- What other names is Butanediol (bd) known by?
- What is Butanediol (bd)?
- How does Butanediol (bd) work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Butanediol (bd).
1,4-BD, 1,4-butanediol, 1,4-butylene glycol, 1,4-dihydroxybutane, 1,4-tetramethylene glycol, 2(3H)-Furanone di-dihydro, BD, BDO, Butane-1,4-diol, Butanodiol, Butylèneglycol, Butylene Glycol, Butylène Glycol, Glycol Butylique, Tetramethylene Glycol, Tetramethylene-1,4-diol.
Butanediol is a chemical that is used to make floor stripper, paint thinner, and other solvent products. It's illegal to sell butanediol for use as medicine. Nevertheless, butanediol is sometimes used as a substitute for other illegal substances such as gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Unfortunately, butanediol is just as dangerous as GBL and GHB.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Stimulating growth hormone production and muscle growth.
- Weight loss.
- Trouble sleeping (insomnia).
- Other conditions.
Butanediol is converted to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB slows down the brain, which can cause loss of consciousness along with dangerous slowing of breathing and other vital functions. It also stimulates growth hormone secretion.
Butanediol is UNSAFE when taken by mouth. It has caused serious illness and more than 100 deaths.
Some side effects of butanediol are serious breathing problems, coma, amnesia, combativeness, confusion, agitation, vomiting, seizures, and very slow heartbeat. People who use butanediol on a regular basis and then stop may experience withdrawal symptoms such as sleep problems (insomnia), tremor, and anxiety.
Special Precautions & Warnings:While butanediol isn't safe for anyone, some people are at even greater risk for serious side effects. Be especially careful not to take butanediol if you have any of the following conditions:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Butanediol is UNSAFE for both mother and infant. Don't use it.
A heart rate that is too slow (bradycardia): Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a chemical that is formed when the body breaks down butanediol. GHB can slow the heart and may make bradycardia worse in individuals who have this condition.
Surgery: Butanediol can slow down the central nervous system (CNS). Anesthesia and some other medications used during surgery have the same effect. There is concern that using butanediol along with these other medications might slow down the CNS too much and cause extreme sleepiness. Stop using butanediol at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
AlcoholInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Alcohol can cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking butanediol along with alcohol might greatly increase sleepiness and drowsiness caused by alcohol. Taking butanediol along with alcohol can lead to serious side effects. Do not take butanediol if you have been drinking.
AmphetaminesInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Amphetamines are drugs that can speed up your nervous system. Butanediol is changed in the body to GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate). GHB can slow down your nervous system. Taking butanediol along with amphetamines can lead to serious side effects.
Haloperidol (Haldol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Butanediol can affect the brain. Haloperidol (Haldol) can also affect the brain. Taking haloperidol (Haldol) along with butanediol might cause serious side effects.
Medications for mental conditions (Antipsychotic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Butanediol can affect the brain. Medications for mental conditions also affect the brain. Taking butanediol along with medications for mental conditions might increase the effects and serious side effects of butanediol. Do not take butanediol if you are taking medications for a mental condition.
Some of these medications include fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin), haloperidol (Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), prochlorperazine (Compazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), and others.
Medications for pain (Narcotic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications for pain can cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Butanediol might also cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking butanediol along with some medications for pain might cause severe side effects. Do not take butanediol if you are taking medications for pain.
Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Butanediol is changed in the body to one of these brain chemicals called GABA. Taking butanediol along with medications used to prevent seizures might decrease the effects of butanediol.
Muscle relaxantsInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Muscle relaxants can cause drowsiness. Butanediol can also cause drowsiness. Taking butanediol along with muscle relaxants might cause too much drowsiness and serious side effects. Do not take butanediol if you are taking muscle relaxants.
Some of these muscle relaxants include carisoprodol (Soma), pipecuronium (Arduan), orphenadrine (Banflex, Disipal), cyclobenzaprine, gallamine (Flaxedil), atracurium (Tracrium), pancuronium (Pavulon), succinylcholine (Anectine), and others.
Naloxone (Narcan)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Butanediol is changed by the body to another chemical. This chemical is called GHB. GHB can affect the brain. Taking naloxone (Narcan) along with butanediol might decrease the effects of butanediol on the brain.
Ritonavir (Norvir)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Ritonavir (Norvir) and saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) are commonly used together for HIV/AIDS. Taking both these medications plus butanediol might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of butanediol. This could cause serious side effects.
Saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) and ritonavir (Norvir) are commonly used together for HIV/AIDS. Taking both these medications plus butanediol might decrease how fast the body gets rid of butanediol. This could cause serious side effects.
Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Butanediol might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking butanediol along with sedative medications might cause serious side effects. Do not take butanediol if you are taking sedative medications.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Butanediol might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking butanediol along with sedative medications might cause serious side effects. Do not take butanediol if you are taking sedative medications.
The appropriate dose of butanediol (BD) depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for butanediol (BD). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
1,4-Butanediol. CAS no. 110-63-4. National Toxicology Program 1991;
Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone-Minnesota,New Mexico,and Texas,1998-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48(7):137-140.
Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton eds. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology 1981;
Ferrara, S. D., Zotti, S., Tedeschi, L., Frison, G., Castagna, F., Gallimberti, L., Gessa, G. L., and Palatini, P. Pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcohol dependent patients after single and repeated oral doses. Br.J Clin.Pharmacol 1992;34(3):231-235. View abstract.
Gervasi, N., Monnier, Z., Vincent, P., Paupardin-Tritsch, D., Hughes, S. W., Crunelli, V., and Leresche, N. Pathway-specific action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in sensory thalamus and its relevance to absence seizures. J Neurosci. 12-10-2003;23(36):11469-11478. View abstract.
HELRICH, M., MCASLAN, T. C., SKOLNIK, S., and BESSMAN, S. P. CORRELATION OF BLOOD LEVELS OF 4-HYDROXYBUTYRATE WITH STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Anesthesiology 1964;25:771-775. View abstract.
Irwin, R. D. NTP summary report on the metabolism, disposition, and toxicity of 1,4-butanediol (CAS No. 110-63-4). Toxic.Rep.Ser. 1996;(54):1-8, B1. View abstract.
Jedrychowski, R. A., Gorny, R., Stetkiewicz, J., and Stetkiewicz, I. Subacute oral toxicity of 1,4-butanediol in rats. Pol.J Occup.Med 1990;3(4):421-428. View abstract.
Navarro, J. F., Davila, G., Pedraza, C., and Arias, J. L. Anxiogenic-like effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in mice tested in the light-dark box. Psicothema. 2008;20(3):460-464. View abstract.
Osuide, G. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on chick behaviour, electrocortical activity and crossed extensor reflexes. Br.J Pharmacol 1972;44(4):593-604. View abstract.
Palatini, P., Tedeschi, L., Frison, G., Padrini, R., Zordan, R., Orlando, R., Gallimberti, L., Gessa, G. L., and Ferrara, S. D. Dose-dependent absorption and elimination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in healthy volunteers. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol 1993;45(4):353-356. View abstract.
Palmer, R. B. Gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol: abused analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Toxicol.Rev. 2004;23(1):21-31. View abstract.
Persson, S. A., Eriksson, A., Hallgren, N., Eklund, A., Berkowicz, A., and Druid, H. [GHB--dangerous, addictive and uncontrollable "party drug"]. Lakartidningen 9-19-2001;98(38):4026-5. View abstract.
Roth, R. H., Delgado, J. M., and Giarman, N. J. Gamma-butyrolactone and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. II. The pharmacologically active form. Int J Neuropharmacol. 1966;5(6):421-428. View abstract.
Scharf, M. B., Lai, A. A., Branigan, B., Stover, R., and Berkowitz, D. B. Pharmacokinetics of gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) in narcoleptic patients. Sleep 8-1-1998;21(5):507-514. View abstract.
Thai, D., Dyer, J. E., Jacob, P., and Haller, C. A. Clinical pharmacology of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate after oral 1,4-butanediol administration to healthy volunteers. Clin.Pharmacol Ther. 2007;81(2):178-184. View abstract.
Vayer, P., Mandel, P., and Maitre, M. Conversion of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to gamma-aminobutyrate in vitro. J Neurochem. 1985;45(3):810-814. View abstract.
Vickers, M. D. Gammahydroxybutyric acid. Int Anesthesiol.Clin. 1969;7(1):75-89. View abstract.
Anon. Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:137-40. View abstract.
Anon. FDA alert on misuse of consumer products containing GHB, GBL and BD. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. June 15, 1999. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/graphics/ghb.gif
Anon. Important message for health professionals: Report serious adverse events associated with dietary supplements containing GBL, GHB or BD. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. August 25, 1999. Available at: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/mwgblghb.html
Anon. Multistate outbreak of poisonings associated with illicit use of gamma hydroxy butyrate. JAMA 1991;265:447-8.
Cash CD. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an overview of the pros and cons for it being a neurotransmitter and/or a useful therapeutic agent (abstract). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1994;18:291-304. View abstract.
FDA Talk Paper. FDA Warns About GBL-Related Products. 1999. Available at: vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/tpgbl2.html
Harrington RD, Woodward JA, Hooton TM, et al. Life-threatening interactions between HIV-1 protease inhibitors and the illicit drugs MDMA and gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2221-4. View abstract.
Hoes MJ, Vree TB, Guelen PJ. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as hypnotic. Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as hypnotic in man. Encephale 1980;6:93-9. View abstract.
Kohrs FP, Porter WH, et al. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate intoxication and overdose. [Letter and responses]. Ann Emerg Med 1999;33:475-6.
Maitre M. The gamma-hydroxybutyrate signaling system in brain: organization and functional implications (abstract). Prog Neurobiol 1997;51:337-61. View abstract.
Mamelak M. Gammahydroxybutyrate: an endogenous regulator of energy metabolism (abstract). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1989;13:187-98. View abstract.
Mason P, Kerns II W. Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Intoxication. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9:730-39.. View abstract.
Poldrugo, F., Barker, S., Basa, M., Mallardi, F., and Snead, O. C. Ethanol potentiates the toxic effects of 1,4-butanediol. Alcohol Clin.Exp.Res 1985;9(6):493-497. View abstract.
Schneir AB, Ly BT, Clark RF. A case of withdrawal from the GHB precursors gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol. J Emerg Med 2001;21:31-3.. View abstract.
Smith SW, Zvosec DL. Death and central nervous system depression after ingestion of 1.4-butanediol, a gamma-hydroxybutyrate-related dietary supplement. Ann Emerg Med 2000;36:S85.
Tunnicliff G. Significance of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the brain. Gen Pharmacol 1992;23:1027-34. View abstract.
Tunnicliff, G. Sites of action of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-a neuroactive drug with abuse potential. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35:581-90. View abstract.
Van Cauter E, Plat L, Scharf MB, et al. Simultaneous stimulation of slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in normal young Men (abstract). J Clin Invest 1997;100:745-53. View abstract.
Zvosec DL, Smith SW, McCutcheon JR, et al. Adverse events, including death, associated with the use of 1,4-butanediol. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:87-94.. View abstract.