a delicate time for both mother and baby. Take this pregnancy myths and facts quiz to separate the myths and facts about being pregnant, and learn the truth behind healthy pregnancies!
What Are the Dos and Don'ts During the Second Trimester of Pregnancy?2nd trimester pregnancy - Learn what you should and shouldn't do during the second trimester of pregnancy to protect you and your baby's health. Prenatal vitamins, exercise, sleep, no alcohol or smoking and more.
Pregnancy: 7 Common Third Trimester TestsTesting is often recommended during the third trimester of pregnancy. These tests are designed to ensure the health and safety of both the child and mother. Common tests during the third trimester of a woman's pregnancy include:
- group B streptococcus screening,
- electronic fetal heart monitoring,
- nonstress test,
- contraction stress test, and
- a biophysical profile.
What Vitamins and Supplements Should I Avoid During Pregnancy?You should always clear it with your obstetrician before taking any vitamins or supplements while pregnant.
What Vitamins and Supplements Should I Take During Pregnancy?Even if you eat a variety of nutritious foods, you may need to take pregnancy vitamins and supplements. This is especially true if you have a restricted diet, are pregnant with twins or multiples, have food allergies, or nutrient deficiencies. Talk to your doctor about your needs.
What Should I Be Feeling at 19 Weeks of Pregnancy?The 19th week of pregnancy or the 5th month of pregnancy is when most of the major organs and organ systems have formed in the fetus. The formed organ system continues to grow and form its respective shapes in the following months. The weight of the fetus increases each month to become a baby that can survive outside of the uterus.