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- What is butorphanol injection, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for butorphanol injection?
- Is butorphanol injection available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for butorphanol injection?
- What are the side effects of butorphanol injection?
- What is the dosage for butorphanol injection?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with butorphanol injection?
- Is butorphanol injection safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about butorphanol injection?
What is butorphanol injection, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid narcotic pain reliever. It prevents pain in a similar way as morphine (MS Contin), hydrocodone (Zohydro), oxycodone (Oxycontin), and other opioids. Like other opioids, it stimulates receptors in the brain to increase the threshold to pain (the amount of stimulation it takes to feel pain) and reduce the perception of pain (the perceived importance of the pain). The FDA approved butorphanol in August 1978.
What are the side effects of butorphanol injection?
The most frequent adverse reactions include drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and nasal congestion and insomnia with the nasal preparation. Patients may also experience palpitations, flushing, anxiety, confusion, euphoria, headache, nervousness, tingling sensation in limbs, cold/clammy skin, sweating, itchiness, anorexia, constipation, stomach pain, dry mouth, tremor, weakness, blurred vision, ringing in ears, and difficulty breathing. Butorphanol is habit forming. Mental and physical dependence can occur when used long-term.
What is the dosage for butorphanol injection?
The initial dose for adults is based on the setting in which it is used, as well as whether it is delivered intramuscularly, intravenously, or through nasal spray. Most initial intravenous doses for pain range between 0.5 to 2 mg, which may be repeated every 3 to 4 hours as needed.
Which drugs or supplements interact with butorphanol injection?
Alvimopan (Entereg) should not be combined with butorphanol because it increases levels of butorphanol.
Butorphanol should not be taken with any of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of antidepressants, for example, isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), selegiline (Eldepryl), and procarbazine (Matulane) or other drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase, for example, linezolid (Zyvox). Such combinations may lead to confusion, high blood pressure, tremor, hyperactivity, coma, and death. Butorphanol should not be administered within 14 days of stopping an MAOI.
Is butorphanol injection safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Butorphanol is excreted in breast milk. The amount that the infant may receive is very low and insignificant.
What else should I know about butorphanol injection?
What preparations of butorphanol injection are available?
Solution with or without preservatives: 1 or 2 mg/mL in 1, 2, 10 mL; Nasal solution: 10 mg/ mL in 2.5 mL bottle.
How should I keep butorphanol injection stored?
Butorphanol solution should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F) and protected from light. Nasal spray should be stored at room temperature between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).
Quick GuideChronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS
butorphanol (Stadol) is a synthetic opioid narcotic pain reliever prescribed to treat severe pain, preoperative or preanesthetic pain management, and manage pain during labor. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed before using this medication.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information.
Medscape. butorphanol (Rx) - Stadol.