GENERIC NAME: CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT/VITAMIN D - ORAL
BRAND NAME(S): Citracal + D, Os-Cal, Oyster Shell + D
USES: This combination medication is used to prevent or treat low blood calcium levels in people who do not get enough calcium from their diets. It may be used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels such as bone loss (osteoporosis), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). It may also be used in certain patients to make sure they are getting enough calcium (e.g., women who are pregnant, nursing, or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone).Calcium plays a very important role in the body. It is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. If there is not enough calcium in the blood, then the body will take calcium from bones, thereby weakening bones. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus. Having the right amounts of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus is important for building and keeping strong bones.
HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth with food. If your product contains calcium citrate, then it may be taken with or without food. Follow all directions on the product package, or take as directed by your doctor. For best absorption, if your total daily dose is more than 600 milligrams, then divide your dose and space it throughout the day. If you are uncertain about any of the information, consult your doctor or pharmacist.If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.If you are taking the chewable form of this medication, chew thoroughly before swallowing. If you are taking capsules, swallow each capsule whole.Do not crush or chew extended-release tablets. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing.Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day.If your doctor has recommended that you follow a special diet, it is very important to follow the diet to get the most benefit from this medication and to prevent serious side effects. Do not take other supplements/vitamins unless ordered by your doctor.Calcium supplements come in different forms that contain different amounts of calcium/vitamin D. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to help select the best product for you.If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.
Quick GuideWhat Is Osteoporosis? Treatment, Symptoms, Medication
SIDE EFFECTS: Constipation or stomach upset may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: nausea/vomiting, loss of appetite, unusual weight loss, mental/mood changes, change in the amount of urine, bone/muscle pain, headache, increased thirst, increased urination, weakness, tiredness, fast/pounding heartbeat.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
PRECAUTIONS: Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have any allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: high calcium/vitamin D levels (hypercalcemia/hypervitaminosis D), difficulty absorbing nutrition from food (malabsorption syndrome).Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: heart/blood vessel disease, kidney stones, kidney disease, certain immune system disorder (sarcoidosis), liver disease, certain bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, Whipple's disease), little or no stomach acid (achlorhydria), low levels of bile, untreated phosphate imbalance.Chewable tablets may contain sugar or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication. During pregnancy, doses of vitamin D greater than the recommended dietary allowance should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.This medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.Some products that may interact with this drug include: digoxin, phosphate binders, thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide), other vitamin D products (e.g., calcitriol).Calcium can decrease the absorption of other drugs such as tetracycline antibiotics (e.g., doxycycline, minocycline), bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate), estramustine, levothyroxine, and quinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin). Also, certain medications can decrease the absorption of vitamin D (bile acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine/colestipol, mineral oil, orlistat). Therefore, separate your doses of these medications as far as possible from your doses of calcium/vitamin D. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about how long you should wait between doses and for help finding a dosing schedule that will work with all your medications.Check the labels on all your prescription and nonprescription/herbal products (e.g., antacids, laxatives, vitamins) because they may contain calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including cholesterol tests), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.
OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: nausea/vomiting, loss of appetite, mental/mood changes, headache, drowsiness, weakness, tiredness.
NOTES: Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments. If your doctor has directed you to take this medication, laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., calcium levels) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.Foods rich in vitamin D include: fortified dairy products, eggs, sardines, cod liver oil, chicken livers, and fatty fish. Vitamin D is also made by the body as a result of exposure to the sun.Foods rich in calcium include: dairy products (e.g., milk, yogurt, cheese, ice cream), dark-green leafy vegetables (e.g., broccoli, spinach, bok choy), and calcium-fortified foods (e.g., orange juice).You can decrease the risk of bone disease by being physically active, not smoking, and avoiding the use of alcohol/caffeine.
MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.
STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. See packaging for the exact temperature range. If you have any questions about storage, ask your pharmacist. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.
Information last revised March 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.
Quick GuideWhat Is Osteoporosis? Treatment, Symptoms, Medication
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Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA or Temporal Arteritis)Giant cell arteritis, inflammation of blood vessel walls, affects 10%-15% of polymyalgia rheumatica patients. Symptoms of giant cell arteritis include fatigue, weight loss, low-grade fever, jaw pain when chewing, scalp tenderness, and headaches. High doses of cortisone medications are used to treat giant cell arteritis.
OsteodystrophyRenal osteodystrophy is a bone disease. The kidneys fail to maintain required levels of phosphorous and calcium in the blood. Renal osteodystrophy is common in patients with kidney disease and affects dialysis patients. Diagnosis is performed with a blood sample, and in some cases a bone biopsy. Medication is the general treatment for renal osteodystrophy.
OsteoporosisLearn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. Unless one experiences a fracture, a person may have osteoporosis for decades without knowing it. Treatment for osteoporosis may involve medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength and bone formation, as well as quitting smoking, regular exercise, cutting back on alcohol intake, and eating a calcium- and vitamin D-rich balanced diet.
Pancreatitis is a rare disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. There are two types of pancreatitis: acute and chronic. Symptoms of pancreatitis include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a rapid pulse. Treatment of pancreatitis often requires hospitalization.
Peripheral NeuropathyPeripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain (especially at night), and loss of reflexes. Possible causes may include carpel tunnel syndrome, meralgia paresthetica, vitamin or nutritional deficiencies, and illnesses like diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, and kidney failure. Most causes of peripheral neuropathy can be successfully treated or prevented.
Pregnancy Planning (Preparing for Pregnancy)
Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes:
- Taking prenatal vitamins
- Eating healthy for you and your baby
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- Avoiding certain medications that may be harmful to your baby
- How much weight gain is healthy
- Exercise safety and pregnancy
- Travel during pregnancy
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Treatment (PBC)
Primary biliary sclerosis (PBC) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the deterioration of the liver's small bile ducts. These ducts are crucial to transport bile to the small intestine, digesting fats and removing wastes. Symptoms of PBC are:
- Elevated cholesterol
- Malabsorption of fat
- Liver cancer
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); colchicine (Colcrys); and immunosuppressive medications, such as corticosteroids; obeticholic acid (Ocaliva); and medications that treat PBC symptoms. For PBC that is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, liver transplantation may be indicated in extreme cases.
RicketsRickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Infants and children who are exclusively breastfed, have dark skin, and infants born to mothers who are vitamin D deficient are most at risk for developing rickets. Symptoms and signs of rickets include bone pain, delayed teeth formation, short stature, skeletal deformities (bowlegs, abnormally shaped skull), and decreased muscle strength. Treatment of rickets depends upon the cause, but the first step usually involves correcting any abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D with supplements.
Vitamin D DeficiencyVitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements, diet, or exposure to sunlight.